(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Micro - NO. 59 (1983-04)(Micro Ink)(US)"

APRIL 1983 



U 3 Edition $2 50 

International Edition S3 00 






Advancing Computer Knowled* 



f 



The Micro Com muni canons 
Revolution 

APPLE 



,2^ r f 



? 






5 :fl 



C^ 



BE- 






PET- 



■ if) 



yfS^ flul 5 ^*- 



cAfurrur 
Kc 

L 



In this month's 
Learning Center: 



»sing Game for the Vli 
C64 

I Physics Tutorial 




"74470"1169CT 




/ 



DISCSAVERS 

VINYL PROTECTIVE DISK SLEEVES 



OBCS*«2 

Decs***! 



COLOR CODED: Multi-color DiscSavers ;' are designed 
for easy recognition of individual disks with your own 
color-keyed filing system. Ideal for office or home use. 

PROTECTIVE: Custom grain vinyl provides added 
protection for magnetic disks by guarding against 
common handling hazards. 

ATTRACTIVE: DiscSavers provide a handsome and 
professional method of single disk storage and 
enhance the look of your hardware while protecting 
your valuable software. 

DiscSavers is ; 



DURABLE: Rigid vinyl construction protects against 
constant handling to ensure long wear andiear. 

PORTABLE: DiscSavers are the only portabfevinyt 
disk sleeves for use with a single diskette that bear the 
RockRoy mark of quality. 7 • . 

Contact your Dealer or Distributor. , • , 



772t E- Gray Road 
Scbttsdale, Arizona 85260 
•<502> 998-1577 



trademark of RockRoy Inc. 




2MHZ 6809 SYSTEMS 

GIMIX offers you a variety to choose from! 
38 MB WINCHESTER SYSTEM $17,498.99 

HARDWARE FEATURES: 

• 2MHz 6809 CPU * DMA Double Density Floppy Disk Controller 

• 512KB Static RAM • Dual 8" DSDD Floppy Disk System 

• 8 RS232C Serial Ports • Dual Winchester Subsystem with 

• 2 Parallel Ports Two19 MB 5 1 /." Winchester Drives 
SOFTWARE FEATURES: 

• OS-9 LEVEL TWO Multi-User * OS-9 Text Editor 
Operating System * OS-9 Assembler 

• OS-9 Debugger 

19 MB WINCHESTER SYSTEM $8998.09 

HARDWARE FEATURES: 

• 128K Static Ram * 4 RS232C Serial Ports 

• 2MHz 6809 CPU * 1 MB 5V*" Floppy Disk Drive 

• 19 MB 5V*" Winchester DMA Subsystem • DMA Double Density Floppy Disk Controller 
SOFTWARE FEATURES: 

• OS-9 LEVEL TWO Multi-User * OS-9 Debugger 
Operating System • OS-9 Assembler 

• OS-9 Text Editor 

128KB MULTI-USER SYSTEM $6997.39 

HARDWARE FEATURES: 

• 2MHz 6809 CPU * 2 RS232C Serial Ports 

• DMA Double Density Floppy Disk Controller * Dual 8" DSDD Floppy Disk System 

• 128KB Static Ram 

SOFTWARE FEATURES: Your choice of either UniFLEX or OS-9 LEVEL TWO. Both are Unix-like 
Multi-User/Multi-Tasking Operating Systems. 

56KB FLEX/0S-9 "SWITCHING" SYSTEM $4148.49 

HARDWARE FEATURES: 

• 2MHz 6809 CPU • DMA Double Density Floppy Disk Controller 

• 56K Static Ram • 2 Built-in 5Va" 40tr DSDD Disk Drives 

• 2 RS232C Serial Ports (80 Track DSDD Drive Option . . add $400.00) 
SOFTWARE FEATURES: 

• GMXBUG monitor — FLEX Disk Operating System 

• OS-9 LEVEL ONE Multi-tasking operating system for up to 56K of memory 

WINCHESTER SUBSYSTEMS 

Winchester packages are available for upgrading current GIMIX 6809 systems equipped with DMA controllers, at least one 
floppy disk drive, and running FLEX, OS-9 LEVEL ONE or OS-9 LEVEL TWO. The packages include one or two 19MB (unformat- 
ted) Winchester drives, DMA Hard Disk Interface, and the appropriate software drivers. The Interface can handle two 5 1 /t" 
Winchester Drives, providing Automatic Data Error Detection and Correction: up to 22 bit burst error detection and 1 1 bit burst 
error correction. 

Dual drives can be used together to provide over 30 MBytes of on line storage - or use one for back-up of the other. (More 
convenient and reliable than tape backup systems. 

#90 includes one 19MB Drive, Interface, and Software $4288.90 

#91 includes two 19MB Drives, Interface, and Software $6688.91 

Contact GIMIX for systems customized to your needs or for more information. 
50 HZ Export Versions Available 



GIMIX Inc. reserves the right to change pricing and product 

specifications at any time without further notice, 1337 WEST 37th PLACE . _ ————— <^_^_ 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60609 f _| | | || "Jf IRC. 

GIMIX* and GHOST® are registered trademarks ot GIMIX Inc. ,^ «v q«y ce-in 

FLEX and UniFLEX are trademarks of Technical Systems Consultants Inc. ' ' 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Inc. TWX 910-221-4055 CircleNo.2 1982 GIMIX Inc 



Eimix 



/ArCftO 

April Highlights 



"communication (ka-myoo'na-kl'shgn) 
n... 1. The act of communicating; 
transmission.... 4. Plural. A means of 
communicating, especially: a. A system 
for sending and receiving messages, as 
by mail, telephone, or television." 

The American Heritage Dictionary 
may want to amend this definition to 
read "...by computer, mail, telephone, 
or television." Certainly communica- 
tion by computer offers many possibili- 
ties, limited only by our imaginations. 
"Eight million computer terminals 
will be in use in American homes by 
the end of this decade, many linked by 
information networks to businesses 
and other data bases," according to J.S. 
Mayo of Bell Labs (see Bradley Coley's 
article, "At the Front: The Micro Com- 
munications Revolution" p. 26). These 
terminals will be used for fun and for 
profit. Subscribers to information 
banks such as The Source and Compu- 
Serve will be able to receive electronic 
mail, news, weather, and sports; they 
will be able to teleshop via electronic 
catalogues, and get up-to-the-minute 
reports on the stock market. Job 
hunting will become more selective, 
bartering may return as a form of 
salesmanship, formal education may 
revert from the classroom to the home. 
The possibilities are infinite. Anyone 
who has a telephone or TV will have 
access to a world of information 
through networking. 

To learn more about communica- 
tions and the microprocessor, read 
Bradley L. Coley's article mentioned 
above. He presents three theories for 
what will motivate the interactive and 
networking potential — home, office, 
and enterprise. Mr. Coley also dis- 
cusses the home computer market, net- 
working, and the field of ' ' information 
for profit. " In ' 'Dialing the Networks, ' ' 
fpg. 38) Cliff Glennon maps out the 
essential steps needed for a MC6809- 
based home computer to communicate 
with The Source and CompuServe. He 
includes a short assembly-language 
program that implements some basic 
disk functions, and interfacing and con- 
trol codes for the MC6850 ACIA. Terry 



Peterson describes how to turn the 
Commodore SuperPET into a smart ter- 
minal for a mainframe. See ' 'A Not-So- 
Dumb Terminal Program for the Super- 
PET" [pg. 31) for a machine-language 
program that uses the 6551 ACIA serial 
port for RS-232 I/O. 

"PET-to-PET Communications" by 
F. Arthur Cochrane (pg. 47) provides a 
machine- language program to transfer 
an array from one PET to another via 
the user port. And "A Home-Built 
Communications Interface" by John 
Steiner (pg. 44) describes how to con- 
struct a communications interface. In- 



About the Cover 

The original oil painting by Frank 
Wyman, Time in Space, creates an ap- 
propriate feeling of expansion and in- 
finity — the feeling generated by 
today's communications field. 

Photo and painting by: 
Frank Wyman 
Wyman Art Studio 
Lowell, MA 01852 
(617) 459-7819 



eluded is a simple, reliable, and inex- 
pensive design for converting the inter- 
face to a telephone modem. "Multi- 
Microprocessed Tidbits" (pg. 50) 
shows you how to create a powerful de- 
vice by running a 6502 and 6809 in the 
same computer simultaneously. Mike 
Rosing presents a general description of 
a specific task for which two processors 
were used, and discusses some of the 
problems you might encounter. 

The communications section in- 
cludes an article by our technical editor 
Phil Daley, who outlines a method 
MICRO is now using to communicate 
between the FOCUS, a 6809-based 
microprocessor (produced by our sister 
company The Computerist), and the 
Compugraphic Editwriter 7500. "In- 
House Communications' ' (pg. 54) is an 
informative tutorial that shows you 
how we use the FOCUS as a text editor, 
sending material in its final format to 
the Compugraphic for output. 

Business Applications 

"Mutual Fund Charting for APPLE and 



OSI," by Ralph H. Green (pg. 98) 
enables you to make, update, and print 
mutual fund files on both OSI and Ap- 
ple computers. The programs are writ- 
ten mostly in BASIC (except for a few 
commands peculiar to OSI) and are 
easily transportable to other micros. 
"Analysis of Bond Quotations on the 
APPLE," by Donald C. Lewis (pg. 92) 
computes information about the perfor- 
mance of bonds. Data for these com- 
putations are available in the financial 
section of your newspaper. "LETTER- 
MASK: A Check-Protecting 
Algorithm" (pg. 102) is an Applesoft 
BASIC routine by Barton M. Bauers. In 
addition to number masking, this 
routine gives your checks additional 
security by spelling out the amount. 

Learning Center 

Our new Learning Center opens the 
classroom door to discussions of 
momentum, number conversion, and 
programming concepts about flags and 
random numbers. "Conservation of 
Momentum for ATARI and COMMO- 
DORE" by Jerry Faughn (pg. 84) helps 
the beginning computerist examine the 
conservation law of momentum as ap- 
plied to collision problems. "Is a 
Number a Number?" by Phil Daley (pg. 
86 ) shows you how answers are af- 
fected by the base of the numbering 
system you use. "MASTER for VIC-20 
and COMMODORE 64" by Loren 
Wright (pg. 70) is a simple guessing 
game for one or two players, based on 
the popular commercial game, and 
teaches you about flags and random 
numbers. 

And... 

Of particular interest this month is 
the Information Sheet (pg. 57), which 
includes a list of Bulletin Boards 
throughout the US and elsewhere. A 
note of interest here: We received this 
list from a California data bank via a 
telephone modem connected to the 
FOCUS. 

We hope you find the April issue of 
MICRO informative. Read, learn, and 
communicate! JMCRO 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



^■L Jv m Jmr Hi wBl « ;■ ' ■ . •> 

^SttepP^ ^IsaP^ •■■> 1111b ^aF ^P^ *■» aaamdsv «Bkb _«i^« , "-" -'..•.;,,-■- 's«,. 







SPY'S 







■£■' wVj 




io.s us the bakery 

• 


jsawp >i**jjHj«* 


you contend with 
antankt?rot3s 

iveycsr bi-lt in an 

ori to make ps«*«, 
W 

Ik 


j^penafo_sg*tu 


ore. 




^. a£l*s: 







W^DT^'T^ 



, penguin software 



Si s e If you can "sneak 



security guards hi this best- 



# € "% 



NLW RELEASES 



Run a ^a&iihdei of ti 
alien sharpshooJei 



jfc penauin software 



■Cm- 



Efi*® 



'Iren&iin software 



We believe games should be fun and that the price of games shouldn't damp*" that fun, I hi- growth os 
the market over the past couple of years leads us to believe that S 19.95 may work nowj 
game price, so we're trying it for the next six months, and if we're right, longer. This policpdo€><» su>i jusj 
apply to new games, but to ALL our games, including our past and current be<»t-s«Il«rs!*©ur hrf is sh-i' 
we'll sell more and that the increased sales will offset the decreased income per product* if so, snore 
people get to play our games, and we still make enough to keep developing newer and beiterisoaiwjirr 

As'our customers know, at Penguin Software we take a great deal of care and pride in our projhsc-Ts 
This change in our pricing in no way affects our standards of quality. We pioneered the removal of ropv 
protection from applications software last year in»an effort to give you a better product. This year ivc »n 
trying again to lead the way in putting the customer first. •- , 

4 H penguin software , „ 



the graphics p 



Circle No- 1 ^^ 



Available at 



{'M2) 232-1984 830 4th Avenue, Geneva, II, 60 134 
Dealer Hotline: (8tfg) 323-0116. retailers only, please. 

m»utf>r store.TDealer and distributor inquiries ttelcome 



Advancing Computer Knowledge 



MICRO 

34 Chelmsford Street, P.O. 
Chelmsford, MA 01824 



Box 6502 
617-256-5515 



Editorial 

Maijorie Morse, Managing Editor 
Phil Daley, Technical Editor 
Loren Wright, Technical Editor 
Emmalyn H. Bentley, Assistant Editor 
Maureen Dube, Editorial Assistant 
John Hedderman, Jr. Programmer 

Advertising 

Bob Mackintosh, Sales Manager 

Dawn Blute, Administrative Assistant 

Magazine Distribution 
Kathle Maloof, Sales Manager 
Linda Hensdlll, Assistant 
Carol A. Stark, Subscriptions 

Graphics 

Helen Bergeron, Art Director 

Paula Kramer, Production Manager 

Accounting 

Donna M. Tripp, Comptroller 

Kay Collins, Bookkeeper 

Contributing Editors 
Cornells Bongers 
Dave Malmberg 
John Stelner 
Jim Strasma 
Paul Swanson 
Richard Vile 

President/Editor in Chlet 
Robert M. Tripp 

Publisher 
John Qraw 



COMMUNICATIONS FEATURE 

Communications: 
26 The Growing Network 



. Bradley L Coley, Jr. 



A Not-So-Dumb Terminal Program 

3 1 for the SuperPET Terry M. Peterson 

Turn the SuperPET into a smart terminal for a mainframe 



. Cliff Glennon 



qo Dialing the Networks 

*^0 a MC6809 communicates with major networks 



A a A Home-Built Communications Interface . John steiner 
^^ Circuitry and techniques for construction 



A~7 PET-tO-PET Communications F. Arthur Cochrane 

^ ' Transfer an array over the User Port 

p.r\ Multi-Microprocessor Tidbits Mike Rosing 

* J ^' Run a 6502 and 6809 on the same computer — simultaneously 

CLA In-House Communication Phil Daley 

^^ A look at MICRO'S use of computer communication 



MICRO is published monthly by. MICRO, 
Chelmsford, MA 01824. Second Class 
postage paid at: Chelmsford, MA 01824 and 
additional mailing offices. USPS Publica- 
tion Number: 483470. ISSN: 0271-9002. 
Send subscriptions, change of address, 
USPS Form 3579, requests for back issues 
and all other fulfillment questions to 
MICRO, 34 Chelmsford St., P.O. Box 6502, 
Chelmsford, MA 01824, or call |617| 
256-5515, Telex: 955329 TLX SRVC, 
800-227-1617. Subscription mtes (petyeai): 
U.S. $24.00, $42.00 / 2 yr. Foreign surface 
mail $27.00. Air mail: Europe $42.00; Mex- 
ico, Central America, Middle East, North 
Africa, Central Africa $48.00; South 
America, South Africa, Far East, 
Australasia, New Zealand $72.00. 



Copyright © 1982 by MICRO. 
All Rights Reserved. 



THE LEARNING CENTER 

■yr\ MASTER for VIC and COMMODORE 64 

' *-' A serious look at a simple guessing game 



Conservation of Momentum 
84 for ATARI and COMMODORE 

An introductory physics demonstration 



. Loren Wright 



Jerry Faughn 



oc Is a Number a Number? 

ou Convert numbers from one base to another 

gQ A Beginner's Computer Glossary, Part 2 



. Phil Daley 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



Entertainment, teleshopping, 
and home video banking are 
what the information revolu- 
tion Is all about. 

Communications Feature 
starts on pg. 26. 



HARDWARE 



58 



61 



APPLE, Mountain, and Data Capture. . . . H. Bruce Land, ill 
An inexpensive and versatile communications method for the APPLE 



Unleash the AIM "A" Block 

Recover memory space on your AIM 65 




BUSINESS 

Analysis of Bond Quotations 

92 on the APPLE David C. Lewis 

Compute the performance of bonds 

Mutual Fund Charting 

98 for APPLE and OSI Ralph H. Green 

Two programs to make and print mutual fund files 

LETTERMASK: 

1 02 A Check-Protecting Algorithm Barton m. Bauers, Jr. 

A number-masking routine 

COLUMNS 

Apple Slices Tim Osborn 

| 2 A look at worksheet formulas 

PET Vet Loren Wright 

"| Q New Commodore books and C64 information 

nr\ From Here to Atari Paul Swanson 

£-*J Readers' hardware questions are answered 

OQ CoCo Bits John Steiner 

^^ The F board and CoCo operating systems 

1 flfi Interface Clinic Ralph Tenny 

I UU Create a decoder 



39 H«»lr Average = 

Percentage change sine* last high ■ 4.17% 

P«rt»nt«g* changa tinea last tax ■ 28. 12Z 

No»t r«ctnt mrtry is 11/19/B2 



NO. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



Now experience adventuring in a brand new way. Attempt to win through on your own. or wit. 
decision-making characters playing at the same time! Either way, there's new involvement and 
:njoyment because you'll see all the magnificent characters on-screen as you travel and 
unravel the clues. 

Your quest is to find the wizard' s ring which has been missing for aeons. Many 
have searched for it . . . unsuccessfully. So, you know the hazards are many 
—the traps are ingenious— and solving the puzzle takes great wit. 

But take heed. For plotting your way through the mysterious, 
maqical rooms takes cleverness and a double dose of ..... 

courage. And the more of you on the quest, the more „- .. 

intriguing and difficult the task becomes. The JfiSIP 

strong of heart can succeed where others fail— 
and win through to find the ancient missing 
ring. Are you the one? 

The Missing Ring 

$29.95 for Apple II* ) 



9748 Cozycroft Ave., 
Chatsworth, Ca 91311. 
(213) 709-1202. 



TM 



/AlCftO 

Editorial 



MICRO'S Learning Center 



As you can see by flipping through 
this month's issue, MICRO is 
changing — not in content, but in 
style. We're adding more color, 
more pictures, and more graphics. 
The only change in content is the 
addition of The Learning Center, 
which you'll find beginning on 
page 67. 



Why a new section? 

We know the material we offer 
each month is what you need — 
serious programming applications 
and techniques, and pertinent in- 
dustry news — because you are a 
serious user. But we also know 
there are many new users who need 
tutoring and instruction. We've 
developed The Learning Center to 
help these computerists enhance 
their programming skills. 

Many beginners purchase home 
computers such as the VIC-20, 
Commodore 64, Atari 400 or 800, 
TRS-80 Color Computer; most of 
the articles we publish will run on 
several of these systems, along with 
the Apple. We will provide the 
necessary conversions for running 
the programs on each machine. For 
instance, last month "MICROCalc" 
was offered for all Commodore 
machines and the Apple. 



What will be in 
The Learning Center? 

We plan to offer uncomplicated pro- 
grams, accompanied by informative 



text, that will answer your questions 
about programming. Why were cer- 
tain lines inserted where they were? 
What approach is best for writing 
particular types of programs? What 
machine offers what characteristics? 



Who will read it? 

The Learning Center is not an 
attempt to turn MICRO into a 
magazine that covers all levels of 
computing for all levels of users. In- 
stead it allows MICRO to reach the 
scope of its intended audience: 
serious, sophisticated users of all 
levels. 

Even advanced users had to start 
somewhere. Many didn't want to 
play games or use canned software; 
they wanted to learn how to develop 
their own material. We hope readers 
following The Learning Center will 
pick up techniques and hints that 
will advance their programming 
capabilities and talents. 

We'd like to receive feedback 
from our readers on this new sec- 
tion. Perhaps you have suggestions 
on topics or approaches. Maybe you 
could offer ideas on improvements. 
We would especially like to hear 
from those who feel they could con- 
tribute material to The Learning 
Center. Write to us soon; help us 
mold The Learning Center into a 
valuable and exciting part of 
MICRO. 

Marjorie Morse 
AMCftO 




Attache-styte cases for carrying and pro- 
tecting your complete computer set-up. 
Accommodates equipment in a fully oper- 
ational configuration. Never a need to 
remove equipment from case. Simply 
remove lid, connect* power, and operate. 

AP101 Apple II with Single Drive $109 
AP102 Apple It wtth Two Disk 

Drives 119 

AP103 Apple II, 9 Inch Monitor & 

two Drives 129 

AP104 Apple IN, Two Drives & 

Sitentype Printer 139 

AP105 13" Monitor with 

Accessories 99 

AP106 AMDEK Color Monitor 119 

RS201 TRS-80 Model I, Expansion 

Unit & Drives 109 

RS204 TRS-80 Model HI 129 

AT301 ATARI Computers with 

Peripherals 109 

P402 Centronics 730/737 & 

Radio Shack Printer 89 

P403 Epson MX70/80 or 

Mlcroltne82A 89 

P404 Epson MX100 Printer 99 

P405 IDS560orPrtsm 

132 Printer 109 

P406 Starwrtter/Printniaster 

F-10 Printer 119 

P407 OMdata Mfcrollne 

83A or 84 Printer 99 

P408 Prowriter 2 Printer 99 

P409 Prowriter (Apple Dot Matrix) 

Printer 89 

IB501 IBM Personal Computer 129 
IB502 IBM Monitor 99 

HP601 HP41 wtth Accessories 99 

CM703 Commodore Model 64 

with Drives 119 

GM704 Commodore Model 64 

wtthDataset 109 

NS010 North Star Advantage 139 

CC80 Matching Attache Case (5") 85 
CC90 Matching Attache Case (3") 75 
CC91 Matching Accessory Case 95 
CC92 5.25* Diskette Case 49 

compuT* case company 

5650 Indian Mound Court 

Columbus, Ohio 43213 

(614) 868-9464 

CALL TOLL FREE 
800-848-7548 . 



J 



Circle No. 6 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



A harvest of 
savings from 




AppUrj^Tiree 
Electronics 



SOFTWARE 



APPLE • ATARI •TRS80* IBM 

A full line of software for business, games 
and education lipto35%off! 



MUSE 

V1SICORP 

ONLINE 

ELXJ-VWRE 

HOWARD 



I ius '.-'.rj 

stonewre 
synergistic 

HAYDEN 
I AmMANYMORE 



HARDWARE 



AMDEK- HAVES- MICROSOFT 

FRANKLIN COMPUTER 

SYSTEM 
ACE 1000 • $1,795.00 



DISKS 



.Maxell Box of 10. 5V ' , SS-DD $35.00 
Verbatim Box of 10,5'-i".SSDD $29.00 



MONITORS 



LE MONITORS 

9" Green 
12" Green 
ZENITH 
12" Green 



List 
SI 89.00 
$199.00 



Our Price 
$159.00 
$169.00 



$179.00 $129.00 



Plus a full line of AMDEK Monitors 



PRINTERS 



PAPER TIGER 

460G 
560G 
EPSON 

MX 70 
MX80FT 
MX 100FT 



List 



Our Price 

$1,094.00 $950.00 
$1,394.00 $1,250.00 



$449.00 
$745.00 
$945.00 



$395.00 
$595.00 
$795.00 



CALL FORTHIS MONTHS SPECIAL! 

180O835 2246 EXT. 211 
7024594114 



5130 East Charieston Blvd. 

SiiteSMI 
Las \fegas, Nevada 891 22 



iri 



Phone orders welcome. Mail orders may send 
charge card number (include expiration date), 
cashiers check, money order or personal check 
(allow ten business days for personal or com- 
pany checks to clear). Add S3.00 (or shipping, 
handling and insurance. Nevada residents add 
5.75% sales tax. Please include phone number. 
All equipment is in factory cartons with manu- 
facturers warranty. Equipment subject to price 
change and availability, (.all or write for price list 

Circle No. 30 



/AlCftO 

Letterbox 



OSI Questions 

Dear Editor: 

I own an OSI C1P series II computer 
and a Radio Shack Lineprinter VII; this 
configuration introduces a second line- 
feed by the printer, therefore double- 
spacing each printed line. 

Apparently Radio Shack computers 
have an interpreter that doesn't send 
a linefeed so the printer must provide 
one. I would appreciate it if your 
readers could offer some help. This 
printer performs well and I'd hate to 
exchange it because of this annoying 
problem. 

Ray Audette 

46 Carre Provence 

Neufchatel P.Q. 

Canada G2B 3R3 



Dear Editor: 

I've had nothing but trouble with 
my OSI C4P since the day I bought it. 
The trouble has been diagnosed as faulty 
memory. I was wondering if there is a 
memory program that can check the 
entire memory and locate the chip that 
is giving trouble. Also, what do you put 
in to check existing memory? How can 
you control the cursor (back up to re- 
write)? 

I've sent two letters to OSI and 
never received a reply. I can't even 
trade it for a newer one; even the dealer 
I bought it from won't take it on trade! 
Can any of your readers help me with 
this problem? (And, does anyone want 
to buy a C4P?j. 

Jeff Guernsey 

112 Overhill 

Salina, KS 67401 



Readers Help Out 

Dear Editor: 

A few months ago you published 
my letter to tell your readers that I was 
interested in compiling a book of listed 
programs for use in microcomputer ap- 
plications in medicine. I received let- 



ters from all parts of America, Canada, 
South America, Europe, Israel, South 
Africa, and even a letter from China. 
There were early morning phone calls, 
picture postcards, packets of discs, 
bundles of listings; it was a tremem- 
dous response. 

The outcome is that the book is 
now published by medical Software 
Co., Box 874, Center Moriches, New 
York 11934, price $80.00. The volume 
contains medical application programs 
for patient scheduling, record retrieval, 
simple billing, utilization of equip- 
ment, simple statistics; standard devia- 
tion calculations and curve fitting 
routines. 

Programs are still coming in and are 
being reviewed for the second volume 
which should be ready in April 1983. I 
want to thank everyone again for the 
tremendous response. 

Derek Enlander, M.D. 

University Hospital 

New York, NY 

Updates 
and Microbes 

Spell 'N Fix 

There have been some changes in 
the configuration that affect my review 
(Spell 'N Fix 55:102). The disk version 
has been optimized; disk and tape ver- 
sions are no longer convertible. The 
new version is slightly faster and is 
compatible to Coloi Sciipsit disk files. 
Filespecs are now checked before disk ac- 
cess, so you can recover from accidental- 
ly mistyping a filename. Lastly, the disk 
version is available on protected disk, 
making backups a little more difficult. 

John Steiner 
Riverside, ND 

Data Sheet Bug 

Apparently there is a bug in the 
BASIC decimal to hex number conver- 
sion program in the MICRO Data Sheet 
(Continued on page 10) 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



/AICRO 



□ Yes! Enter my subscription to MICRO, and 
send me the next 12 issues for just $24.00. 
I save $6.00 off the newsstand price! 



SAVE 



Name. 



Use This Postage 

Paid Card to Order 

the Next 12 Issues 

of MICRO and SAVE 

$6.00 Off 
Newsstand Price! 



Address. 



City_ 



State . 



-Zip 



I'm paying by □ Check 
Card # 



□ MO D VISA □ MasterCard 
Exp. Date 



Signature. 



I OWN A: 

□ Commodore 64 O VlC-20 

□ Apple □ PET 

□ Atari 400 □ Atari 800 

□ Other: 



For Faster Service Call: 
1-800-345-8112 
(In PA: 1-800-662-2444 

VISA or MasterCard Only 



\ Feast Of 
Computing 
deas... 

Order These 
Books From 



/AlCftO Books 



NEW for VIC-20 Users! 

Mastering Your VIC-20 
With 8 BASIC Projects 

A book that makes learning to 
program your VIC-20 fun! Con- 
tains 8 projects and programs. 
Games, utilities — even a VIC-20 
version of "VisiCalc." All 8 pro- 
grams on cassette to help you 
learn faster. 

□ Mastering the VIC-20 @ $23.95 



NEW for OSI Users! 
MICRO on the OSI 



Includes Machine-Language 
enhancements and BASIC Aids, 
hardware modifications for 
enhanced/reversed video, pro- 
grams for control code and 
upper/lower case entry. A valuable 
programming tool. 
D Micro on the OSI @ $19.95 



Best Sellers for 
APPLE Users! 

MICRO on the APPLE 

Programming aids, utilities, 
games, enhancements. Together 
Volumes 1, 2, and 3 contain over 
100 programs on diskette. Fully 
documented and explained. 

□ 3-Volume Gift-Boxed @ $59.95 

□ Vol. 10 Vol. 2D Vol.3 $24.95 ea. 



Please rush the MICRO Books I've checked above to: 

Name 



Address 
City 



. State . 



-Zip 



(Allow 6-8 weefrs for delivery) 



I'm paying by: C Check D MO 
□ VISA D MC 
Total Enclosed: $ 



(Add $2.00 s/h per book. MA res. add 5% tax) 

Visa/MC # . 

Exp. Date: . 



AfVlCRO Reader Service Card 

The numbers below correspond to the numbers imprinted on the advertisements 
in this issue of MICRO. This card valid for 90 days only. 

Mail information to: 

Name . . . 

Address - - 

City 



.State. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 


89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 


100 


101 


102 


103 


104 



April 1983 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 60, CHELMSFORD, MA 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

/AlCftO 

34 Chelmsford Street 
P.O. Box 6502 
Chelmsford, MA 01824 



Use This Postage 

Paid Card to Order 

the Next 12 Issues 

of MICRO and SAVE 

$6.00 Off 
Newsstand Price! 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 60, CHELMSFORD, MA 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

/AlCftO 

34 Chelmsford Street 
P.O. Box 6502 
Chelmsford, MA 01824 



Order These 
Books From 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 




BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 60, CHELMSFORD, MA 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

/AlCftO 

34 Chelmsford Street 
P.O. Box 6502 
Chelmsford, MA 01824 



INVESTMENT TAX ANALYST 

Apple* II Version 

Developed by Advanced Investment Strategies, Inc. 

Tax planning made simple. 

Take the number crunching out of invest- 
ment strategy, with this easy-to-use tax 
analyst. Used as a template for VisiCalc®, it 
lets you instantly project the profitability of 
any investment (even series of investments) 
for any period up to six years. Calculates 
"before and after" tax liability and savings. . . 
analyzes the impact of tax credits and inter- 
est limitations . . . and calculates net cost, 
present value, and internal rate of return. 
For the Apple® II, 64K memory using 
VisiCalc. One 5 1 /*" disk with documenta- 
tion. $150.00 

USING VISICALC® 
Getting Down To Business 

Book/ Disk Set 

Developed by Carol Klitzner & Matthew Plociak. Jr. 

You don't have to be a computer wiz 
to get all the computing power your 
VisiCalc was designed to deliver. 

Now you can exploit every time-saving 
feature and management function built 
into VisiCalc. This unique book/software 
package explains all its functions and 
commands, and gives you ready-to-run lay- 
outs for financial planning and forecasting, 
cash flow analysis, inventory management, 
financial ratios, break-even analysis, and a 
host of other applications. 288-page book 
and one 5V*" disk for the Apple II, 48K 
memory using VisiCalc. $56.90 

SCHEDULER/CALENDAR 

Apple* II Version 

Developed by Ellen Montrose Cohen 

Turn your Apple into a tireless, 
efficient electronic secretary. 

A must for every busy professional. Simple, 
dependable, and easy-to-use, this total 
time management system lets you enter, 
find, display, delete, add to, and print an 
appointment or entire day's schedule in sec- 
onds., .move appointments when there's 
a cancellation. . .interface with other files 
(such as phone numbers or addresses) . . . 
annotate your schedule. . even print labels, 
"reminder" cards, and simple bills. One 
5V<i" disk with documentation for the 
Apple II, 48K memory. Available in May. 
$65.00 



MULTIGRAPH 

Apple 1 * II Version 

Developed by Robert Abey 

A powerful, versatile, extremely 
friendly computer graphics package. 

Need to display financial or other numerical 
data clearly, quickly, and conveniently? Just 
select the type of graph you want— bar or 
line, pie charts or scatter diagrams — input 
the values, and MULTIGRAPH does the 
rest. Change the values, the graphs change 
automatically. You can even change from 
one type of graph to another. .. and print at 
the touch of a button. One 5 l A" disk with 
documentation for the Apple II, 48K mem- 
ory. Available in May. $85.00 

GOLDEN DELICIOUS GAMES 
FOR THE APPLE® COMPUTER 

Book /Disk Set 

Howard M. Franklin. Joanne Koltnow, LeRoy Finkel 

Mind-challenging fun for the Apple® II. 
Ready-to-run game programs, plus tech- 
niques and subroutines more experienced 
programmers can use to plug into existing 
games or build new ones. 150-page book 
plus two 5'/4" disks for the Apple II, 32K 
memory. $47.90 

APPLE® BASIC 

Data File Programming 

Book/ Disk Set 

LeRoy Finkel and Jerald Brown 
How to create and maintain your own data 
files for billings, inventories, mailing lists, 
numerical and statistical data, and more- 
plus ready-to-run file programs. 303-page 
book plus one 5V4" disk for the Apple [I, 
48K memory. $34.90 



"DATA F|E 
pRO<32AMMIf 



"-WljtrD 



; \ofisr 



''p(ij6^T^mJficcMMi*-.y; 



"W 



Run with 

Wiley Professional 

Software 




Ask for Wiley Professional Software at your 
local computer store. Or order directly from 
us with this coupon — and use any program 
free for 15 days. 

WILEY PROFESSIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

a division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

605 Third Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10158 

Apple® is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
VisiCalc* is a registered trademark of VisiCorp 

For faster service CALL TOLL FREE: 

800-526-5368. In New Jersey, call collect: 
(201) 797-7809. Order Code 3-9887 
VISA, MasterCard, American Express 
accepted on phone orders. 

r— 1 

Mail to: Wiley Professional Software 

P.O. Box 092 
Somerset, N.J. 08873 

Please send me the software indicated to 
use free for 15 days. If not completely 
satisfied, I may return any software within 
the trial period and owe nothing. (Re- 
stricted to continental U.S. and Canada.) 

Q Payment enclosed plus sales tax. 

Wiley pays normal bookrate postage/ 
handling. We normally ship within 10 
days. If shipment cannot be made within 
90 days, payment will be refunded. 
D Bill me. D Bill my company. 
D (1-88953-9) AIS: 

TAX ANALYST. $150.00 
D (1-89004-9) Klitzner 

VISICALC... $56.90 
a (1-87459-0) Cohen 

CALENDAR . . $65.00 

□ (1-87460-4) Abey 
MULTIGRAPH $85 00 

O (1-89842-2) Franklin 

GAMES $47.90 

□ (1-89843-0) Finkel 
APPLE BASIC $34 90 

Please Print 

NAME 

FIRM 

ADDRESS 

CITY 



STATE/ZIP_ 
SIGN HERE. 



CREDIT CARD ORDERS: To charge 
your order plus local sales tax and ship- 
ping/handling, fill in the information below. 
If you are not satisfied with the book/soft- 
ware set, return it within 15 days for a full 
credit to your account. 
□ VISA D MASTERCARD 
CARD NO 



Expiration date 



Unlocking the power of computing. 




Signature 

(Offer valid through Dec. 31, 1983.) 
Prices subject to change without notice . 



No. 59 -April 1983 



3-9887 

J 

Circle No. 5 



MICRO 



i 



Updates & Microbes (continued) 



#5 published in the September 1982 
issue of MICRO. 

As written, the program, run in 
either Applesoft BASIC or Commodore 
4.0 BASIC, returns an @ instead of the 
initial nine for decimals in the range 
36865 ($9001) to 40959 |$9FFF). In 
fact, the program returns @@@9 for 
decimal 39321 ($9999). 

The following new lines (in place of 
the existing lines] will correct the bug: 

50 IFX > = 10 THEN PRINT 
CHR$(X + 55); 

60 IFX < = 10 THEN PRINT 
CHR$(X + 48); 

See listings 1 and 2 for both the 
original and corrected programs. 

Wilmon B. Chipman 
Bridgewater, MA 



Listing 1 



3 REM PUBLISHED VERSION 

10 REM X < 43334 

20 INPUT X 

30 X - X / 4096 

40 FOR J " 1 TO 4 

SO IF X > 9 THEN PRINT CHR« (X 

40 IF X < - 9 THEN PRINT CHR« 

70 X - (X - INT <X>> » 14 

SO NEXT J 



+ 53)1 
(X + 48) I 



Listing 2 



REM CORRECTED VERSION 

REM X < 43334 

INPUT X 
X . X / 4094 

FOR J - 1 TO 4 

IF X > - 10 THEN PRINT CHR* (X + 33)1 

IF X < 10 THEN PRINT CHR* (X + 48)1 
X - (X - INT (X)) » 16 

NEXT J 



Apple Slices Sliced 

Two lines in the December Apple 
Slices column (page 66) were left out. 
Insert: 

179 9568 65 9B 179 ADC LOWTR 

180 956A 85 9B 180 STA LOWTR 

Tim Osborn 
Manchester, NH 



Oops! 

In "Print Control for Apple Printers" (58:24), the 
the following lines of the program. 



'#" signs were left off of 



0300 A9 04 


36 


PRNTCTRL 


LDA 


•4 


030C CT 2C 


41 




CMP 


•COMMA 


031D A0 26 


30 


CONDOS 


LDY 


•*26 


0328 A0 00 


36 




LDY 


t0 


0333 A9 40 


62 




LDA 


•HOOK 


033? C9 8D 


79 


PRINT1 


CMP 


•CR 


0379 A9 00 


97 


PAGETEST 


LDA 


•0 


038B A9 00 


103 


BTEPOVER 


LDA 


•0 


03A& A9 C9 


120 




LDA 


•TITLE 


03B3 A9 00 


123 




LDA 


•0 



« 5 PARAffS <0 TO *>. COUNT THEM 

* NEXT CHR ALSO COMMA? 

* WHAT IS OUTPUT DEVICE ADDRESS? 

* THE ADDRESS ITSELF. 

* FINALLY POINT DOS' CSWL ADDRESS 

* GOT A CARRIAGE RETURN? 

* COME HERE AFTER CARR. RETURN 

* SKIP LINES TO GET TO NEXT PAGE 
« GET LBYTE OF TITLE 

* HIGH BYTE OF PAGE* (SO MAX-255 



JMCftO 



VIC-20 



SOFTWARE 
SPECIALS 




CBM-64 




Exciting fun in this galactic shoot-out 
in space. 15 different attack patterns 
with 32 levels of play. 
Cassette $21.95 



SIDEWINDER 8K $24.95 

Ten explosive levels as you fly your 
chopper at lightning speeds against 
deadly Battlepods, alien Oblitojets 
and Stalker bombs! 

SWARM! 5K $24.95 

Fantastic action as you battle against 
a huge barrage of alien Android 
wasps and other insects! 




From Interesting Software 
Cassette $15.95 

>_ j ALL 

=^-^^^, ,» MACHINE 

P$P® COOE! 

Bring the fun of the shooting 
gallery into your home. With 
music and colorful graphics. 

CBM-64 & VIC-20 MINI-MONITOR 

All machine code monitor which will 

disassemble code, do text dump, 

move memory, hex to decimal and 

decimal to hex conversion as well as a 

mini-assembler! 

VIC-20 version requires 8K expansion. 

Cassette $24.95 

Disk $29.95 

CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

GAMES ON CARTRIDGE 

CHOPLIFTER $39.95 

SERPENTINE $39.95 

APPLE PANIC $39.95 

ASTROBLITZ $39.95 

TRASHMAN $39.95 



Stellar Triumph 

Great new all machine code game for your 
CBM-64. One or two player game with all the 
arcade sound and graphics! Fantastic space war 
game with many options. 

From H.A.L. Labs ... tape or disk $24.95 



Dust Covers 



Water resistant 
Attractive brown canvas 



$7.95 



KIDS & THE VIC 

Great new book to add to your library, 
only $14.95 




INTERESTING SOFTWARE 

21101 S. Harvard Blvd., Torrance, CA 90501 

(213) 328-9422 

Visa/MC/Check/Money Order Add $2.00 Postage S Handling 

CA residents add appropriate sales tax Dealer Inquiries Invited 



'VIC-20 & C8M44 * 



i tradwnarii o< Commodore Buwvss Machines 



Circle No. 9 



10 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



NEW FROM D & N MICRO PRODUCTS, INC. 




MICRO-80 COMPUTER 



Z80A CPU with 4MHz clock and CP/M 2.2 
operating system. 64K of low power static 
RAM. Calendar real time clock. Centronics 
type parallel printer interface. Serial inter- 
face for terminal communications, dip 
switch baud rates of 1 50 to9600. 4 " cooling 
fan with air intake on backof computer and 
discharge through ventilation in the bot- 
tom. No holes on computer top or side for 
entry of foreign object. Two 8" single or 
double sided floppy disk drives. IBM single 
density 3740 format for 243K of storage on 
each drive. Using double density with 1K 
sectors 608K of storage is available on a 
single sided drive or 1.2 meg on a double 
sided drive. Satin finish extruded 



Microsoft 




Basic-80 


$289 


BasicCompiler 


$329 


Fortran-80 


$410 


Cobol-80 


$574 


Macro-80 


$175 


Edit-80 


$105 


MuSimp/MuMath 


$224 


Mu Lisp-80 


$174 



Software available in IBM single density 8" 

Digital Research 

PL/1-80 $459 

Mac $ 85 

Sid $ 78 

Z-Sid $ 95 

CBasic-2 $110 

Tex $ 90 

DeSpool $ 50 
AshtonTate 

dBase II $595 



aluminum with vinyl woodgrain decorative 
finish. 8 slot backplane for expansion. 48 
pin buss is compatible with most OSI 
boards. Uses all standard I BM format CP/M 
software. 

Model 80-1200 $2995 

2 8" single sided drives, 1.2 meg of 
storage 
Model 80-2400 $3495 

2 8 * double sided drives, 2.4 meg of 

storage 
Option 001 $ 95 

Serial printer port, dip switch baud rate 

settings 

format. 

MIcropro 

Wordstar $299 

Mail-Merge $109 

Spellstar $175 

Super Sort I $195 
Pascal 

Pascal/MT + $429 

Pascal Z $349 

Pascal M $355 



Convert almost any static memory OSI machine to CP/M® with the D & N-80 CPU Board. 



Z80A CPU with 4MHz clock. 2716 EPROM 
with monitor and bootstrap loader. RS-232 
serial interface for terminal communica- 
tions or use as a serial printer interface in a 
VIDEO system. Disk controller is an Intel 
8272 chip to provide single or double densi- 
ty disk format. 243K single density or 608K 
double density of disk storage on a single 
sided 8" drive. A double sided drive pro- 
vides 1.2 meg of storage. DMA used with 
disk controller to unload CPU during block 
transfers from the disk drives. Optional 
Centronics type parallel printer port com- 



plete with 10 ft. cable. Optional Real Time 
Calendar Clock may be set or read using 
'CALL' function in high level languages. 
Power requirements are only 5 volts at 1.4 
amps. Available with WORDSTAR for serial 
terminal systems. 



INCLUDES CPM 2.2 




D & N-80 serial 


$695 


D & N-80 serial w/Wordstar 


$870 


D & N-80 video 


$695 


Option001 


$ 80 



parallel printer and real time 
calendar clock 




D & N-80 CPU BOARD 



OTHER OSI COMPATIBLE HARDWARE 



IO-CA10X Serial Printer Port $125 

Compatible with OS-65U and OS-65D soft- 
ware 

IO-CA9 Parallel Printer Port $175 

Centronics standard parallel printer inter- 
face with 10 ft. flat cable 
BP-5808SlotBackplane $ 47 

Assembled 8 slot backplane for OSI 48 pin 
buss 

24MEM-CM9 $380 24MEM-CM9F $530 
16MEM-CM9 $300 16MEM-CM9F $450 
8MEM-CM9 $210 8MEM-CM9F $360 
BMEM-CM9F $ 50 FL470 $180 

24K memory/floppy controller card sup- 
ports up to 24K of 21 14 memory chips and 
an OSI type floppy disk controller. 
Available fully assembled and tested with 
8, 16, or 24K of memory, with floppy con- 
troller (F). Controller supports 2 drives. 
Needs separated clock and data inputs. 
Available Bare (BMEM-CM9F) or controller 
only (FL-470). Ideal way to upgrade 
cassette based system 



C1P- EXP Expansion Interface $ 65 

Expansion for C1 P 600 or 610 board to the 
OSI 48 pin buss. Requires one slot In 
backplane. Use with BP-580 backplane 
BIO-1 600 Bare IO card $ 50 

Supports 8K of memory, 2 16 bit parallel 
ports may be used as printer Interfaces. 5 
RS-232 serial ports, with manual and Molex 
connectors 

DSK-SW Disk Switch $ 29 

Extends life of drive and media. Shuts off 
minifloppy spindle motor when system is 
not accessing the drive. Complete KIT and 
manual 

D & N Micro Products, Inc 

3684 N. Wells St. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808 
lHMa (219)485-6414 



TERMS $2.50 shipping, Foreign orders add 15%. 
Indiana residents add 4% sales lax. 



Disk Drives and Cables 

8" ShugartSA801 single sided $395 

8 "ShugartSA851 double sided $585 

FLC-66ft.cablefromD&NorOSI $ 69 

controller to 8" disk drive 
5 1/4 "MPIB51 with cable, power $450 

supply and cabinet 
FLC-51/48ft.cableforconnection $ 75 

to 5 1/4 drive and D & N or OSI 

controller, with data separator and 

disk switch 
Okldata Mlcrollne Printers 
M L82A Dot Matrix Printer $534 

120 CPS, 80/120 columns, 9.5" paper width, 
friction or pin feed 

ML83ASameas82Aexcept $895 

16" paper width, 132/232 columns with 
tractor feed 

ML84Sameas82Aexcept200CPS, $1152 
16" paper width, 132/232 columns, 2K buf- 
fer, dot addressable graphics, with tractor 
feed 

Circle No. 7 



No. 59 ■ April 1983 



MICRO 



11 



AMCftO 

Apple Slices 



Tim Osborn 



This month's program, FORMULATE, 
lets VisiCalc users see the formulas 
that make up a worksheet all at once 
rather than one at a time on the edit 
line. If you do not use VisiCalc, you 
may still be interested in FORMULATE 
because it contains a general purpose 
BASIC subroutine to access individual 
DISK II sectors (lines 1140-1520]. 

FORMULATE will take any Visi- 
Calc worksheet file and process it so 
that all values are stripped out and just 
the headings and formulas remain. The 
formulas are translated into headings 
so they will appear upon loading the 
file. The data is then saved under the 
original worksheet's name with 
".FORMULAS" appended to the end of 
the name. The original worksheet file 
is unchanged, which preserves the 
data. When the .FORMULAS version of 
the worksheet is loaded [using the /SL 
command of VisiCalc), the formulas 
that make up the worksheet can be 
viewed all at once along with any 
headings contained in the worksheet. 
The ".FORMULAS" version of the 
worksheet can then be printed using 
the /P command. 

When FORMULATE is run it will 
display each text file residing on the 
diskette in the last accessed disk drive 
one at a time. The user is asked to re- 
spond "Y" if the file displayed is the 
desired file and "N" if it is not. Once 
the file is selected, FORMULATE will 
perform its function, notifying the user 
when the function is completed. 

The Program 

Lines 5-110 perform an initializa- 
tion function to get the program ready 
for operation. Line 120 calls the sector 
read/write subroutine and reads the 
VTOC |sector 0, track 17). The subrou- 
tine at lines 1210 through 1230 in- 
itialize two machine- language subrou- 



tines. Line 1430 is a machine-language 
program to locate the current DOS 
Input/Output Block (IOB) and place a 
pointer to the IOB in locations $00 
through $01 so that the parameters can 
be updated by BASIC. Line 1440 is a 
subroutine that locates the IOB and 
calls RWTS to perform the operations 
specified in the IOB. 

Line 1235 CALLs the locate-IOB 
subroutine. Lines 1240-1250 compute 
the modulo-256 of the buffer address 
and update the IOB to point to the 
desired buffer. Lines 1300 through 1390 
form a subroutine that takes the 
desired track (TRK%) and sector 
(SEC%) and performs the operation 
specified by OP% (where 1 = Read, 2 
= Write). Lines 140-320 read the cata- 
log sectors searching for TEXT files. 

Once the user selects a text file to 
FORMULATE, the program dislays a 
message "PLEASE WAIT" and begins 
the main process of the program at line 
number 450. Line 450 opens the chosen 
file. Line 460 attempts to delete any 
.FORMULAS version that may already 
exist. If the delete function fails 
because the file does not exist yet then 
an error-code 6 will be produced ("FILE 
NOT FOUND"). This condition will 
be trapped by the ONERR GOTO 880 
statement in line 440. Lines 880 
through 990 form a general purpose 
error-handling routine. Error codes 5 
and 6 are normal for this program and 
are handled by the error routine. For er- 
ror code 6, processing picks back up at 
line 470. Error code 5 signals an end to 
the input file so the files are closed and 
a "FUNCTION COMPLETE" message 
is displayed. 

Line 470 opens the .FORMULAS 
version. Lines 480 through 870 form 
the input/ output loop where the 
worksheet is read in, analyzed, and the 
.FORMULAS file is written out. Lines 
500 to 540 replace the normal Apple- 
soft INPUT statement. This is used to 
avoid the all too familiar "EXTRA IG- 
NORED" problem. 



Lines 560 through 750 form a loop, 
which is used to parse the input record 
one byte at a time. This loop is an ex- 
ample of finite state automation. It is 
used here to analyze the worksheet file 
in order to recognize which records are 
labels, commands, formulas, and input 
files that are not worksheet files at all 
(see line 790). 

Lines 760 through 790 check to see 
in which node (state) the program 
emerges from the loop. If it emerges in 
node 6, then the input record was a 
value (not a computed value or for- 
mula) . Since FORMULATE strips these 
from the .FORMULAS version, the pro- 
gram continues to read the next input 
record without writing anything to the 
.FORMULAS file. 

Line 770 checks for a node 10 or 4, 
which means that the input record was 
a label. Since these are written as is, 
processing continues at the output line 
number 850. Line 780 checks for a node 
8, which means the input record was 
the VisiCalc Global Column width 
command (/GC). Since FORMULATE 
outputs one of these records to the 
.FORMULAS version at the end of pro- 
cessing (see line 920) to set the col- 
umns to the width of the widest for- 
mula + 1, this record is skipped by 
jumping to line 480 to get the next in- 
put record. 

Line 790 checks for a node < . > 11, 
which indicates that the file is not a Visi- 
Calc worksheet; a proper message is dis- 
played and processing is discontinued. 

Lines 800 through 840 handle node 
= 9 (the input record is a formula). 
These lines simply split the formula in- 
to two pieces and place a quote (CHR$ 
(34)) into the proper position to make 
the formula a label. Lines 850 through 
870 write the record out and jump back 
to 480 to get the next input record. 



(Listing begins on page 14) 



12 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



FOR COMPLETE GRAPHICS: 

UersaLUriter 



EDUCATION 



ARTIST 



GAME PROGRAMMER 




HOBBIEST 



Teachers, artists, engineers, 
programmers & hobbiests 
find VersaWriter an ^ 
easy to use tool for L 
creating micro 
computer graphics. 1 
No programming 
experience is required. ¥. 
Pictures can be made \ 
by simply tracing. Even 1 
children can explore the 
exciting world of 
computer graphics. The 
VersaWriter is as limitless 
as your imagination. 



ENGINEERING 




^^ps*— 



CHILDREN 



VersaWriter contains 
complete software for 
drawing with color, 
brushes & dots. Add 
text or fill in over 
1 00 colors. 
Create your own 
shapes and place 
anywhere on the 
screen. Use 
Area/Distance, 
Move Picture, 
Electronic Drawing 
& Skeleton programs plus much 
more. Complete hardware/software 
system for Apple ll/ll+/lle 
- $299.00 



compucmo, inc. 



Versa Computing Products are available 

at your local computer products store. 

Distributed by: 

Computerland Corp. 
Hayward, Calif. 

Softsel Computer Products 
Inglewood, Calif. 

Pete & Pam Computers 
Lancashire, England 



VersaWriter is also available with 
software designed for Atari & IBM PC. 



Micron Distributing 
Toronto, Canada 
Program Spektrum 
Bromma, Sweden 

Micro Products Sales Group 
Lynn, Mass. 



3541 Old Conejo Road, Suite 104 • Newbury Park, CA 91320 • (805)498-1956 



Educational Media 
Washington, Penn. 

ESD Laboratories 
Tokyo, Japan 

Blue Ridge Computers 
Capetown. South Africa 

Circle No. 56 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



13 



Apple Slices Listing 



1 BF = 32744: OP* = 1 

5 HM = PEEK (115) + PEEK (116) * 

256: REM SAVE HIMEM 
10 HIMEM: BF - 1:HI = 8: REM SET 

HIMEM AND LONGEST FORMULA 
20 DIM FL$(105): REM TEXT FILE N 

AME ARRAY 
30 GOSUB 1090: REM ESTABLISH ONE 

RR FIX 
40 REM ************************* 
50 REM ** FTJ.FL* AND FS* ARE ** 
60 REM ** OFFSETS INTO THE ** 
70 REM ** CATALOG BUFFER ** 
80 REM ************************* 
90 FT* = 13: REM FILE TYPE OFFSET 
100 FL* = 14: REM FILE NAME OFFSET 
110 FS* = 11: REM FILE STATUS OFFSET 
120 TRK* = 17:SEC* = 0: GOSUB 121 
0: GOSUB 1300: REM INIT SECT 
OR R/W ROUTINE AND READ VTOC 
130 HOME : HTAB 5: VTAB 5: PRINT 
"PLEASE WAIT - READING CATAL 

OG "; 

140 FOR J = 1 TO 15: REM NUMBER 

OF CATALOG SECTORS 
150 TRK* = PEEK (BF + 1):SEC* = 

PEEK (BF + 2): GOSUB 1300: REM 
READ CATALOG SECTOR INTO BUFFER 
160 FOR K = BF TO BF + 210 STEP 
35: REM 7 FILE DESCRIPTORS; 
35 BYTES EACH 
170 FS = PEEK (K + FS*): REM SET 

FILE STATUS CODE 
180 IF FS = THEN J = 15 :K = BF 

+ 210: GOTO 310: REM END LOOP 
190 IF FS = 255 GOTO 310: REM SK 

IP DELETED FILE 
200 FT = PEEK (K + FT*) 
210 IF NOT (FT = OR FT = 128) 
GOTO 310: REM SKIP NON-TEXT 
FILES 
220 NF = NF + 1: REM COUNT OF TE 

XT FILES 
230 FL$ = "":SP* = 0: REM INITIA 
LIZE FILE NAME AND TRAILING 
SPACES COUNT 
240 FOR L = K + FL* TO K + FL* + 29 
250 NV$ = CHR$ ( PEEK (L)) 
260 IF NW» = CHR? (160) THEN SP 

* = SP* + 1: GOTO 280 
270 SP* = 0: REM RESET TRAILING S 

PACES COUNT 
280 FL$ = FL$ + NW»: REM ADD NEW 

CHARACTER TO NAME 
290 NEXT : REM L 
300 FL?(NF) = LEFT* (FL$,30 - SP 
*): REM DROP TRAILING SPACE 
S AND SAVE IN FILE NAME ARRAY 
310 NEXT : REM K 
320 NEXT : REM J 
330 IF NF = THEN HOME : PRINT 
"THERE ARE NO TEXT FILES ON 
VOLUME ";: HIMEM: HM: END 
340 FOR J = 1 TO NF 
350 HOME : HTAB 5: VTAB 5: PRINT 

"IS ";FL$(J);" THE FILE" 
360 HTAB 5: VTAB 7: PRINT "YOU D 
ESIRE ? ENTER Y(ES) OR N(O) 
" ; : GET A$ 
370 IF A? = "Y" THEN FL? = FL*(J 

):J = NF: GOTO 390 
380 IF A» <> "N" GOTO 340 
390 NEXT : REM J 

400 IF A? <> "Y" THEN HOME : HTAB 
5: VTAB 5: PRINT "NO MORE TE 
XT FILES ON VOLUME": HIMEM: 
HM: END 
410 CD* = CHRJ (4) 
420 HTAB 5: VTAB 9: PRINT "PLEAS 

E WAIT " 

430 POKE 34,10: REM SET TOP OF T 

EXT WINDOW 
440 ONERR GOTO 880 
450 PRINT CD$"OPEN ";FL$ 



460 PRINT CD»"DELETE ";FL$; ".FOR 

MULAS" 
470 PRINT CD»"OPEN ";FL$; ".FORMULAS" 
480 PRINT CD»: PRINT CD»"READ ";FL$ 
490 D$ = "" 
500 FOR J = 1 TO 200 
510 GET A» 
520 IF A$ » CHR$ (13) THEN LN = 

J - 1:J = 200: GOTO 540 
530 D$ = D$ + A» 
540 NEXT 
550 NODE = 1 
560 FOR J = 1 TO LN 
570 MD» = MID* (D»,J,1) 
580 IF MD» » ">" AND NODE = 1 THEN 

NODE = 2: GOTO 750 
590 IF NODE = 1 AND MD» = "/" THEN 

NODE = 5: GOTO 750 
600 IF NODE = 1 THEN NODE = 11: J 

= LN: GOTO 750 
610 IF NODE = 2 AND MD$ = " : " THEN 

K = J:NODE = 3: GOTO 750 
620 IF NODE = 2 GOTO 750 
630 IF NODE = 3 AND MDJ = CHRJ 

(34) THEN J = LN:NODE = 10: GOTO 750 
640 IF NODE = 3 AND MD? = "/" THEN 

NODE = 4: GOTO 750 
650 IF NODE = 3 THEN NODE = 6: GOTO 750 
660 IF NODE = 4 AND MD$ = "F" THEN 

NODE = 6:J = J + 1:K * J: GOTO 750 
670 IF NODE - 4 THEN J = LN:NODE 

= 10: GOTO 750 
680 IF NODE = 5 AND MD» - "G" THEN 

NODE = 7: GOTO 750 
690 IF NODE = 5 THEN J = LN:NODE 

= 10: GOTO 750 
700 IF NODE = 6 AND MD» > "8" AND 

MD» < CHR» (91) THEN J = LN 

:NODE = 9: GOTO 750 
710 IF NODE = 6 AND MD» = CHR$ 

(34) THEN J = LN:NODE = 10: GOTO 750 
720 IF NODE = 6 GOTO 750 
730 IF NODE = 7 AND MD$ = "C" THEN 

NODE = 8:J = LN: GOTO 750 
740 IF NODE = 7 THEN J = LN:NODE = 10 
750 NEXT : REM J 
760 IF NODE = 6 THEN GOTO 480: REM 

SKIP RECORD 
770 IF NODE = 10 OR NODE = 4 THEN 

GOTO 850: REM WRITE AS IS 
780 IF NODE = 8 THEN GOTO 480: REM 
SKIP "/GC" - PROGRAM PRODUC 

ES ITS' OWN 
790 IF NODE = 11 THEN POKE 34,0 

: PRINT CD$: HOME : PRINT "T 

HIS DOES NOT APPEAR TO BE A 

WORKSHEET";: PRINT CD»: PRINT 

CDJ"CLOSE": PRINT CDJ"DELETE 
";FL?;". FORMULAS": HIMEM: H 

M: END 
800 REM NODE = 9 PASSES HERE 
810 L = LN - K 
820 IF L > HI THEN HI = L: REM 

SAVE LENGTH OF LONGEST FORMULA 
830 LT» = LEFT* (D»,K):RT* = RIGHT* 

(D*,L) 
840 D* = LT» + CHR$ (34) + RT* 
850 PRINT CD»: PRINT CD* ; "WRITE" 

;FL$J". FORMULAS" 
860 PRINT D» 
870 GOTO 480 

880 CALL 768: REM ONERR FIX 
890 ER = PEEK (222) : REM SET ERR 

OR CODE 
900 IF ER = 6 THEN PRINT CD$: GOTO 

470: REM NO FORMULAS FILE TO 
DELETE (CONTINUE) 
910 POKE 34,0: REM RESET TEXT WI 

NDOW 
920 IF ER = 5 THEN PRINT CD$: PRINT 

CD$"WRITE ";FI4;". FORMULAS": 
PRINT "/GC"; STR» (HI + 1): 
PRINT CD»: GOTO 1000 



930 IF ER = 4 THEN PRINT "WRITE 

PROTECTED": GOTO 1040 
950 IF ER = 10 THEN PRINT "FILE 

LOCKED": GOTO 1040 
960 HOME : PRINT " ERROR CODE = 

";ER 
970 PRINT "IN LINE NUMBER "; PEEK 

(218) + PEEK (219) * 256 
980 IF ER > 15 OR ER = THEN PRINT 

"SEE PAGE 81 OF THE APPLESOF 

T": PRINT "BASIC PROGRAMMING 
REFERENCE MANUAL": GOTO 1040 
990 PRINT "SEE PAGES 114 - 115 

F THE DOS MANUAL": GOTO 1040 
1000 HOME : HTAB 5: VTAB 5 
1010 PRINT "FUNCTION COMPLETED" 
1020 HTAB 5: VTAB 7: PRINT "FILE 

";FL»; ".FORMULAS" 
1030 HTAB 5: VTAB 9: PRINT "IS N 

OW SAVED ON DISK" 
1040 POKE 216,0: REM TURN OFF 

ONERR GOTO INCASE OF TROUBLE 
W/CLOSE (AVOIDS POSSIBLE LO 

OP) 
1050 PRINT CD»: PRINT CDJ"CLOSE" 
1060 HIMEM: HM: END : REM RESET 

HIMEM AND END 
1*70 REM 

1080 REM ***** ONERR FIX ***** 
1090 FOR J = 768 TO 777: READ K: 

POKE J,K: NEXT : RETURN 
1100 DATA 104,168,104,166,223,1 

54,72,152,72,96 
1110 REM ft******************** 
1150 REM ** READ TRACK-SECTOR ** 
1160 REM ** SUBROUTINE ** 
1170 REM *********************** 
1180 REM SEC«=SECTOR TO READ 
1190 REM BF =BUFFER ADDRESS 
1200 REM TRK«=TRACK TO READ 
1210 FOR J = 33000 TO 33014 
1220 READ I*: POKE J,IJ 
1230 NEXT 

1235 CALL 33000: REM LOCATE THE IOB 
1240 BH* = INT (BF / 256) 
1242 BL* = INT ((BF / 256 - INT 

(BF / 256)) * 256 + .05) * SGN 

(BF / 256) 
1244 PTR = PEEK (0) + PEEK (1) * 256 
1250 POKE PTR + 8,BL<: POKE PTR + 

9,BHJ: REM SET BUFFER ADDRESS 
1260 RETURN 

1270 REM ********************* 
1280 REM * PTR=BEGIN. OF IOB * 
1290 REM ********************* 
1300 POKE PTR + 4,TRK< 
1310 POKE PTR + 5, SEC* 
1350 POKE PTR + 12, OP*: REM OPER 

ATION 1 = READ 2 = WRITE 
1360 POKE PTR + 3,0: REM WILDCARD VOL 
1370 CALL 33008: REM CALL LOCIOB+RWTS 
1380 POKE 72,0: REM RESET PREG 
1390 RETURN 

1400 REM ******************* 
1430 DATA 32,227,03,132,00,133,01,96 
1440 DATA 32,227,03,32,217,03,96 
1450 REM ******************* 
1460 REM * 1ST DATA STMENT * 
1470 REM * MACH. LANG. TO * 
1480 REM * LOCATE THE IOB * 
1490 REM * 2ND DATA STMENT * 
1500 REM * LOCATE THE IOB * 
1510 REM * AND CALL RWTS * 
1520 REM ******************* 
>H10:«SUM(B10. ..G10) 
>G10:+C8-G9 
>F10:+F8-F9 
>E10:+E8-E9 
>D10:+D8-D9 
>C10:+C8-C9 
>B10:+B8-B9 
>A10:"NET 
>H9:gSUM(B9...G9) 



>A9: "TAXES 




>H8:«SUM(B8.. 


.G8) 


>G8:+G6-G7 




>F8:+F6-F7 




>E8:+E6-E7 




>D8:+D6-D7 




>C8:+C6-C7 




>B8:+B6-B7 




>A8: "GROSS 




>H7:«SUM(B7.. 


.G7) 


>A7: "EXPENSES 




>H6:«SUM(B6.. 


.G6) 


>G6:«SUM(G2.. 


.G5) 


>F6:gSUM(F2.. 


• F5) 


>E6:gSUM(E2.. 


.E5) 


>D6:gSUM(D2.. 


.D5) 


>C6:gSUM(C2.. 


.C5) 


>B6:6SUM(B2.. 


.B5) 


>A6:"TTL SALES 


>H5:gSUM(B5.. 


.05) 


>A5:"MISC 




>H4:8SUM(B4.. 


.G4) 


>A4: "LABOR 




>H3:SSUM(B3.. 


■ G3) 


> A3: "TIRES 




>H2:gSUM(B2.. 


.G2) 


>A2: "BIKES 




> HI: "GRAND TTL 


>G1:"JUNE 




>F1:"MAY 




> El: "APRIL 




>D1:"MAR 




>C1:"FEB 




>B1:"JAN 




>H10:"«SUM(B10...G10) 


>G10:"+G8-G9 




>F10:"+F8-F9 




>E10:"+E8-E9 




>D10:"+D8-D9 




>C10:"+C8-C9 




>B10:"+B8-B9 




>A10:"NET 




>H9:"«SUM(B9. 


..G9) 


>A9: "TAXES 




>H8:"«SUM(B8. 


. .G8) 


>G8:"+G6-G7 




>F8:"+F6-F7 




>E8:"+E6-E7 




>D8:"+D6-D7 




>C8:"+C6-C7 




>B8:"+B6rB7 




>A8: "GROSS 




>H7:"gSUM(B7. 


. .G7) 


>A7:"EXPENSES 




>H6:"«SUM(B6. 


. .G6) 


>G6:"gSUM(G2. 


..G5) 


>F6:"gSUM(F2. 


..F5) 


>E6:"«SUM(E2. 


..E5) 


>D6:"gSUM(D2. 


..D5) 


>C6:"«SUM(C2. 


..C5) 


>B6:"gSUM(B2. 


..B5) 


>A6:"TTL SALES 


>H5:"«SUM(B5. 


..G5) 


>A5:"MISC 




>H4:"«SUM(B4. 


..G4) 


>A4:" LABOR 




>H3:"gSUM(B3. 


..G3) 


>A3: "TIRES 




>H2:"gSUM(B2. 


. .G2) 


>A2: "BIKES 




> HI: "GRAND TTL 


>G1:"JUNE 




>F1:"MAY 




> El: "APRIL 




>D1:"MAR 




>C1:"FEB 




>B1:"JAN 




/GC16 





JMCftO 



14 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



y\ 



ELECTRONICS, INC. 

COPYRIGHT © 1981 — PATENTS PENDING 

566 Irelan, Buellton, CA 93427 
(805)688-2047 

8:00 TO 5:00 CALIFORNIA TIME 



SUPER FAN II 

FOR YOUR APPLE II * COMPUTER 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

DESIGNING • MANUFACTURING 
ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING 



TM 




One Year Warranty 

$74.95 

With Zener Ray™ 
Protection $109.00 



MASTERCARD - VISA 



"COOL IT" 




TWO EXTRA 

120 VOLT OUTLETS 



ALSO FITS ON APPLE'S* NEW MONITOR STAND 

RED PILOT LIGHT ON/OFF SYSTEM SWITCH 

CUPS ON — NO HOLES OR SCREWS • REPLACEABLE SWITCH 

AVAILABLE IN 120V or240V AND 50/60 HZ « DURABLE MOTOR 

REDUCES HEAT CAUSED BY EXTRA PLUG-IN CARDS 

SOLD WORLDWIDE • UNIQUE 1 YEAR WARRANTY 

TAN OR BLACK COLOR • QUIETEST FAN ON THE MARKET 

INCREASED RELIABILITY — SAVES DOWN TIME AND REPAIR CHARGES 

LOW NOISE DUE TO DRAWING EFFECT OF AIR THROUGH YOUR COMPUTER AND SPECIAL FAN AND MOTOR DESIGN 

TWO EXTRA 120V OUTLETS FOR MONITOR AND ACCESSORIES TURN ON WHEN YOU TURN ON YOUR FAN 

(NOT AVAILABLE ON 240V MODEL) 

SUPER FAN II™ WITH ZENER RAY OPTION $109.00 

ZENER RAY™ TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR 

OUR BUILT IN ADVANCED DESIGN UNIT GIVES 

DRAMATIC COST SAVINGS — STOPS ANNOYING DOWN TIME 

INSURANCE FROM VOLTAGE SPIKES - GLITCHES 

DANGEROUS VOLTAGE SPIKES CAN JEOPARDIZE YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

PROTECT COMPUTER ■ DISK DRIVE - PRINTER AND MONITOR 

NO CUTTING WIRES • WON'T VOID WARRANTY, JUST PLUG IN SUPERFAN II WITH ZENER RAY 

OTHER PRODUCTS BY ^/electronics, inc. 

SUPER RAM II™16K RAM CARD FOR YOUR APPLE II. 2 YEAR WARRANTY $125 

GUARDIAN ANGEL™an un:nterruptable power source $595 

12 VOLT TRANSVERTER 12 volt - runs your apple ii computer and 

AND 5V4 " DRIVE FROM YOUR CIGARETTE LIGHTER $149 

•Registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Circle No. 13 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



15 



^Full Screen Editing 
^Copy-Move sentences, paragraphs 
v^lnsert-Delete letters, sentences 
^Form letters-User defined data 
*/ Shorthand-words, phrases 
>/ Centering-Justification-Tabs 
v^Headers-Footers-set page size 
^Automatic Page Numbering 
^Double columns-set margin, line size 
^Printer graphics-send hex codes 
v^Set up to support most printers 
"/Disk file concatenation 
^Program update support provided 

THE NEXT LOGICAL 
STEP IN THE 

EVOLUTION of 
WORD PROCESSING 



COPY-WRITER 



Copy-Writer is a full featured professional quality 
word processor. It offers all the capabilities required 
for high performance and efficiency. In addition, 
advanced features such as double columns, multiple 
disk files, printer hex control, etc. Copy-Writer is 
written in FORTH, a unique language that runs 
nearly as fast as machine code but actually occupies 
less memory. This allows more room in memory for 
lines of text. More than otherwise possible. 
Copy-Writer updates will be distributed on request 
to all registered users for just the update cost. Even 
when a more powerful version is Introduced! 

AVAILABLE FOR 40XX/8032/C64 

only $-| 45.00 

SEE YOUR DEALER OR: 
^■■" tP-0 Box 102 

[MICROTEC H J Langhorne, Pa. 19047 

215-757-0284 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Commodore 
Gets Smart 

"Having a modem and a good terminal 
software package like this can really open 
up a new world of applications for your 
Commodore system." — Robert W. Baker 
- MICROCOMPUTING 

J record to disk/transmit from disk 
</ output to Commodore/ ASCII printer 
</ XON/XOFF control capability 
«/ translates files ASCII/BASIC/W-PRO 
•S system status line-clock with alarm 
v* user table allows encoded data 
<y user access to routines-telemetry 

The most sophisticated terminal package 
available. Gives you all the features need- 
ed now and for the future. Available - 
Commodore 40XX, 8032 with 4040, 8050, 
PEDISK II 

Available from cgrs MICROTECH, 
P.O. Box 102, Langhorne, PA 19047 
21 5-757-0284 

$1 29.00 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 




COMPACK 



MICRO 



PET Vet 



Loren Wright 

New Commodore-oriented Books 

Without much fanfare the new edition 
of the PET/CBM Personal Computer 
Guide has arrived from Osborne/ 
McGraw-Hill. The new edition, by 
Adam Osborne, Jim Strasma, and Ellen 
Strasma, has been published in two ver- 
sions, called PET Personal Computer 
Guide and CBM Professional Com- 
puter Guide. The emphasis in the PET 
Guide is on the PET series of com- 
puters, the 4022 printer, and the 4040 
Guide is on the PET series of com- 
puters, the 4022 printer, and the 4040 
and 2031 disk drives. The CBM Guide 
concentrates on the 8032 and the 
2001-B, with some mention of the 
SuperPET and the 8096. Peripherals 
covered include the 8050 and 8250 disk 
drives, and the 8024, 8023P, and 8300P 
printers. Both versions cover the 8010 
modem and the 4010 voice synthesizer. 

Listings in the PET Guide are 
presented in upper case/graphics, 
while the CBM Guide uses mixed case 
for its listings. More detail is given in 
the PET Guide on graphics program- 
ming, while the CBM pays more atten- 
tion to numerical calculations and data 
formatting. 

In general, the two books are very 
similar. They both have the same 
overall organization, and most of the 
material is duplicated. Much attention 
has been paid to updating, correcting, 
and clarifying material that appeared in 
the previous edition. One area in par- 
ticular that received a lot of attention is 
the section on the CBM relative record 
system. The second edition of the PET/ 
CBM Guide covered this topic very 
poorly, including errors and misleading 
information. 

There is also much new material in 
the new book, including expanded 
memory maps and detailed information 
on fixes and upgrades for the various 
operating systems. In addition to the 
new material, more program examples 
are included. Author Jim Strasma 
offers, at an extra cost, a 'Help' disk, 
which includes longer demonstration 



and utility programs. (It also includes 
"Bennett's Mail List," the subject of 
Strasma's six-part series in MICRO.) 

The two books can serve both as 
tutorial texts for newcomers and as 
valuable references for more experi- 
enced programmers. I did notice a large 
number of typographical errors. The 
Strasmas have published errata lists in 
The Midnite Paper, and the next print- 
ing of the guides will correct them. 
With no comprehensive guide available 
yet for the Commodore 64, the PET 
Guide should do very well as a stand- 
in, since the C64's BASIC is the same 
as PET BASIC 2. It is too bad that Com- 
modore no longer includes a com- 
prehensive guide with its computers. 
This is one that every PET or CBM user 
should have. 

Although it is published in the US 
by COMPUTE!, Programming the 
PET/CBM by Raeto Collin West 
deserves mention here. It is probably 
the most comprehensive and detailed 
description of the PET/CBM operating 
system available. Particular attention 
is given to how the system works on a 
machine-language level. Every BASIC 
command is explained in detail, with 
examples. Programs are provided to add 
extensions, such as TRACE and PRINT 
USING. There is also an extensive, 
well explained list of ROM routines. 
This book is not for the newcomer to 
programming, but I have found it an 
essential reference— a good companion 
to one of the Osborne/ McGraw-Hill 
books. 

New Commodore 64 Software 

C64 software is beginning to arrive 
so fast that I can't keep up with it. In 
my June column, I plan to cover word 
processors, including Script 64 (Rich- 
vale Telecommunications, 10610 Bay- 
view Av., Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 
3N8, Canada), WordPro 3 (Professional 
Software, 51 Fremont St., Needham, 
MA 02194), and Paper Clip (Batteries 
Included, 71 McCaul St., Toronto, On- 
tario M5T 2X1, Canada). 

Also received was a C64 version of 

KMMM Pascal. Author Willi Kusche 

(Continued on page 18) 



Circle No. 45 



16 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 




H commodore 

NEW COMMODORE PRODUCTS 

CBM P500 $ 695 

CBM B500 695 

CBM 8700 2990 

CBM 1520 Plotter.., 259 

CBM 1701 Color Monitor 279 

SOFTWARE FOR CBM 64 Z. 

Word Processing (WordPro 3*) $ 69 

Word-Pac (tape) 60 

The Assistant Series 

Writer's Assistant (easy and flexible) ... 99 

FileAssistant(dafabasewfrhmerge). . . 99 

Spreadsheet Assistant 99 

Pers. Finance Asslst.(greot reports) ... 45 

Busicaic (Spreadsheet) 62 

Coco II (build your own games easily) ... 45 

Home Accounting Package 39 

General Ledger, A/R, A/P 

(with check writing) ea.175 

CBM EasyRnance 50 

CBM EasyScript 80 

CBMEasyFlle 80 

Data Manager 70 

Stock(investment analysis) 80 

Pet Emulator (emulates 4.0 basic) 30 

Sprite-Magic (use joystick 

to design sprites) 19 

Assembler Package (cassette or disk, 
compiled, includes editor, loader, 

disassembler) 39 

Spacebelt 20 

Retroball 34 

INTERFACES & ACCESSORIES 

80 Column Expander. $159 

VIC 1600 Modem 95 

VIC 1650 (auto answer, autodial)... 150 

VIC 1525 Graphic Printer 329 

VIC 1 530 Oatasette Recorder 65 

VIC 1541 Disk Drive 329 

VIC Switch (connect 8 64s or Vies 

to printer, dd) 149 

IEEE Interface (64) 85 

PET- IEEE cable 33 

IEEE-IEEE cable (2m) 39 

Parallel Interlace (Epson, Okidata, 

IDS, NEC) 80 

RS-232 Printer interface (Okidata 

Diablo, etc.) 60 

Programmers Reference Guide 18 

Verbatim Diskettes (10 per box) 26 

vlctree (Programmers Utility) 75 

VIC PRODUCTS A ACCESSORIES 

8K RAM Memory Expansion Cartridge ... $ 40 

16KRAM 70 

24KRAM 105 



VIC IEEE Interface 75 

VIC 3 Slot Expander 27 

VIC 6 Slot Expander 70 

RS-232 Printer Interface 65 

Cassette Interlace 27 

Home Finance Package (6 tapes) 47 

Gorf(64also) 30 

Omega Race 30 

Arcade Joystick - Heavy duty w/2 firing 

buttons! Great for the VIC or 64 25 

MONITORS -GREAT 
RESOLUTION (64 OR VIC) 

Amdek Color I $ 319 

Amdek II or III call 

Panasonic CT160 295 

Comrex 6500 - 13" Color 299 

Transfer 20 (High Resolution 

Green Phosphor) 129 

Video/ Audio Cable 15 

PRINTERS - LETTER QUALITY 

CBM 8300, 40 CDS $1450 

Diablo 620, 25 cps 995 

ComRrter, 17 cps 899 

Transtar 130, 16 cps (auto load, 

wp features!) 769 

NEC 7700 series 2350 

NEC 3500 series 1600 

PRINTERS - DOT MATRIX 

CBM 8023, 150 cps/ graphics 589 

Epson FX Printer, 160 cps 529 

Okidata 82A, 1 20 cps (serial 

and parallel) 429 

NEC 8023A (parallel) 469 

Okidata 92 55S 

Star Gemini, 10 429 

Star Gemini, 15 529 

COMMODORE BUSINESS 
SERIES 

SuperPef (5 languages, 

2 processors) $1 409 

CBM 8032 Computer, 80 Column .. . 1029 

CBM Memory Expansion, 64K 359 

CBM 8050, 1 mg. Dual Drive 1 259 

CBM 8250, 2 mg. Dual Drive 1 500 

CBM D9060, 5 mg. Hard Disk 2240 

CBM D9090, 7.5 mg. Hard Disk ... . 2600 
CBM 2031, 170K Single Drive (New) 489 
DC Hayes Smart Modem 220 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

WordPro 4* or 5* $ 309 

Administrator 489 

VisiCalc (expanded) 199 

The Manager (database) 199 

BPI A/R, G/l Job Cost, Inventory, 
Payroll ea.325 



MasterCard, Visa, 
Money Order, Bank Check 

COD (odd $5) accepted. 

Add 3% surcharge for credit cards, 

In stock items shipped within 48 hours, 

F.O.B, Dallas, Texas 

All products shipped with manufacturer's 

warranty. 

Prices are subject to change without notice. 

TO ORDER 

CALL TOLL FREE 

800-527-4893 

800-442-1048 

(Within Texas) 

Business Hours 
Mon.- Fri. 8 to 6, Sat. 10-2 

Write tor free catalog. 




SJB DISTRIBUTORS INC. 

10520 Piano Road, Suite 206 

Dallas, Texas 75238 

(214)343-1328 



Circle No. 10 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



17 



Circle No. 14 

ssssssssssssssssssssssssss 

•I 



'■'."tfMJPli SEWSEi:/ pet VET,-*-, 



QUICK BROWN FOX $60.95 

The #1 word processor! 

GENERAL LEDGER $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CHECK MINDER 

vic-20 $19.95 c-64 $24.95 

HOME INVENTORY $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CENTIPOD $27.95 

Like Centiped, only better! 

FROGEE $27.95 

The exciting arcade game of Frogger. 

MOTOR MOUSE $29.95 

What a cheese'ee game! 

CRIBBAGE 
vic-20 $14.95 c-64 $17.95 

This is the game of Cribbage. 

STAR TREK 

vic-20 $12.95 c-64 $17.95 
Excellent adventure game! 

MASTER MIND 
vic-20 $12.95 c-64 $19.95 

Makes you think. 

ROACH MOTEL $9.95 

Kill the bugs! 

YAHT2EE1.1 $12.95 
YAHT2EE2.1 $14.95 



TO ORDER: 
P. O. BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted 
(AHow 3 weeks) or 
COD. (Add $2.00) 
Handling charges $2.00 



VIC-20® is a registered trademark of Commodore 



C64 FORTH 

for the 
Commodore 64 



Fig.-Forth implementation 
including: 

• Full feature screen editor and 
assembler 

• Forth 79 Standard Commands 
with extensions 

• High resolution 320x200 pixel, 
16 color graphics 

• Sprite graphics for control of 
32 sprites 

• Three voice tone and music 
synthesizer 

• Detailed manual with ex- 
amples and BASIC-FORTH 
conversions 

• Trace feature for Debugging 

$99.95 — Disk Version 

(Specify CBM 1540orCBM 1541 Disk) 

$99.95 — Cassette Version 

(CBM & Commodore 64 are 
Trademarks of Commodore) 

PERFORMANCE MICRO PRODUCTS 
770 Dedham Street 
Canton, MA 02021 
(617)828-1209 



has modified the program so that it 
dispenses with the BASIC ROMs, 
thereby making 10K extra available for 
programs. In addition, errors have been 
corrected, restrictions removed, and 
new string handling functions added. 
The programs operate with the C64's 
serial bus or with the CIE IEEE-488 in- 
terface (but apparently not completely 
with the C64-Link cartridge] . As far as I 
know, it is the only Pascal available 
that can generate executable machine 
code. KMMM Pascal is available from 
AB Computers (252 Bethlehem Pike, 
Colmar, PA 18915) for $85. 

Support for the Commodore 64 

Commodore seems to be doing 
better at supporting the C64 than it has 
with previous machines. The Program- 
mer's Reference Guide (described in 
my December column) arrived at 
dealers at the end of December. Many 
of the programs I mentioned then, in- 
cluding the sprite editor, character 
editor, and simple PET emulator, have 
been placed in the public domain by 
Commodore, so you should be able to 
obtain them from a dealer or users' 
group. 

Commodore's New Machines 

As you may remember from a few 
months back, Commodore announced 
three new computers. These were the 
P, B, and BX series. It seems now that 
the P is the only one of these we're like- 
ly to see very soon. It is now called the 
Commodore 128, and I assume it will 
have the same 128K, expanded 
keyboard, and color-and-sound features 
originally announced. At the Con- 
sumer Electronics Show in January, 
Commodore was saying it would ap- 
pear in 90 to 120 days. 

Commodore showed off some other 
new products at that show in Las 
Vegas, but their arrival dates are even 
less certain. One product was a por- 
table 64K machine, compatible with 
the Commodore 64. This '64 Series' 
computer will be available in three con- 
figurations: 1) with built-in single disk 
drive and built-in black-and-white 
monitor, 2) with single dirve and color 
monitor, and 3) with dual drive and 
color monitor. 

Commodore will soon be selling its 
own high-resolution color monitor, 
designed especially for the Commodore 



64 and VIC-20, for $299. Other pro- 
ducts shown in prototype versions were 
a hand-held computer, a piano 
keyboard for the C64, a voice synthe- 
sizer cartridge with interchangeable 
'voices' and vocabularies, and a touch- 
screen panel. 

Look for my article in next month's 
"New Wave of Computers" where I 
will cover the technical details of the 
Commodore 64, the Commodore 128, 
and, I hope, the 64 series portable 
computers. 



TPUG Conference-May 14-15 

The Toronto PET User Group 
(TPUG) is holding a large conference at 
the Castle Loma campus of George 
Brown College in Toronto the weekend 
of May 14-15. 1 have accepted an invita- 
tion to join Jim Butterfield, Steve 
Punter, Jim Strasma, and a number of 
other PET experts as a speaker. The 
presentations will cover a wide variety 
of topics and experience levels. In addi- 
tion to the presentations, there will be 
a major copy session of the TPUG 
library, which now exceeds 100 disks. 
Finally, there will be commercial 
displays, including those from all the 
stores in the local Toronto area. For 
more information, write TPUG, c/o 
Chris Bennett, 381 Lawrence Avenue 
W., Toronto, Ontario M5M 1B9, 
Canada. 

Lincoln College Summer 
Computer Seminar 

Lincoln College in Lincoln, IL is 
running a week-long seminar June 
19-26. Faculty will include Jim and 
Ellen Strasma, Jim Butterfield, Len 
Lindsay, Keith Peterson, and a number 
of other experts on Commodore equip- 
ment. The cost, including room, board, 
and tuition, is $350. If you don't have a 
Commodore computer you can bring, a 
limited number of rentals will be 
available for an additional fee. You will 
also be able to purchase a VIC for use in 
the seminar. For more information, 
write Jim Strasma at 1280 Richland 
Avenue, Lincoln, IL 62656. 



JMCRO 



Circle No. 24 



18 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Lyco Computer Marketing & Consultants 



TO ORDER 

CALL US 



TOLL FREE 800-233-8760 

In PA 1-717-398-4079 



DUST COVER 
with Purchase of 

ATARI 800 48K .... $489.00 
ATARI 400 64K . . . .$349.00 

81 DISK DRIVE $41 9 .00 

ATAR1 1 200 64K RAM . . . $CALL $ 



ATARI HARDWARE 

81 DISK DRIVE $41 9.00 

41 RECORDER $75.00 

1 01 RECORDER $75.00 

850 INTERFACE $1 64.00 

PACKAGES 

CX482 EDUCATOR $11 9.00 

CX483 PROGRAMMER $54.00 

CX488 COMMUNICATOR $219.00 

CX41 9 BOOKEEPER $1 89.00 

KX7104 ENTERTAINER $69.00 

NEW RELEASES 

400 KEYBOARD $99.00 

MINER 2049er $32.75 

FROGGER $25.75 

PREPPIE $19.75 

SEA DRAGON $24.75 

STRATOS $24.75 

DISKY $39.95 

MONKEY WRENCH 2 $52.75 




MONITORS 



NEC JB1260 $125.00 

NEC JB1 201 $1 55.00 

NECTC1201 $315.00 

AMDEK30OG $159.00 

AMDEK COLOR I $329.00 



MODEMS 

ANCHOR MARK I 


$79.00 


ANCHOR MARK M 


$79.00 


HAYES SMART 


$239.00 


HAYES MICRO II 


$309.00 


CAT 


$144.00 


J-CAT 


S CALLS 





PERCOM DISK DRIVES 

SI NGLE DRIVE AT88 $389.00 

ADD ON $289.00 

SINGLE DRIVE 40S1 $529.00 

ADD ON $329.00 

DUAL DRIVE 40S2 $845.00 

DUAL HEAD SINGLE DRIVE 44S1 ...$649.00 
DUAL HEAD DUAL DRIVE 44S2 .... $789.00 



SAVE -PRINTERS 

IPROWRITER $375. 00| 

NEC 8023A $439.00 

SMITH CORONATP1 ...$569.00 





STARWRITER 


. $1475.00 
.. $1675.00 




PRINTMASTER 


PRINTER CA 

for Atari 
CITOH 


BLES 

..$35.00 
..$35.00 




EPSON 




NEC 




OKIDATA 




SMITH CORONA ... 













OKIDATA 82A $419.00 

OKIDATA 83A $639.00 

OKIDATA 84 $1 029.00 

OKIDATA TRACTOR $63.00 



POLICY 

DURING APRIL 



DISKETTES : In 

BASF 


Stock 


...$19.00 


ELEPHANT 




...$21.00 


MAXELL MDI 




...$34.00 


MAXELL MDII 




£44 nn 




BUSINESS SOI 

VISICALC 

LETTER PERFECT. 
LETTER PERFECT 
DATA PERFECT.... 


=TWAR 


E 

$159.75 

$115.75 

$159.75 

...$75.75 


..ROM . 


TEXT WIZZARD.... 




. ..$79.75 


SPELL WIZZARD .. 
FILE MANAGER 80( 
ATARI WORDPRO. 




...$64.75 


34 


..$69 75 




$109.75 







In-Stock items shipped within 24 hours of order. Personal 
checks require four weeks clearance before shipping. No 
deposit for COD orders. PAresidents add sales tax. All products 
subject to availability and price change. Advertised prices 
show 4% discount offered for cash. Add 4% for Mastercard and 

Circle No. 15 I 



TO ORDER 
CALL TOLL FREE 

800-233-8760 

| In PA 1717 398-4079 
or send order to 
Lyco Computer 
P.O. Box 5088 
Jersey Shore, PA 177401 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



19 



/AICEO 

From Here To Atari 



Paul S. Swanson 



Clearing Up the Rumors 

Many rumors are circulating about new products from 
Atari. I have seen the 1200 — it is not just a rumor. There 
are also indications that another computer will be an- 
nounced sometime this summer. But the rumors concern- 
ing a 48K Atari 600 no longer look credible since Atari is 
more likely to bring out a more advanced product; a com- 
puter that is between the 400 and 800 is not a step forward. 
Any statements not officially announced by Atari are prob- 
ably inaccurate. I'll keep you up to date on significant of- 
ficial announcements. 

Missing the Right Cartridge Slot? 

I have received a few letters from Atari 400 owners con- 
cerned about the right cartridge slot on the Atari 800. 
Since the Atari's newest computer, the 1200, has no right 
cartridge slot, and there is very little existing software that 
requires it, it is not likely that much future software will 
require it. 

Another popular topic in letters is assembly language 
on the Atari. The Atari uses 6502 assembly language, the 
same used by Apple, Commodore, and others, so general 
6502 books will be useful. A few topics concerning assem- 
bly language are specific to the Atari, so if your concerns 
deal with them, write a letter to me describing the specific 
application. 

For example, one reader asked about creating a cassette 
bootable program. If you hold down the START button 
while you power up the computer, it will attempt to load 
and run a program from tape. The program on tape must be 
in machine language, which is where assemblers become 
important. Cassettes are a little more difficult to deal with 
than disks, primarily because there is no cassette oper- 
ating system comparable to the disk operating time. 

To create a cassette bootable program, you must under 
stand what the computer does when it reads such a file. The 
steps that the computer executes in reading the file are: 

1. The first record loads into the cassette buffer and the 
computer stores the first six bytes and saves them in 
various places. The first byte is not used. The second 
byte contains the number of records to load. Bytes 3 and 
4 contain the address to start saving the program. The 
last two bytes are the initialization address. 

2. The first record (apparently including the first six bytes) 
is moved from the cassette buffer into the indicated 
start address, then the rest of the records are read and 
placed in sequential memory locations following the 
first record. 



3. The computer JSRs to the address of the byte immedi- 
ately following the first six bytes (starting address plus 
six) . You can use this to load more records into memory 
if you wish. Return by using an RTS command after 
clearing the carry (if there was no error), or setting the 
carry to indicate that there was an error during this 
routine. 

4. The computer next JSRs to your initialization address 
(indirectly through bytes 5 and 6). In this routine, do 
whatever initialization you want, then place your ac- 
tual starting address in DOSVEC (at $000A). Use an- 
other RTS to end this routine. 

5. Finally, the computer JMPs indirectly through 
DOSVEC to begin your application. At any time during 
the execution of your application, SYSTEM RESET is 
pressed and steps 4 and 5 are repeated. 

There is a small bug in Atari's cassette boot routine. At 
the end of the routine that starts at the start address plus 
six (step 3), you must stop the cassette motor. 

Back to Graphics 

Last month I promised some information on using IR 
modes 4 and 5, which are the character graphics modes 
that will be available as OS modes 12 and 13 on the Atari 
1200. You can, on the 400 and 800, use these two modes if 
you define your own display list and a custom character 
set. For hints on how to create a character set, refer to my 
article in the October 1982 (53:87) issue of MICRO. 

There is an important difference in forming each of the 
characters. You must locate the set on a IK boundary the 
same way I describe in the article. However, the formats 
for each character will be interpreted differently for IR 
modes 4 and 5. In these modes, the bytes in the set are in- 
terpreted as bit pairs, which refer to color registers. Zero 
refers to the background register, one refers to register 
zero, two to register one, and three to either register two or 
register three. In all, you can have up to five colors on the 
screen with up to four in each character. The reference to 
registers two or three depends on whether the character is 
printed in normal or inverse video. 

Both of these modes support 40-character lines. Mode 
4 uses one scan line per line of format, so it is easily im- 
plemented from an IR mode 2 (operating system mode 0) 
screen, allowing you to access it as if it were a text screen. 
Mode 5 uses two scan lines per line of format, making it 
equivalent in resolution to an OS mode 7 map mode 
screen. You can also modify a text screen for this one, too, 
but you have only half of the characters available on a full 
screen, so you must take this into account. 

Mixing some IR mode 2 text lines with mode 5 is 
relatively easy. If you alter the display list to make some of 
the lines mode 5 and leave others in mode 2, you can 



20 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



PRINT to the screen as if it were the standard OS mode 
screen using BASIC. The drawback is that the text lines 
will use register 2 for the background color and the lumi- 
nance of register 1 for the letters, so the screen will either 
have stripes where the text lines go or, if you set register 2 
to black, the graphics will have only four colors instead of 
five, and only three can be used in each graphics character. 
Some experimentation with these two modes will ex- 
plain quite a bit about how they work. I have included a 
listing at the end of this column that should get you 
started. 

Hardware 

If you have a printer that works off the 850 interface, I 
have one note that may interest you, particularly if you 
write rather large programs. If the 850 is on when you start 
up the Atari, some memory is set aside to handle device 
R:. If you are not using the interface for anything except 
the printer, you do not need this device, nor do you need to 
have that extra memory subtracted from your program 
area. If the 850 is turned on only after the computer is 
turned on (i.e., the 850 is off when you turn the computer 
on|, this memory is not set aside and device R: will not be 
available. Device P: is always enabled at power-up, so the 
printer will be available any time you have both the 850 
and the printer turned on. 

Reference Books 

In a recent column (56:19), I reviewed some reference 
books that you may want next to your Atari to help with 
your programming. Since then I learned that Educational 
Software, Inc. (4565 Cherryvale Avenue, Soquel, CA 
95073) publishes references for beginners or experts on the 
Atari computers, as well as software that will help your 
programming. Their Master Memory Map, for example, is 
a good roadmap of the hardware and shadow registers in 
the Atari. 

A Closing Note on Character Graphics 

When you are finished experimenting with modes 4 
and 5, set up a standard text screen and POKE 64, 128, or 
192 into location 623. This causes the character set to be 
interpreted in four-bit groups, effectively implementing a 
character graphics screen equivalent to OS modes 9, 10, 
and 11. Note that these are the GTIA modes, so this won't 
work on the older Atari computers that have CTIA chips 
instead of the GTIA chips. 

Send your letters to Mi. Swanson at 97 Jackson Street, 
Cambridge, MA 02140. 



^N 



^ 



*> SUPER SALE 

Bulk Diskettes* with envelopes 



•Now Get High Quality at a Low Price Manufactured by a Major Disc Company 

For MDS Without Their Name on Diskettes. •Minimum order 20 diskettes with 

Tyvek envelope and storage shipping box. 'Quantity Discounts - 100 deduct 3%, 

1000 deduct 5%, 10,000 deduct 10%. 100% Certified 1 Year Warranty. 



5%" Soft Sectors 

$1.69* 
$1.99' 
$2.79* 



SINGLE SIDE 
SINGLE DENSITY 
W/HUB RING 

SINGLE SIDE 
DOUBLE DENSITY 
W/HUB RING 

DOUBLE SIDE 
DOUBLE DENSITY 
W/HUB RING 



8 "Soft or 32 Sectors 
$1.79* 

$2.29* 
$3.09* 



SINGLE SIDE 
SINGLE DENSITY 



SINGLE SIDE 
00U8LE DENSITY 



DOUBLE SIDE 
D0U81E DENSITY 



PRINTERS 

All EPSONS available Scall 

GEMINI 10 by Star Micronics $399.00 
GEMINI 15 by Star Micronics $349.00 

Okidata Microline 80 $call 

Okldata Microline 82 $469.00 

Okidata Microline 83A $call 

Okidata Microline 84 $call 



MICROBUFFER 

MBP-16K Parallel $149.00 , 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE For Most Printers 

32K Parallel $289.00 

64K Parallel $339.00 

32K Serial $289.00 

64K Serial $339.00 

64K Memory 

Expansion Modules $169.00 



SUPPLIES FAN FOLD PAPER (Prices F.O.B.S.P.) 

AVERY TABULABLES 9-1/2 x 1 1 181b. White 3,000 ct. $29.95 

5,000 3-1/2 x 15/16 $15.95 14-7/8 11 181b. White 3,000 ct. $39.95 

• • THIS MONTH'S SPECIALS * • 

Flip 'n' File & 1 box of Paragon Golds $49.95 

Head cleaning kit & 1 box of Paragon Gold $34.95 



TANDON DISK DRIVE ENCLOSURES 

Complete with Chassis & Power Supply: Fully assembled silver or beige 
chassis with external card edge connector for easy cable installation for 
5'//' drives. With MDS 120 days warranty $59.00 

BARE DRIVES 

TM100-140Trk $199.00 

TM100-2 40/40 Trk $269.00 

TM100-4 80/80 Trk $339.00 

SIEMANS FDD100-8 SS/DD 8 in .... $279.00 

TM50 SS/DD 40 Trk Thinline $199.00 

TM848-1 SS/DD 8" 77 Trk Thinline . $369.00 
TM84B-2 DD/DD 8" 77 Trk Thinline $479.00 

Add $59.00 For Complete 5%" Drive System 




HEAD CLEANING 

KIT 5W 



Clean the 
heads in 
just 30 seconds 
and save on costly 
service calls and 
data drop-outs. 



*&. 



*<?$&, 




-M.DS 



22295 EUCLID AVE. 
EUCLID. OHIO 44117 




MICRO DATA 
SUPPUCS 



Call (216) 481- 





Circle No. 16 



NO. 59 - April 1 983 



MICRO 



21 



f 



32K CMOS STATIC RAM BOARD for SYM/AIM 

Models MB-132/32K, $299 
/16K$241,/8K $197 
Features: 

• 200ns Low Power CMOS, STATIC RAM 

• Extends your expansion connector 

• Plug compatible with 2716 EPROMS 

• First 8K are jumper selectable 

• Entire board mav be bank-switched 

• G-10 Glass epoxy. Full solder mask, Gold fingers 

• Full 1 -year limited warranty 

I/O EXPANSION BOARD for the SYM/AIM 




l/OX-122 $60 
l/OX-222 $72 



and other microcomputers that use 6522 VIAs for I/O 
and do not provide full address decoding on board 
This board has physical space for four additional 6522 
VIAs, and provides additional decoding for a total of 
16 devices Connectors for all I/O lines, and further 
expansion are included All 6522 functions are 
available, with no interference with previous 
functions of the original VIA. Two versions of this 
board are available. The l/OX-122 mounts above, and 
directly plugs into, an on-board 6522 socket, and 
relocates the original VIA to the expansion board. 
Where there are space limitations, the l/OX-222 
uses a dip header and an 8" cable lor remote 
installation 



REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENDAR $60 Write for Info 
P.O. Box 1019 • Whittier, CA 90609 • (213) 941-1383 





Circle No. 50 





RAM 

For ATARI 


64K RAM BOARD FOR THE 400 


with Lifetime Warranty 


• Highest quality available 


• Reduces power consumption 


• Reduces heat 


64 K Board (4 00 ) $150 


48K Board (4 00) $115 


32 K Board (400/800 $ 90 


FREE SHIPPING ANYWHERE IN U.S.A. 


Intec 


Peripherals 


Corp 


906 E. Highland Ave. 


San Bernardino, CA 92404 


w£ (714)881-1533 A 


ATARI, 400, 800 are Trademarks of ATARI, Inc. 





Here to Atari Listing 



10 REM ....Character Graphics 

20 REM Using IR mode 4 

30 REM 

40 REM ....Paul S. Swanson 

50 REM 

60 REM **************************** 

70 REM **Place character set on**** 

80 REM **a IK boundary************* 

90 REM **************************** 

100 DIM X*<1) :A=ADR<X*> :B=INT (A/ 1024+1) 
*1024:DIM F*<B-A-1> ,CSET*(1024) 

110 CSET*="@" 

120 CSET* ( 1 024 > = " @ " 

1 30 CSET* ( 2 ) =CSET* 

140 REM *************************** 

150 REM **Use CTRL characters for** 

160 REM **the redefined characters* 

170 REM *************************** 

180 RESTORE 1000 

170 C=513 

200 READ N 

210 IF N=256 THEN 300 

220 CSET*(C,C)=CHR*(N) 

230 C=C+1 

240 GOTO 200 

250 REM *************************** 

260 REM **Declare a GR.O screen,*** 

270 REM **then redefine its******** 

280 REM **di splay list.************ 

290 REM *************************** 

300 GRAPHICS O 

310 DL=PEEK<560)+PEEK(561>*256 

320 POKE DL+3,68 

330 I=DL+6 

340 N=PEEK<I) 

350 IF N=65 THEN 430 

360 POKE 1,4 

370 1=1+1 

380 GOTO 340 

390 REM *************************** 

400 REM **Use standard PRINTS****** 

410 REM **to display characters.*** 

420 REM *************************** 

430 FOR 1=0 TO 26 

440 PRINT CHR*<I) J 

450 NEXT I 

460 REM *************************** 
470 REM **PRINT the inverse******** 
480 REM *************************** 
490 PRINT : PRINT 
500 FOR 1=0 TO 26 

510 PRINT CHR*( 1+128); 

520 NEXT I 

530 REM *************************** 

540 REM **Tell the Atari where to** 

550 REM **find the new characters** 

560 REM *************************** 

570 POKE 756.B/256 

580 GOTO 580 

960 REM *************************** 

970 REM **The custom characters**** 

980 REM **0ne DATA per character*** 

990 REM *************************** 

1000 DATA 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 

1010 DATA 90,90,90.90,90,90,90,90 

1020 DATA 175,175,175,175,175,175,175,175 

1030 DATA 250,250,250,250,250,250,250,250 

1040 DATA 165,165,165,165,165,165,165,165 

1050 DATA 80,80,80,80,80,80,80,80 

1060 DATA 0,0,0,0,1,5,21,85 

1070 DATA 0,0,0,1,5,21,85,86 

1080 DATA 0,0,1,5,21,85,86,90 

1090 DATA 0,1,5,21,85,86,90,106 

1100 DATA 1,5,21,85,86,90,106,170 

1110 DATA 5,21,85,86,90,106,170,171 

1120 DATA 21,85,86,90,106,170,171,175 

1130 DATA 85,86,90,106,170,171,175,191 

1140 DATA 86,90,106,170,171,175,191,255 

1150 DATA 90,106,170,171,175,191,255,252 

1160 DATA 106,170,171,175,191,255,252,240 

1170 DATA 170,171,175,191,255,252,240,192 

1180 DATA 171,175,191,255,252,240,192,64 

1190 DATA 175,191,255,252,240,192,64,0 

1200 DATA 191,255,252,240,192,64,0,0 

1210 DATA 255,252,240,192,64,0,0,0 

1220 DATA 252,240,192,64,0,0,0,0 

9999 DATA 256 



22 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



/AlCftO 

CoCo Bits 



John Steiner 



Updates 

In the December 1982 issue, I 
presented a short program on a single 
disk copy routine. A few people have 
written about a problem with the pro- 
gram crashing in line 200 with a 
filename error. Other people may run 
into this problem too, so I will pass 
along what might be the correction. In 
program line 130 the routine uses an 
IF... THEN construct to check for a 
valid file. If the file does exist and has 
not been killed, the extension is ap- 
pended to the filename. A slashbar is 
also placed in the line as a delimiter; 
however, an extra space seems to have 
found its way into the listing. The line 
should read as follows: 

130 IF LEFTS (N$(N),1) < > CHR$ 
(0) AND LEFTS (N$(N),1) 
CHR$ (255) THEN FI$(K) = N$(N) + 
"/" + EX$(N): K = K$1 

The slashbar should be the only 
character within the quotation marks. 
The "/" could be replaced with 
CHR$(47) if you wish. The program 
would crash in line 200 because the ex- 
tra space would cause the filename to 
be one character too long. 

I received a letter from Walter Oiler 
of Rapid City, SD, asking about the 
availability of software capable cf 
handling bowling league team and in- 
dividual record keeping. If you have 
software, or are aware of its existence, 
please let me know. 

The "F" Board 

Last month I commented on the 
fact that the TDP System 100 has a 
slightly different circuit board from the 
standard CoCo. That statement is no 
longer true. Since December, Radio 
Shack has been delivering the com- 
puters with this new "F" board. 
Though the board has no "F" designa- 
tion on it, it is replacing "E" board 
computers. If you have a late model 



Color Computer, you can tell which 
board you have by lifting the door on 
the ROM port and looking inside. 
Computers with an "E" board or 
earlier have a shield around the pro- 
cessor and memory chips. The shield is 
almost the only thing visible in the 
earlier models. "F" board models 
shield only the RAM chips themselves, 
so when you look into the port, you can 
see components all the way through to 
the other side of the cabinet. The RAM 
shield is visible to the left of the port as 
you are looking in. 

As I said last month, the computer 
will probably be offered as a 64K 
machine. Rumors abound as I am 
writing this that OS-9 will be available 
soon in a format licensed to Tandy 
Radio Shack. 

CoCos with 16K are easily con- 
verted to 64K. You just have to remove 
several capacitors, replace the 4116's 
with 4164's, and move the jumpers 
from 16K to 64K positions. An addi- 
tional jumper must be added to the 
points near the 6821 PIA. 

If you have a 32K "F" board, call 
map type 1, the all RAM mode. The 
hand-wired modifications required on 
the earlier boards are no longer 
necessary. 

CoCo Operating Systems 

The Radio Shack disk operating 
system is adequate for BASIC program- 
ming and contains many powerful 
features. There is much to be desired 
for the machine-language programmer, 
however. This is partially due to the 
fact that the system is not well 
documented. Only a few ROM calls are 
provided, and sophisticated applica- 
tions require disassembly of the ROM 
just to locate and access the routines. 

One solution to this can be found in 
a disk resident DOS. Some commercial 
programs use the technique, including 
Radio Shack's own Disk Scripsit. If you 
can write your own DOS, you will have 
no problem; but if you are like me, that 
would be a major hurdle. However, you 
can purchase disk resident operating 



systems for the Color Computer. These 
systems and their utilities give the 
assembly-language programmer much 
more power than when using the stan- 
dard DOS. 

I was looking for a disk operating 
system for quite another reason, how- 
ever. With many operating systems, 
files can be read or written by com- 
puters using the same DOS, even 
though they may be different brands. I 
would be able to send disks along with 
my articles that contain the text. The 
editor would then be able to read the 
file into the text editor for editing and 
eventual typesetting. The FLEX oper- 
ating system is one of the more power- 
ful systems available today. In addi- 
tion, it is implemented on nearly all 
6800 series processors. There are 
several versions of FLEX available, and 
at least two are implemented on CoCo. 
I have just purchased Frank Hogg's ver- 
sion and am learning how to use it to 
full advantage. See November (MICRO 
54:23) for a more complete discussion 
of Frank Hogg's FLEX. 

I wish I could say that this month' s 
column was submitted in FLEX format. 
Unfortunately, a few hours after re- 
ceiving and loading FLEX, my TDP- 100 
broke down. But I have already formed 
some strong impressions on the system 
in the first few hours. 

FLEX is definitely best im- 
plemented on at least a two-drive 
system. I am waiting for a second drive 
unit, but it has not arrived yet. Work- 
ing with the system and creating the 
first backup was enough to convince 
me that another drive is needed. 

One feature of this version of FLEX 
is DBASIC, a $40.00 program that 
allows you to use and convert Radio 
Shack software to FLEX format. The 
only feature of R/S disk BASIC that is 
not implemented is random access file 
capacity. This is not a limitation of 
FLEX, but of DBASIC. Another appeal- 
ing feature is a way to call BASIC 
without accessing Extended BASIC. If 
you can live without extended BASIC 
routines, you can use the extra memory 



No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



23 



COCO BitS (continued) 



(over 39K| for your program. 

If you have a monitor, you can use 
FLEX in a 64 x 32-line format. There 
are six choices of character and screen 
dimensions, starting with the standard 
32 x 16 format. FLEX is initialized in a 
51 x 24 format. A setup program can 
change that, plus many other power up 
standards. 

There are many people who would 
like to have the versatilitiy of a DOS 
but don't have the 64K capacity FLEX 
requires (or maybe they just don't feel 
like paying an additional one hundred 
dollars on a DOS). A viable alternative 
is Peter Stark's Star -DOS. Star-DOS 
will run on a 16K CoCo, and requires 
no modification of the computer. Many 
of the standad DOS features are im- 
plemented, and the user has an oppor- 
tunity to get the feel of using and pro- 



gramming a disk operating system 
without spending a lot of money. Star- 
DOS is priced at $49.95. Unlike FLEX, 
Star-DOS reads and writes standard 
Radio Shack format disk files. In addi- 
tion, a 55-page manual provides all the 
documentation needed to implement 
serious disk system applications in 
assembly language. 

Both memory resident and disk 
resident commands are supported and, 
like FLEX, it is possible to improve on 
the DOS by writing your own com- 
mand routines, if you would like to ex- 
periment with a DOS, you might be in- 
terested in Star-DOS. 

More information is available on 
these programs from their authors: 

Color Computer FLEX 
Frank Hogg Laboratories 



The Regency Tower 

770 James St. 

Syracuse, NY 13203 
Star-DOS 

Star-Kits 

P.O. Box 209 

Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 
Other disk operating systems are 
available for the Color Computer from 
Exatron Corporation and Cer-Comp, 
among others. I am not familiar with 
either of these systems. If you have ex- 
perience with them and would like to 
pass it along, drop me a line. Next 
month I will take a closer look at some 
of the features of a typical DOS. 



You may contact Mr. Steiner at 508 
Fourth Avenue NW, Riverside, ND 58078. 



JMCRO 



Tech EciTur 

FOR INTERNATIONAL 
MICROCOMPUTER MAGAZINE 

If you have the following qualifications, 
contact us now! 



• Excellent writing and editing skills 

• Knowledge of assembly language 

• Experience with Atari or TRS-80 

Coloi Computer 

• Familiarity with Pascal or FORTH 

(optional) 

Join an enthusiastic editorial staff 
covering the exciting microcom- 
puter field. Friendly 
environment, new offices in 
southern New Hampshire. Send 
your resume to John Grow, 
Publisher, MICRO, P.O. Box 
6502, Chelmsford, MA 01824. 



It Pays to Write for MICRO 

Get paid for your ideas: write for MICRO! 
Thousands of people read MICRO every month. 
MICRO is sold in computer stores and on 
newsstands worldwide. Send for a copy of our 
Writer's Guide now. Our author payment rate is 
competitive with the leading magazines in the 
industry. 

We welcome articles on any aspect of 6502/ 
6809/68000 hardware and software for the 
Apple, Atari, CBM/PET, TRS-80 Color Computer, 
VIC, OSI, 6809, or 68000. 

1983 Features: 

May — Wave of New Computers 

June — Operating Systems 

July — Hardware 

August — Word Processing 

September — Education 

October — Programming Techniques 

November — Games 

December — New Microprocessors 

Send material to Editor, MICRO, P.O. Box 6502, 
Chelmsford, MA 01824. 



24 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MAROONED! 

And youre the quarry 
for the Questers! 



Youre marooned in a derelict 
space station trapped between the 
stars. Waiting for rescue. 

But. you may never make it. The 
deadly space Questers have located 
you and are ready to attack. Your 
first line of defense is to close the 
space ports on A Deck before you're 
overrun, then use the Teleportation 
chamber to head them off on the 
other decks. 

As you navigate the lonely corri- 
dors . . turning here, hiding there, 
attacking or retreating, the swarms 
of Questers get faster and smarter! 

There's no other game like Spec- 
tre. Deck after deck, yoiill find the 
most challenging and original 3-D 
maze action ever! 

Get SPECTRE now. only S29.95 for 
the Apple II * at your computer store. 



8943 Fullbnght Ave.. 

Chatsworth. CA 91311 (213) 709-1202 



Com 



mm- 












im 



mm 



mmr 






■Hi 



SSH 






B&S€»%affi 









26i 






IF 




Industry analysts, like their counter- 
parts in economics, have to eat their 
predictions. 

The market for most home com- 
puters fell so short of 3-year-old fore- 
casts that, until recently, they called 
the "home" computer a misnomer, 
some concluding that there is no 
market for home computers. 

Caught between the "video game 
gold rush" and the yet-to-come "home 
banking and teleshopping revolutions," 
what are we to think about the infor- 
mation society and the micro-on-every- 
desk predictions? What has become of 
the visionaries who a few years ago 
predicted that the eighties would usher 
in a truly participatory democracy 
where every home would be plugged in- 
to not only Pac Man and the boob tube, 
but the World Brain, as well? 

Electronic lobbying, on-line com- 
munity organizing, horizontal manage- 
ment, and "People's" data bases were 
supposed to be up and running by 1983. 
Technologically, the potential is here, 
the Utopians insist, but the leadership 
is not. 

Separating fact from wish fulfill- 
ment, the predictions may be right 
about the hardware part of the revolu- 
tion at least. However "unplugged" we 
may be as networkers intellectually 
and politically, the tools of social 
change are finally proliferating. 
Estimates for under-$500 home com- 
puters show that in 1983 the market is 
exploding; it should be over $1 billion 
this year. 

"Eight million computer terminals 
will be in use in American homes by 
the end of this decade, many linked by 
information networks to businesses 
and other data bases," according to J.S. 
Mayo of Bell Labs. "The nature and 
location of work and education will 
thus be dramatically transformed. 
Eventually, the home/ work/ study 
center may replace the classroom and 
the office for a great many people." 

Perhaps, but currently less than 5% 
of all personal computers sold are con- 
nected into any type of network, accor- 
ding to market research surveys. This 
backs up the industry assumption that 
current micro users could hardly care 
less about the personal improvement 
issues of electronic togetherness; 
they're into games. What, then, will 
drive the interactive and networking 
potential? 

Theory One 

The Home 

The answer can be found by looking 

No. 59- April 1983 



at the national investment, all cor- 
porate, in what is called "videotex." If 
you have a TV set or monitor, a 
telephone, and a connecting micro [bet- 
ter it be a black box with a few buttons 
saying YES, NO, BUY IT, CHARGE 
IT], that is called videotex. Major in- 
vestors in videotex, such as Warner- 
Amex, Time Inc., CBS, Knight Ridder, 
have based their development on the 
assumption that the public will be in- 
terested only in "consumer" uses of in- 
formation. They are convinced that 
now only entertainment (video games) 
and, later, teleshopping and home 
video banking are what the information 
revolution is all about. 

According to one think tank, Inter- 
national Resource Development of 
Norwalk, Connecticut, one in four 
U.S. households will have installed in- 



However 

"unplugged" we may 

be as netwoikers 

intellectually and 

politically, the tools 

of social change are 

finally proliferating. 



tegrated video terminals and micros 
capable of accessing outside informa- 
tion by 1990. However, the informa- 
tion will consist simply of news, enter- 
tainment and transaction services. 
Modem-connected terminals, capable 
as they are of electronic mail and inter- 
personal networking, will be used pri- 
marily for consumption of advertising, 
news, and teleshopping, according to 
IRD and their clients, AT&T, GTE, 
etc., who are "racing to complete trials 
of new interactive home information." 
Just how interactive is this revolu- 
tionary technology brought to us by Ma 
Bell and the corporate providers? It will 
enable (and I quote IRD) "the customer 
to use his TV screen as an 'electronic 
catalogue' on which he can view prod- 
ucts and then place his order for 
them." So much for Ma Bell. 

MICRO 



Communications 

Theory Two 

The Office 

It's not the home users that will 
drive the network information market- 
place,- it's the serious users of informa- 
tion and computer-mediated communi- 
cations. This school of thought is backed 
by billions of dollars of vendor adver- 
tising and editorials in countless jour- 
nals. Whether your office is downtown, 
on campus, or at home, that's the place 
for plugging into information power. 

A recent article in Personal Com- 
puting entitled ' 'Networking: A Power- 
ful Tool for Personal Communication' ' 
catches the eye as you browse the 
newsstand. Pulse rising, you grab the 
magazine and read the subtitle: ' 'It may 
be the most important trend on the 
horizon of personal computing." On 
the first page you read: "No longer will 
an individual computer be limited to 
its own data resources and computing 
power; information can be shared 
quickly, amplified, and amended at 
will by computer users who might 
otherwise have to wait for a weekly or a 
monthly meeting to make the same 
exchange." 

Right on. At last it's being spelled 
out in print. But wait, the very next 
sentence says: ' 'A local area network is 
what makes the power of personal com- 
puting for businesses and professionals 
seem real and practical." 

For those who don't know what a 
local area network is, it means the 
latest in office automation efficiencies; 
machines "talking" to other machines, 
no matter how incompatible. But the 
incompatibility lies not in the 
machines themselves; technological 
advances are taking care of that prob- 
lem rapidly. Senior executives simply 
see no compelling reason to have 
micros on their desks. Whether or not 
they are cyberphobe | afraid of compu- 
ters) or technophobe (can't wait, can't 
type), the tried and true ways to com- 
municate are safer and more artistic, 
suiting the style of upper management 
— impulsive and unstructured. 

For years, office automation profes- 
sionals have been trying to woo senior 
management generalists in large organ- 
izations, public and private, to their 
way of thinking. In the seventies, these 
professionals hyped Management Infor- 
mation Systems, but they flopped — 
strictly for the technical, DP types. 
Resurfacing as proponents of Decision 
Support or IRM (Information Resource 
Management), they have had no less 
trouble. Cybernetic missionaries in a 
pagan land, their ways of improving ex- 

27 



Communications 

ecutive productivity fell on deaf ears. 

Yet, the tide seems to be turning. 
According to Ed Robertson, office auto- 
mation consultant to the major multi- 
national corporations, "We finally 
have the technologies... that fit their 
decision-making style. Number crunch- 
ing, however graphic and analytical, is 
not the grabber. Sophisticated ways to 
communicate with a wider Old Boys 
Network, beyond what they're used to 
trusting, is what will get them in the 
water." He adds a caveat: "Only a 
handful of corporations are managing 
information at the top less crudely. It 
will take a few years. In the mean- 
while, please don't use the word 
'workstation' for CEO offices. At least 
not to their faces." 



Theory 3 

Enterprise 

If it is not the enlightened home or 
the liberated office that will be the first 
to drive the network information mar- 
ketplace in the next generation [two to 
three years), then what will? 

Although we can see where the ob- 
stacles are at the top and the bottom of 
the power structure, we have only to 
look at the new wave of micro users to 
see from where the leadership is com- 
ing; the information hungry, the net- 
workers who know they have to unite. 
Revolutionaries? Utopian Socialists? 
Hardly. 

The Third Wave in networking 
comes once again from the entre- 
preneurial "middle" society. The same 
spirit that pioneered the opening of the 
West is motivating the opportunity 
seekers of today. We can see them sur- 
facing in small business, law, accoun- 
ting, education, medicine, and scien- 
tific research. They are people working 
within corporate structures. 

Information foi Profit 

"On-line entrepreneurs of the 
world, unite!" may be the rallying cry 
in a world that is rapidly becoming 
peopled with opportunity seekers 
working on their own to market and 
distribute a wide variety of products and 
services through self-created networks. 

Take the example of two con- 
sultants from Arthur D. Little Manage- 
ment Consultant Firm in Boston who 
were advising clients on electronic 
publishing and the data base business. 
These consultants saw a way to make a 
profit by putting together electronically 
two groups of people who badly needed 
each other: hi-tech corporations and 



techically oriented professionals. Until 
now, the inefficient job market used 
classified advertising as its medium for 
reaching people. 

Robert Kvall and George Sacerdote 
decided to apply their knowledge to 
this one obvious area of interactive 
recruiting, using an on-line service over 
Telenet and Timenet. Last Fall they 
started Connexions, a Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, company offering on- 
line help-wanted advertising. Job 
seekers can create a customized resume 
and send it electronically to the key 
person in the firm in which they are in- 
terested. On the other end, a company 
can tailor an advertisement by asking 
certain questions that will further 
screen the applicants. Only the cor- 
porations that the applicant selects get 
a chance to look at the information. 



"Only a handful 

of corporations 

are managing 

information at the 

top less crudely. 

It will take 

a few years." 

Most of the major corporations in 
New England are advertising largely for 
DP, computer science, or electronic 
engineers through newspaper ads. 
Previously, there was no more efficient 
way. Connexions now makes it possi- 
ble for both advertisers and subscribers 
to find each other and pay mutually for 
the service at each end — with 
anonymity and confidentiality. 

Another successful, on-line, profit- 
able venture is an existing private na- 
tional association that helps small 
businesses. The Small Business Science 
Bureau (SBSB) in Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, has recently established an 
international computer network in con- 
junction with the CompuServe Infor- 
mation Service that allows small busi- 
nesses to send and receive information, 
electronic mail, software, and data. 



A "For Profit" Association 

Members benefit from a wide vari- 
ety of services: volume purchase dis- 
counts for products, supplies and health 
programs, management assistance, and 
new venture start-up assistance. 

Based on a DEC 20 in Worcester, 
and linked to a gateway to the Compu- 
Serve network, a user can send mail to 
the other 35,000 sucbscribers. SBSB 
has made available discounted 
TRS-80s, which include a communica- 
tions package that acts as both a dumb 
terminal and also allows one-key trans- 
mission of electronic mail and simple 
transmission of word processing text. 

According to Harley Goodwin, VP 
for Computer Services at SBSB, 
members will find (and, indeed have 
already found] ingenious ways to make 
and save money through the network. 
Selling the network through cable TV 
franchises is one; transmitting direct 
mail lists is another. "We are collec- 
tively putting technology to work for 
small business and the opportunities 
are endless." 

Business Opportunities Network 

Another computerized network 
creating business leads and bringing op- 
portunities together is International 
Business Opportunities of Woodland 
Valley, California. IBO collects, 
screens, and evaluates businesses that 
are for sale nationally and services 
would-be investors and buyers. 
Through their own network of 25 
brokers in key cities, potential match- 
ups are referred based on various 
criteria. For example, if a member 
broker in New England uses IBO to find 
a new business in Florida for a buyer, 
and a member broker in Florida finds a 
business that fits the bill, both share 
the commision and pass along a slice to 
IBO. The company not only maintains 
the data base by means of continuous 
search through collective referrals, but 
it provides full service consulting to 
both parties, including venture fi- 
nancing. 

Many entrepreneurs use The Source 
Telecomputing Corp. (Source of Silver 
Springs, MD) and CompuServe Con- 
sumer Information Service for com- 
munication among close user groups 
and for fun and profit. These networks 
continuosly update information of 
broad public appeal, which can be ac- 
cessed by any communications micro 
(dumb or videotex terminal) through 
local telephone calls. Along with other 
"information utility" networks, such 
as Dow Jones or Dialcom, they provide 



28 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



electronic mail and private storage for a 
fee. Data bases are accessed by sub- 
scribers on a time charge basis. The 
Source now refers to these closed 
groups as Private Sectors, and openly 
solicits sponsors or information pro- 
viders and groups to set up on-line DBS 
and electronic mail for publishing ac- 
tivities. The Source will pay royalties 
for the time your people spend on line. 
CompuServe calls them SIGs (Special 
Interests Groups) and publicizes them 
to attract other entrepreneurial group 
organizers. 

These entrepreneurs are harbingers 
of things to come. Like the 1890's Gold 
Rush, the 1980's Information Mine is 
making money for the lease-holders 
(providers), the miners (vendors), and 
those who provide services for the life 
style that results. 

One entrepreneur who does all 
three is Alan Carr, whose company, In- 
formation Inc., is making a profit via 
electronic mail and data base manage- 
ment in a unique way. His company's 
clients are Fortune 1000 companies and 
major industry associations that pay 
him $64 a month per mail box account 
in return for his building and maintain- 
ing an information bank that can be 
easily accessed through The Source 
from anywhere. His clients feed him 
information, internally collected, and 
he gathers information they specify, ex- 
ternally, whereever he can find it. He's 
both an information broker and an elec- 
tronic clipping service. 

The end-products include interroga- 
tive data bases consisting of personal- 
ized material, public opinion, news fea- 
tures, survey highlights, etc. A popular 
service is the Issues Management file, 
the latest industry or corporate posi- 
tions on various issues that manage- 
ment believes affects their organiza- 
tion. In its first year of operation, Infor- 
mation Inc. already has clients spen- 
ding $5,000-$ 10,000 a month for the 
service, depending on the number of 
subscribers the organization supports. 

Information Brokers 

Would-be information brokers, on 
behalf of their clients, can access the 
Dow Jones News Retrieval Service (a 
subset of which can be accesssed on 
The Source and CompuServe) . This ser- 
vice has 60,000 subscribers paying 
$1.20 per prime minute compared to 
The Source's 30,000 at $.35 and 
CompuServe's 40,000 at $.38. 

Two recent entries into horizontal 
on-line information services are The 
Knowledge Index (from Dialogue) and 



After Dark (from BRS). Between 6:00 
p.m. and midnight, for as little as $6 
per hour, any personal computer opera- 
tor with a modem and a password (for a 
$50 registration fee) can access BRS and 
get the same in-depth, wide-ranging 
data files used by BRS Search Service 
subscribers (Fortune 500 corporations 
and reference librarians) . These include 
technical and scientific abstracts, med- 
ical journals, government studies, busi- 
ness indexes, and general wire service 
and daily news. A home computer news- 
letter, electronic mail, shop at home 
service, and an instant software deliv- 
ery service all come with the package. 
The knowledge Index, from 6:00 
p.m. to 5:00 a.m. and weekends, is able 
to scan more than four million entries 
from over 10,00 journals and other pub- 
lications, many updated daily. Compu- 



...fot as little as $6 

pet hour, any 

personal computer 

operator with a 

modem and a 

password can access 

the same data files 

used by Fortune 500 

corporations. 



ters, electronics, engineering, law, 
medicine, agriculture, business, psy- 
chology, education, and a wide range of 
information from newspapers, maga- 
zines, and government publications are 
included. You don't get the full arti- 
cles, only an abstract or summary. The 
Knowledge Index will take, on line, 
orders for printed copies of the full text 
of the articles. Any combination of key 
words plus any other words, phrases, or 
numbers that appear in titles, abstracts, 
author listings, etc., can be used for 
searching. This raises the search 
capability of finding specific informa- 
tion beyond that of the conventional 
information utilities. Connecting 
words (AND, OR, NOT) enable you to 
zero in on a topic and find the abstracts 
of articles dealing with the effects of 
coffee, sailing in the Straights of 



■■■ Communications | 

Georgia, wind power as an investment, 
and the effects of stress on managers. 

Videotex and Teletex 

In addition to the major networking 
services, there are videotex and teletex 
companies offering information over 
the phone lines and through cable TV. 
This information is thin news and 
shopping information and has the ad- 
vertiser in mind, not the consumer. 
Teletex offers strictly one-way com- 
munication transmitted into the TV 
set. In some instances you can call up a 
page and it appears on the TV screen. 
But you can't go back and find addi- 
tional information beyond what's in 
the system. On the other hand, videotex 
is interactive; you can request infor- 
mation and it is searched and produced. 

With ever more valuable, search- 
able, and specific information services 
coming on line, the market for them is 
growing rapidly. Yet it comprises less 
than a third of personal computer 
owners and a tiny fraction of the poten- 
tial population. As this changes, new 
opportunities are springing up almost 
daily for those who are discovering that 
properly mined, refined, and packaged 
information is money. 

Theory E says that enterprise is 
what will stimulate the network infor- 
mation marketplace in the eighties. 

Are you ready? 

How do you get an information net- 
work started? First find a large, active 
group that needs to communicate reg- 
ularly. They may now have a news- 
letter, publish a calendar or bulletin 
board, or have an organization that acts 
as a clearing house for information. 
Each person should probably have a 
private network on a dial-up system. 
Members can have confidential elec- 
tronic mail and develop data bases, and 
they can have a window to the outside 
world and access the popular data bases 
as well. The network bills the members 
and will either send you a royalty or 
you can charge for the content. 

Communications Strategies in New 
York is developing a cooperative start- 
up venture firm to help launch such en- 
terprises. Dial them at (212) 684-0534. 
Another source for advice is IncN et. 
Started by Inc. Magazine for medium- <T 
size business owners, the network is 
currently operating on The Source and 
Dialcom. So far, it's been an electronic 
cocktail party because of the lack of 
leadership. But it could become a hot- 
bed of entrepreneruial activity if it gets 
organized. IncNet operates on a new^ 



Ur 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



29 



Communications ^^H 

computer conferencing software called 
PARTICIPATE from Participation Sys- 
tems Inc. (PSI) of Winchester, MA. 

Beyond Electronic Mail 

PSI's founder, Chandler Harrison 
Stevens, is associated with the Center 
for Information Systems Research at 
MIT. Stevens has long been an ad- 
vocate of Many-to-Many Communica- 
tions, his term for the key difference 
between computer conferencing (CC) 
and other forms of electronic mail 
(Telex, facsimile, computer-based mes- 
saging, voice store, and forward]. 
What's the difference? 

Electronic mail simply provides 
electronic delivery of fairly ordinary 
memos that are typed in at one end and 
come out at the other, or are placed in 
queue behind other preceding mes- 
sages. CC allows complex interactions 
among a group of people by storing the 
communications on a system, in one 
place. Any part of the "discussion" can 
be retrieved at will. You can recon- 
struct an ongoing "meeting" or cor- 
respondence at any time and make 
comments about specific parts. Many 
conferences can be held simultaneously, 
each serving a different purpose, each 
stored in its own place on the system. 

"The single file, lock-step delivery 
of electronic mail doesn't permit this 
kind of multi-layered group commun- 
ication, ' ' explains Tom Cross of Cross 
Communications in Boulder, Color- 
ado. "For the first time, we can begin 
to really track the progress of a project 
from inception to completion, allowing 
software management, new staff, or 
observers to participate at any point 
along the way." 

Only a small number of corpora- 
tions, government agencies, and non- 
profit organizations are using computer 
conferencing. For instance, the 
nation's electric utilities and nuclear 
equipment suppliers use CC to share 
experiences and update one another on 
proposed regulations flowing out of 
Washington since the Three Mile 
Island incident. 

Ron Simard of the Electric Power 
Research Institute in Palo Alto, Califor- 
nia, has organized CC for the Interna- 
tional Nuclear Power Organization |IN- 
POJ. He claims his is the largest CC in 
the world: over five hundred people 
globally. "Subject matter ranges from 
operating plant experiences and prob- 
lems, their implications and what to do 
about them immediately, to govern- 
ment regulation and how to respond," 
says Simard. 



30 



Electronic Jungle Drums 

The Bechtel Corportation is using 
CC to help manage several massive 
construction projects around the world. 
One is in the deepest jungles of New 
Guinea where the largest gold mine in 
the world was found, along with copper 
and other valuable minerals. According 
to Susan Winterstein, coordinator of 
the project, "The communications be- 
tween jungle, the managing office in 
Australia, and our headquarters here in 
San Francisco would have been a night- 
mare without computer conferencing. 
In addition, new people coming on to 
the project can be quickly updated by 
retrieving previous entries," she said. 

Patricia Pfifer of United Technol- 
ogies, and ex-telecommunications spe- 
cialist for AT&T, refers to the research 
on cost-effectiveness of teleconfer- 



PROPHET, a large 
timesharing service, 

is the central 

software link that 

makes possible 

several joint medical 

projects now going on 

at different locations. 



encing: "Our studies show that one 
dollar of teleconferencing equals four 
dollars of face-to-face meetings and 
travel." Citing the fact that white- 
collar workers are the least watched in 
industry in terms of productivity, the 
AT&T study concluded that 50% of all 
business conducted could be through 
teleconferencing. "It should be, too," 
Pfifer adds. She cites these advatages: 
1 . Computer conferencing saves time, 
not just money |35% reduction in 
time to achieve the same results). 
2. It's convenient. Everyone can follow 
up on meetings, receive new poli- 
cies, facts, and product information 
simulataneously; new people may 
be added to the conference as needed 
without briefing; colleagues who 
would not normally attend the 
meeting can participate later. 

MICRO 



3. It forces discipline (better listening, 
preparedness, priortizing) . The study 
showed that CC enhances informa- 
tion exchange, briefings, decision- 
making, problem-solving, and set- 
tling differences of opinion. More 
human than paper, CC makes possi- 
ble personal support at many levels 
of the organization. 

Scientists Collaborate 

Computers are changing the way 
scientists communicate. PROPHET, a 
large timesharing service sponsored by 
NTH (Biotechnology Resources Pro- 
gram) is the central software link that 
makes possible several joint medical 
projects now going on at different loca- 
tions. Maintained by Bolt, Branek, and 
Newman (BBN) of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, PROPHET allows the re- 
searchers to transmit results to investi- 
gators elsewhere via ARPANET, the 
research and development network 
sponsored by the government's Ad- 
vanced Research Projects Agency. In 
addition to instant dissemination, it 
allows the researcher to produce three- 
dimensional models of molecules and 
run statistical analyses. 

In the Crystal Ball 

What's ahead for the micro revolu- 
tion? To date, what's happening in the 
home and the office (Pac Man, Visi- 
Calc) is hardly going to change our 
lives; it's what going to happen that 
will. Theory 3 (or E for Enterprise) will 
drive the PC home market as much as 
all the other incentives (besides enter- 
tainment] put together, if the current 
trend accelerates apace. Electronic cot- 
tage industries, as well as electronic 
publishing by national and regional as- 
sociations, are springing up so fast that 
venture capitalists are swamped with 
investment opportunities. 

On the office front, local area net- 
works and electronic mail are coming 
into use and will change the way execu- 
tives communicate. Whether this will 
contribute to the Information Society 
or the Misinformation Society is up to 
the executives, not the technology. 



Bradley "Pete" Coley is founder of 
Communications Strategies. His firm 
consults to information technology 
companies and new ventures. You may 
contact him at B.L. Coley Public 
Relations, 533 Second Ave., New York, 
NY 10016. 



JMCAO 

No. 59 -April 1983 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Communications 

A Not-So-Dumb Terminal 

Program for the SuperPET 

by Terry M. Peterson 




Turn the Commodore SuperPET into 
a smart terminal for a mainframe with 
this 6502 machine-language program. 
The program uses the 6551 ACIA 
serial port of the SuperPET for 
RS-232 I/O and requires no external 
hardware. 



Probably the PET's most endearing 
feature is its convenient screen editor. 
After I became familiar with this 
editor, I found ordinary line-oriented 
text editors all but impossible to use. I 
felt especially frustrated when using 
the PET as a dumb terminal to a time- 
shared computer. Obviously the screen 
editor is still in there — but how do you 
use it? Before the advent of the Super- 
PET I made several attempts to tap this 
resource in programs designed to work 
with IEEE RS-232 interfaces, but the 
results were never satisfying. When I 
saw the built-in RS-232 port of the 
SuperPET that uses the 6551 ACIA, I 
knew the marriage of the PET screen 
editor and my time-share system was 
at hand. 

This article describes a 6502 RS-232 
terminal program that sends edited 
lines to a host computer using the PET 
screen editor and the SuperPET's 6551 
ACIA. SMARTERM handles conver- 
sion of PET-ASCII to true ASCII, as 
well as control and BREAK characters. 
The program has an optional character- 
by-character mode for use with remote 
screen editors and for other cases when 
line-by-line mode is undesirable. I've 
tied the program into the PET's 60 Hz 
jiffy IRQ interrupt for the input of 
characters from the host computer, so 
unexpected input isn't lost. This IRQ 



patch also allows you to enter from the 
keyboard, the 8032 special screen for- 
matting characters and send control 
and BREAK characters. The program 
does not buffer characters input from 
the RS-232 port; such buffering is un- 
necessary for operation up to |at least) 
2400 baud as long as the host computer 
can be made to send several nulls after 
each carriage return. At 300 baud even 
the nulls are unnecessary. 

The 6551 ACIA makes the program- 
mer's job very easy. This chip takes 
care of trapping characters at the serial 
port and decoding them into an 8-bit 
parallel buffer called the received-data 
register. The programmer only has to 
establish such things as the baud rate, 
parity, and duplexing — and to fetch 
the bytes from the received-data 
register before they are overwritten by 
the next character. Sending characters 
is even easier — merely POKE the data 
into the transmit-data register and 
wait for the 6551 to signal that it has 
finished sending. 

To the 6502 or 6809 in the Super- 
PET, the 6551 appears as the four mem- 
ory registers $EFF0 through $EFF3. 
$EFF0 acts as the receive- or transmit- 
data register depending on whether it is 
PEEKed or POKEd. $EFF1 is the status 
register. It indicates the following: 
status of the receive and transmit 



registers; occurrence of parity, framing, 
and over-run errors; and the status of 
the RS-232 control lines DCD and 
DSR. It also contains an IRQ flag (bit 
7). If $EFF1 is POKEd with anything 
the 6551 is reset (i.e., turned off). 
$EFF2 is called the command register. 
Most of its bits determine the mode of 
operation of the 6551 with respect to 
the microprocessor, but some are used 
to set the RS-232 parity option. $EFF3, 
the control register, is used to set the 
655 l's RS-232 operation with respect 
to baud rate, word length, and number 
of stop bits. Table 1 shows the bit set- 
tings for the various modes determined 
by the control and command registers, 
as well as the bit arrangement of the 
status register. For further information 
on the 6551, I recommend the data 
sheets found in the Synertek 1981-1982 
Data Catalog. 

Listing 1 shows the assembler 
source for the terminal program. I have 
provided extensive comments in the 
listing, so I will give only a rough 
outline of the program operation here. 
(The names in parentheses give the 
label on the source code line that 
begins the section described. | The first 
part of the program (START) is a sub- 
routine that revectors the IRQ through 
the received-character detect code, sets 
the necessary 6551 registers, and 
enables the 6551 IRQ interrupt. If 
desired, the RTS at the end of this part 
may be omitted in order to fall directly 
into the main program loop instead of 
returning to the calling routine 
(BASIC). 

Next is the main program loop 
(INLOOP) that handles characters from 
the keyboard. After the main loop 
follows (QUIT), the code that restores 
the IRQ vector and resets the 6551. 
Next is (CHARINJ, the subroutine to 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



31 



Communications 



fetch characters from the keyboard. 
Note that this subroutine alerts the 
user of char-by-char operation by a non- 
flashing cursor. (The complication in 
the code here is setting/ clearing con- 
trol mode for char-by-char output.) 
Then comes (TSTIRQ), the IRQ vector 
patch code to trap 6551 IRQ's followed 
by (INCHR), the code to convert 
incoming characters to PET-ASCII and, 
optionally, to display control codes 
as reversed-field letters. Next is 



(CTRLTB), a table of the PET-ASCII 
equivalents for ASCII control codes. 
Finally there is (KEYTST), the post- 
jiffy interrupt code that examines each 
keystroke to test for special screen 
formatting, control (reverse), and 
BREAK (STOP) keys. Notice that 
BREAK is always "live" — that is, 
even in line-by-line mode the BREAK 
character is sent while the 'STOP' key 
is held down. 

Listing 2 shows a sample BASIC 



Bit(s) 



1 
2-3 



4 
5-7 



Bit(s) 
0-3 



4 

5-6 
7 



Bit(s) 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



Command Register ($EFF2) 
Function 

Data Terminal Ready (1 = DTR true &. rcvr enabled) 
Receiver IRQ Enable (0 = enabled) 
Transmitter Control 

00 = IRQ disabled, RTS false, Xmitter off 

01 = IRQ enabled, RTS true, Xmitter on 
10= IRQ disabled, RTS true, Xmitter on 
11= IRQ disabled, RTS true, Xmit BREAK 
Echo mode (1= echo received chars.) 
Parity Control 

XX0 = ignore parity 

001= odd parity 

011= even parity 

101 = xmit '1' parity bit, ignore on received data 

111 = xmit '0' parity bit, ignore on received data 



Control Register($EFF3) 



Function 

"Urate 

0000 = use external generator (not impl. on SuperPET) 
n 



BAUD rate 



0001 = 

0010 = 

0011 = 

0100 = 

0101 = 

0110 = 

0111 = 
1000 = 



50 

75 

109.92 
134.58 
150 
300 
600 
1200 



1001 = 

1010 = 

1011 = 

1100 = 

1101 = 
1110 = 

mi 



1800 
2400 
3600 
4800 
7200 
9600 
19200 



J.UUVJ = l^UU 1111= 17iUU 

Receiver clock (1 = internal gen.) 

Word length 00,01,10,11 = 8,7,6,5 bits respectively 

Stop bits 0,1 = 1,2 stop bits (but see data sheet) 



Status Register ($EFF1) 
Function 

Parity error (1= error) 

Framing error (1= error) 

Overrun error (1 = error) 

Received data (l = true) 

Transmitted data (l=true) 

(not)DCD (echos pin level, usu. inv. of RS232) 

(not)DSR (as DCD) 

IRQ ( 1 = interrupt requested) 



calling program. Note that this pro- 
gram could be modified to send a log-in 
sequence between the two SYSs. 

If you have machine-language ex- 
perience and the inclination you could 
easily extend the terminal program. For 
example, to add a disk log of your ter- 
minal session, take the following steps: 
1 . Add two JSR $FFD2's to the machine 
language (one just after the line labeled 
INLOOP and the other between 
CHA100 and JMP $E202), 2. OPEN a 
disk file in the BASIC calling program, 
and 3. CMD the disk file just before the 
final SYS into SMARTERM. (This pro- 
cedure will work even at high baud 
rates!) To up-load disk files to the 
mainframe, OPEN the disk file, per- 
form the first SYS, and then GET* 
bytes from the file, POKE them into 
61424, WAIT 61425,16, and loop. Of 
course this looping could be speeded up 
if it were implemented in machine 
language: add an ST check to the main 
loop and SYS to the sequence LDX 
#lfn/TSR $FFC6/JMP INLOOP after 
OPENing the disk file #lfn in BASIC. 



Terry Peterson performs photovoltaic cell 
research at Chevron Research Company. 
He first used PETs at work to control and 
collect data from various laboratory 
experiments. Now addicted, he writes 
utility-type software and articles about the 
PET, CBM, SuperPET, VIC, C64, etc. He 
may be contacted at 8628 Edgehill Ct., El 
Cerrito, CA 94530. 



FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE 

THE LISTINGS FOR 

SMARTERM FOLLOW ON 

THE NEXT THREE 

RIGHT HAND PAGES 



I 

8 
1 



32 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Communications 



S3 





t 










3 




* 












































4J 










a 


HI 


UJ 










































> c 


H 










c 


u 


li. 










































u 


XI 


in 








« 


c 


li- 










































L 




+j 













# 










































L 


■a 


a 








XI 




































+i 








c>- 


*3 +J 




L 








HI 


rn 


'■ 


L 






























3 








L 




> 


+J 








+J 




HI 


HI 







































HI 


v E 


u 


C 


a 






■H 


m 


in +j 






























HI 










■H X 


L 




CC 






■a 




•H 


u 








L 








■ 


4J 




HI 








E 








L 


E £ 












n 


HI 


2 


li 






L 


01 








u 


H 




L 






CM 


-r4 




XI 




L 


:< u -. 


C 


■5 






u 


I 


c 


L 


L 


f- 







4- 








■ 


XI 




It 






1- 


4i 




c 




IB 


QJ 4. 













c 




HI 


ill 


L 




in 


u c- 






r- 








£. 












HI 




U 


> 4- 




L 


in 




a] 


HI 


rH 


£ 


£ 


I 




L 


it hi 


L 




L 




+J 


m 


m 






+J 


CM 




in 






+J 


a 


> 


in 




<i 


ai 




+J 


U 


r 




3 


l. -M 


HI 




HI 


>-H 


4- 


in i. 


. HI 




^^ 


L 


H 








11 


■n c 


CC 


u 


-0 




IS 


L 


XI 


□ 


1 


u 




u 


in o 


■M r 




r- jj 


•H 


-,4 


V HI 


> E 




in 


IB 






L 




> 


L 3 




L 








U 


HI 




> 


i 






£ a 


c -u 




rH +1 


■ U 


x: 


L +J 


L "' 




E 


4J 


L 









IB 


IB «(£ 






c 







US 


+J 


« 


J] 


> 




C 


u cr 


■H 




a m 


u in 


m « 


HI U 


IB +J 




in 


in 







>4- 




r 


a rn m 


m 


ai 


□ 




+j 




n 


00 


1 


XI 




□ 




i. c 




n « 


. <t 


in 


in <t> 


in 




IN 




4- 










oj 












in 


XI 


CN 


L 


I 






m +J 


a. <f c- 




E 


j ^ 


am 


C L 


HI XI 






o3 






J£ 


r- 


_i 


C E -P 


J3 


xi 


c 




j: 




HI 


»h 


HI 


L 




c 


■rl 


+j 




> 


HI 


■^ -0 


^ <t 


HI HI 




■ 




4J 




U 


HI 


-i in 


01 L. H 


m 


t) 


L 




u 


H 




V 


+J 


li 




L 


4J 


»+l -r^ 




in in u 


- .X 


L 


£ 


U X 




IB 


+J 


■n 




HI 


c 


rt HI 


> E 


c 


c 


3 




IV 


UI 


C 


UJ 


u 


£ 


a 


3 


hi m 


HI 3 




\ HI . 


H 


4J 


a u 


HI HI 




U 


HI 


IB 




r 


□ 


V > 


HI C x 


ai 


ai -u 




n 


a. 


« 


Q 

a 

£ 


IB 


U 


c 


+J 


01 .H 


c cn cr 




* >-. 


c e 


in -u 




□ c 
» HI 


C -i 

a 

in « 




w 


m 


2 




u 


XI 


c in 


1 1 1 


i 


i 






(ft 


in 


XI 


11 




































1 1 1 


\ 


x 








HI 


c 


I r 




















HI 


L +J 


















1 1 x 






rH 






in 


11 


u 


u 




















> I 


m ^ 


















I x 


\ 




o 






3 


a 
























UJ 4J 


HI 3 


















X X 




x 


5 










4- 


xi 




















H HI 


a £ 


















X 


\ 





































HI XI 


a 
























q 






a. *" 




01 


UJ 


a. 


CL 


z 


o z 




O 


o 




XI 


<1 HI 










o 






O Cl 




\ 


s 


^ 


CM 











in 


a 


o 


_l 


•-< 


o •-< 




o 


in 


o 


HI 


r. 






in 


Q 


-0 


v^ 




o a 








^ 


li. 







IL 


z 




□ 


o 


u. 


cc 


-i CC Ki 


H 


« IN CO 


^ o 


u. u. 


C E 


+J -u 


■ 


o 


■»■ 


t 


CM 


Li. 


o 


MOO 








o 






1— 1 


u 


CL 


a 


z 


j 


cn 


<r = 


_i<r « 


*— i 


■»■ _l IT1 


_l CM 


IX u. 


c ■-< 


HH 


01 


in 


00 


00 


_J 


li. 


M 


-1 IN -1 








N 


UJ 






X 


D 


•fj 


i 


z 


CC 


X . 


ZI»D*Z»Z»»UJ 


- -u 


c 


in 


K> 


LU 


LU 


z 


UI 


• Z * Z 








# 


(ft 




4» 


Li. 


H 




u 


>-• 


u 


u * 


« u * 


G 


* M * 


M * 


* » 


1 


. 


3 


# 


« 


« 




• * 


•-I * « 














3 


# 


LU 


XI 




















XI 


+J 
























<r 


<r 


ID 


a 




CC 


HI 


H 


_l 


CC 


cc a. 


uj cc a. a 


a. u cl tn u 


a <t 


rf It 


3 +-' 


i-i 


a: 


<t 


H 


u 


=x 


a 


a a a 








Q 


H 


(- 


c 


HI 




rH 


^H 


0. 


cn 


cn £ 


zcnr 


UJ 


E CJ E 


U Q 


z H 


r- HI 


a in 




Q 


H 


t-i 


> 


Q 


z 


LU Z UI 








-_l 


CD 


CC 


■H 


L" 




rH 


in 


HI 


n 


r> u 


en n u 


CO 


u m u co <x <i ui 


o xi 


+j n 


E 


_l 


tn 


a 


CD 


_i <r co <r co 
















H 


L 


Oi 




















4- 


3 HI 


01 




























c 


+J 


HI 


U 


^h 






Cl 






o 




o o 


01 


- 


4J 






o 




o 


















■H 


3 


4J 




H 






O 






o 




in o 


HI E 




III 






-0 




o 


















H 





4- 


m 


CC 






o 






•-H 




« n 


£ 


C -M 


>• 






CM 




Ki 


















£ 


L 


« 


,,H 


<r 






_l 
z 






_J 
z 




_i -i 
z z 


h in 


IB 


in 






_J 

z 




Z 






1*. •*• ir. 


•« 


„ 








■ft 


'" 


... 


■'■ 


cn 






M 






M 




M l-H 












»-l 




t— i 









ib a 


XI 


u m 


L 


l-H 


IB 


4J 




m -i 


n 


<B 


IC 


-i E 




II L 




CM 


u 


n c 


L 


•~ 


u 


HI 


+J 


1- L 


in 


cn o 


HI 


4J 


L 


+j m 




HI u 



3 

§ 



n 


C) 


ir 


i-i 


t-i 


in 




<r 




IXI 


U) 




m 


n 


-0 


+j 


a 


_^ 





u 



HI 









i. 






L 









> 1 ~ Z 
Li_ U- II. +j 


x: 


-0 




U. '-■ [L -* [L HI 


rp 


Ih 




h l>m a- u ^ 


-I 


nt 




r> «■ ^3 # # 


n 








L 


<i 


i— i 


^<r<r<E=i i - , !ir) m 


X 


i- 


UI 


QHQHH-lH+J 


+J 


i/i 


UJ 


jtn jsitnu k u 



s 

DC 
UI 

(- 

DC 

< 

S 
CO 



0- CM 
»0 LL 



0* Q O 
a O -0 



-OE>0*a*0*Cf>0*C0LU LLU - LLlJ - 
q QQQQQQQQQ° a ?? 



Q Q 

ix ^ 



fi f'i u. ^ r-i x <r kj »- -i 

QOKHOjJ-PJif 



00 CO CM O LL O 



CM -i "M M U Q M U LL CJ l> CJ CD O N CD 



LL^rO-OCbCOQON^'MDCDctCJUJO 

w cm m cm cj n cinnni'innnnir 

QQQQQQQQaQQQQQaa 

r^rxf^K^rxfxrNfxNrxr^rxrxNix 















m 


m 




u 






















LU 


Ld 




UJ 




















O 


in 


Q 


CO 


rt 


r-t 


Cl- 




LU 












Hi 


o- 


■»■ 


Li. 


LL 


11 


UL 


LM 


U 












0- 


Q 


ri 


,-, 


a 


i> 


,-, 


i> 


<- , 












<l 0) CM ld 


<i 


CM 


Ll 


CM 


u. 


fl 


to 


M 


V) Yl 


n 


in 


m 


CO 


a 




M 


* 


•n 


* 


* 


* 


t 


t 


* 


* 


V 


5t 


t 


in 


III 


in 


hi 


Q O 


a 


a 


a 


a 


Q 


a 


p 


14 


Q 


U 


Q 


a 


N 


X 


N 


N 


N 


N 


N 


N 


|x 


|x 


N 


N 


^ 


N 



-o no-o-iH 
a- co o- co o- u. 

\n oo a in a in a CD o 
ooixcooaooiGin-o 

oo co co i m ui o n m co o- <i 
ininnLnmm-0-o.o-o.a <i 
aQaaQQqaQQa a 

KfxxrxxNXIXNXX rx 







OJ 






a 


































































E 


01 




* 


i 
































































■B 


c 


a 




+j 






r. 




HI 








■ 










L 




















L 
















L 


+j 


IH 


c 


3 






x 




3 




HI 




A 


oi 


a 


XI 









1- 








C 








HI 
















4- 




u 











N 




L 




XI 


in 


o 


X 


+j 


c 








cr 








L 








4- 
















C 


M- 


<I 


H 






n 


I-t 




■p 






L 


r4 


4J 











in 


u 


+J 






3 




G 




4- 










t 






H 


a 




-iJ 


HI 


L 












> 


HI 


CM 




o> 


u 




cr 


HI 







> 




4- 








3 










4J 

tn 






IB 




01 


US 


L 





□ 











01 


+J 




cn 


c 


11 




i 


in 


HI 


c 


XI 




11 




cn 




XI 




cn 










E 


L 


x: 


u 


IB 


4J 


4J 


in 




+J 




E 


41 


rH 


c 


-rl 


in 




r-t 


3 


£ 








L 




cr 








r-^ 






HI 

41 








a 


+j 







K> 




c 










HI 


01 


<rt 


T) 






a 


01 


+> 


HI 


+J 








CO 




> 




4- 










it 


v 




rH 


in 


L 


+J 


w 








in 


^-t 


e 


a 


C 


IB 




L 


u 




L 


c 




IB 








HI 


4J 






L 




CM 






r4 


E 




L 


HI 


3 


n 




M 




L 




H 


> 


a 






4J 




C 


>B 


11 








E 




^ 


C 


. 




HI 


4i 

3 
a 


CD 




£ 


XI 





C 


11 


a 


a-M 




fl 




m xi 


u 


+j 


axj 




C 


> 







III 




in 











rl 


L 


11 


4- 


\ 




+• 


HI 


L 


HI 


+J 





c 


c 


i 


u 




+j 


W-* 


m 




in 


c 







11 




01 






HI 




L 




c 


L 


01 


X) 


4- 


ill 




-w 




^+- 


r 


U 




.h 


a 


■a 


tn 




u 


HI 


XI 


> 


u 


IB 




u 


^ 


L 


in 


11 




m 




4- 


o> 


-r| 


ax: 





3 


c 


CM 




J 


c 




3 


it 


HI 




u 


HI 


<r 




IB 


-rl 


— 


XI 


L 






ft 




It 


HI 


XI 




3 






IB 






u 


E 


XI 


\ 






11 


m 




L 


X 


in 




a 






i. 


H- 






L 


r. 


■ 




r. 


Hi 


X 






IB 




+J 


r-t 


m 


L 










rx 




c 


11 


L 


• 


Hi 


*j 


0) 


ro 


>E 




it 




CM 


V 





^v 


HI 


01 


tn 


a+j 


>- 




U 




U 


4- 


L 


'Jl 


rH 


4J 


C 


L 
HI 









L 


HI 


c 


r 






a 


+J 


CO 




x: 


11 


Q 


3 


U 


in 


XI 




> 


a 




IB 


^. 






01 




IB 


|_ 


L 


3 




4- 




r< 


U 


+J 


HI 


u 


L 


4J 


» 




u 




u 


in 


» 


a 




•^ 


TJ CC 


m 


4J 


e 


■ 


» 




+J 


>-£ 


U 


4J 


a 







c 


+J 


HI 


U 


> 




01 


in 




c 


'■ 






L 




4J 


^^ 


L 


e 


c 


H 




3 






z 







HI 


U 




c 


+j 


> 


u 







<B 




IB 


<w 


n 


r 


3 


4- 


HI 






,-t 


HI 


c 


3 


in 


HI 




11 







XI 


« 


i 


CC 




L 


^ 




4- 


Ll 


3 


HI 


jB 


in 


in 


in 


c 


L 


L 


CO 


2 


n 


•-I 


x: 


in 


* 


a 


> 








— 


+J 


h 


in 


HI 


+j 




ii 


; 


3 




a 




L 












L 

01 

r 

y 


n 


L 


L 


■•-1 


>B 


XI 


IN 








3 


01 


IB 


L- 


11 


'H 




L 


u 


w-A 




L. 




r 


+j 


^ 


1- 






41 


91 




4< 








HI 


HI 


1 


£. 


1 


-H 


li 


n 


• 




+J 


111 


+J 


L 


+J 


HI 


01 


01 





XI 


+J 


m 


HI 







LU 




+j 


4- 


XI 


HI 


C 


L 


+J 




+J 


> 


+J 


U 


4J 




c 


> XI 


4J 


01 


L 


C 




Oi 


XI 


4J 


L 


L 


rH 




^ 


XI 


3 


n 


CC 




in 


-rl 


E 


XI 




IB 


in 


o 


11 


C 


rH 




a 




■h 


11 


11 


3 


rH 


HI 





in 


u 




4J 


01 


+J 


3 


cn 


L 





a 


I 


N 




3 


r 


3 





L 


r. 


Oi 






u. 





-W 


4- 


3 


in 


rH 


^ 


rH 


a 


in 


> 


u 


Oi 





> 


11 


r 


C 


□ 


c 


01 


e 


-^ 


01 






£ 


m 


Z 


£ 


Cl 


u 


_i 



41 


in 




u 


3 





L 


c 






TJ 


+i 


c 








rH 


01 


r-t 


u 





2 


-rl 


E 






■ 


r. 




■r. 


*>. 




■ r. 


tw 


•r. 










XI 




L. 


H 


01 


h 


c 


3 


IB 


11 


cn 


r- 




E 






u 




m 




«, 


• 


-rl 


K 


















z 


£ 


in 




4J 


HI 


01 




z 


01 





L 


u 


c 


ix 


C 




11 


^ 


n 


n 


in 


11 


rH 


N 




UI 


















L 








2 


11 


3 


+J 


+J 


in 


CC 


r 




+J 


H 


.rl 


u 




m 


r 


a 




cn 


HI 


+J 





M 


r. 


£ 


















\L 


i— 


o r 


a 


c 


c 


^ 


D 




UI 




> 


E 






L 


4J 


L 


HI 


3> 


L 





L 


r-i 


in 


o 
























rH 


4J 


c 


■W 







I— 


a 


<w 







a 


u in 


11 




+J 


x: ir 


Cl 


3 


4J 


in 


HI 


I 


















u 


LU 


> 


rH 




-w 




u 


a 


UI 


■H 




in 


XJ 


u 


r 


in 


4J 


C 


C 


4J 


i—i 




a 


c 


CC 


4J 


ft 


















11 

> 




n 


01 


cn 




in 




l-H 


CC 




L 


rH 


c: 


c 


+j 


CM 


u 


HI 









i 









a 




















H 






c 


11 


h 


-V 


u 




E 


HI 


01 


IB 


.rH 






IB 


£. 


u 


+j 


IB 


L 


XI 


u 


11 


3 


ft 




o 




















E 


rH 


r 




I-t 


<I 




Oi 


+J 








c 


<t 


L 


4J 




rt 




11 


rH 


K 


x: 


cr 


ft 




o 














£ 

cr 

CC 


CC 




11 


in 


i— 


4J 


^ 




01 


L 


U 


E 


m 


n 







IB 




XI 


X 


m 


4J 


11 




4J 




tn 




Q 


















L 


3 




L 


CM 


11 


r 


01 


■B 


<B 


HI 


XI 




cnr 


» 


HI 


ii cn 


U 


<rt 


O" 




a 


3> 




CM 












Ll 


t 




01 











r 


-*j 





L. 


L 


XJ 


HI XI 


c 


U 


>- 


L 




3> 


<t 


4- 


c 


ii 


3 


CC 


■ 


tt 


00 


UJ 


a 


CM 


n 


-0 









L 


H 


a 


m 


+. 




L, 


>B 


O 


□ 


L 


11 


-H 




HI 


■H 


□ 


CC 


L 




■H 


1- 


ft 


u 




0- 


0- 


u 


Q 


a 


CM 




CC 


r 




11. 


11 


LU 




it 




in 


11 


a 


u 




>- 


L 


^-i 


JL 


in 


4J 


i— i 


m 


11 


4J 


> 






rH 


II 


« 


«• 


» 


« 


» 


» 






a*J 


Cl 


N 


E 





Hi 




U 


L 




in 


01 





a 




HI 






£ 


in 


IB 


□ 


cn 


en en 
















w 






3 


11. 


M 


.^ 


+j 


in 


U 




a 


rH 


HI 


r-t 


4J 


L 


h 


XI 


t. 


■■ 


U 


L 


U 




c 


c 


<I 


9* 


II 


II 


» 


II 


ii 


II 








in 


a 


01 


CM 


u 




in 


>-t 


r. 




h^ 


XI 


a. 


in 


+i 


cn 




UI 






HI 


-H 


£ 




■H 


o 
















4i 

c 






-^ 


E 


a 


1 


11 


4J 


HI 


w 


u 


HI 


U 




in 




C 


o 


11 


3> 


cn 


rH 


> 


XI 


a 


a 










H 


H 


LU 








x: 





3 


tn 


XI 


3 


L 


1 


n 


£. 


cn 


4- 


■H 


> 





CC 


r 


DC 


■ 





11 


c 


s 


> 


>- 











CC £c 


a 




UJ 

z 




H 


u 


tn 


CC 


~* 


a 


a 


m 


HI 


h- 


<L 


HH 


XI 


XI 


a 


h 


4J 




LU 


« 


L. 


■H 


» 


4J 


H 


4J 




H 




Cl 


CL 


a 


Q 


a 

LL 


























































cn 


X 


tn 


_l 


£ 


> 


























































Ll 


a 


CC 


H 


I 


UJ 
















































- 












in 


z 


u 


U 


G 


Y. 


.. 



01 
<t 



HI HI 

> L 

aS 
cc in 

rH Q) 

L 
11 

> 

01 4J 

tn 



tn 




rl 






11 








i- 




cn 

01 






41 
Oi 


,-, 











L 




cn 


L 









+j 








c 




IM 










XI 




HI 





rH 




u 


a 




c 






3 






4J 


cc 




01 






01 


II 




HI 


rH 




E 
E 


+J 


XI 

L 


XI 


in 






L 







u 


n 


r^ 


+j 




V 







u 




■? 


Oi 


n 




-I 


41 






a 




L 


1 




IB 


U 




XI 


u 


4J 


L 






n 


HI 




c 


+j 


.rl 


HI 


XI 






> 




01 


m 


n 


+J 






+j 


11 










c 


Oi 




01 


L 





L 
4J 
C 





X 


1 

1 
1 
1 


I 
1 
X 


S 





a 


a 


u 






X 









-1 a: 


cc 






X 




X 


X 


ftH 


+ rH 


rH 


rH 


X 




X 






rH 


> i- 


H 


LiT 




X 




X 


S 


rH 


u. cn 


cn 


in 






X 




X 


O 



0-hO h v cr - A - 0- 

i-Hcrcrcr<rcicrcr<ri-i 
uioHQi-aHaH_i 
ai-Jai_icn_Jtn-icnu 



a. 

<r 



S 

EC 
UI 

(- 

EC 
< 

S 
co 



UJ 
a 
a 

u 



LU UJ 

X X 

OUln^liloQr. 

(>aii>cocroftxo- 
CDUiQinQO-iiia-inco 

|xCCD<ECD<ItD<I!Din 

O -h fj »0 CD CO Q LL rn 10 
O O O O O O O O -1 -1 

oaoaQaaQaa 

XXXNXXXNXX 



^- ^- ^- ^ t ^ ^a- 



Q Q a a a q 

x x tx x fx x 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



33 



BUSIWRITER 



BUSIWRITER A Honey of a Word Processor 

Why word processors? 

Word processors allow the user to quickly and easily create letters, 
memos, notes, reports, term papers, manuals, poetry and any other writ 
ten information using the memory of the computer as a pencil and 
paper. The computer display or terminal acts as a window through 
which the user views the information as it is entered. The outstanding 
advantage of using BUSIWRITER is that it acts not only as a pencil and 
paper but as a perfect eraser and automatic typewriter. 




r B h bhhh n a n n a a a ra 



^aaaaaaooDDHiiD 

'□ tSB □□□□OE1E1HHB DEQ E3 




For Commodore CBM-64 
Commodore 1515, 1525, Epson, C. Itoh, Qume, Diablo, NEC Spinwriter, Starwriter, 

Prowriter, Okidata, Microline, Gemini-10 
And many more printers 
BUSIWRITER The Queen Bee of Word Processors 

BUSIWRITER allows the user to quickly and easily make any number 
of alterations to the text. BUSIWRITER will instantly reformat your text 
and show you exactly and continuously how the final output will appear. 
BUSIWRITER has more functions than any other known microcomputer 
word processor. With BUSIWRITER assisting in the entry of text, provid- 
ing a 20 page memory and performing an enormous number of editing/ 
composing functions, the preparation of written data is far faster and 
outstandingly more accurate than if it were prepared by hand. 

BUSIWRITER With the Sting Removed from the Prices 

BUSIWRITER 64 only $99.00 for the CBM 64 




BUSIWRITER AVAILABLE NOW FROM YOGR LOCAL DEALER 

(800) 227-9998 
FOR THE NAME OF YOUR NEAREST DEALER 

California, Canada, Alaska and Hawaii please call (415) 965-1735 




I 



Skyles Electric Works 

231G South Whisman Road 
Mountain View, CA 94041 



Europe please contact Supersoft, Winchester House, Harrow Wealdstone, England HA3 7SJ, Tel. 01 861 1166 

Circle No. 38 



34 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



Communications 





-M LC 

3 Cj 
a rn 

3 

TJ 

i. -a 
in c J 



c Hi 



a u 



m it 
U C TJ C 6 























CC 
























U 






















01 


c 


HI 




















HI 


a 


w. 




n 
















1! 









c 
















u 


• 


c 




■ H 


















+» 


cn 




> 6 
















L 


m 


■i-i 




.^ 
















01 


PH 






3 L 




r- 












3 


in 







u oi 




HI 111 















c 


JJ 




m > 




<*■■ > in 












fH 


<B 






m 




FH Q 10 














L 


in 




i- c 




a ai u 








[■- 




ai 


4-1 


L 




hi 




n « 




(■ 


01 


rH 




£1 




11 


^ 


a. * 


■w 


e l 




* 


L 


a 






JJ 


iJ 


LL 


01 


.„, 


>. .. a 




pH 





n 




+j 


c 


C 


u. 


*J c 




in in a 


in 


01 


c 


e 


it 


in 




-H 


o 


m a 


a 


N J L 


u 


Tl 


en 


* 


01 


3 


L, 


Q 




en c 


TJ 


* >- 3 


>■ 


" 


■H 


in 


>- 


E 


a. 


a 


■ V. 




















WW. 





a 

nE 
Iit 

■a- rt 
w in 
» in 

£ in 



3 



Q U 0- 

» Z « 

* m * 

C LL LU <X 

x £ z a 

h u a _i 



I 
u 

z 



i- in 

LC o 

LL I 

I- u 

a: z 

u M 

CC LU 

in z 

n CD 



CM 



CC 



O I- W 

-i LC O 

O I fl. I O 

[1 U J U » -h !- 

«r z h z # * a: 

* " u " * * u 



or ro 

o_ M I 

i- r> u 

lc w z 

u * » 



o.cni--iu<i«K«a:aui 
£U-iCLOiQm_icnaz 
u as as as a a i rj cl r3 _j as 



fflZO 

i- a ro 
_i a I 
a: a (j 

i-sz 

U -C r-. 

c a lu 

Q LU Z 

_i a, oo 



I 
u 
z 



O O Z O h- 

tO CN O M OC 

"HIILQOIOOOIL 

q-uinu^a-auNmtDi- 
#z»z*[c*z«»*a: 

D-uo-ucLacLuuiLCtt: 

UOUDUDUDOOUIn 

O o 
-i CN to 

1 II 
U U U 

z z z 



L, ,J 

L. 
-M 
■h Q. 
TJ 

01 CN 
10 

C CN 

9i cn 

ai a. 

w. 

u E 

in a 

L 



3 a 
o c 

Z H 



3 TJ 
J3 IQ 



-0 <f 00 10 

u <l a <L 

» » » * 

<z <x <r <i 

n h o k 

_i tn _i cn 



I- N 



3 

•5 

CI 
o 
U 



Q 


05 


v. 


0- 


'-' 


» 


LU 


HI 


1- 


1- 



s 

cc 



CC 

< 



in 



a is ~* m as 
000-0--* 



a s o s o o 
oo u a <x cm a 



tN 111 



m in a 

o- o- -< 



2 B 

Cfl -I 



U QQPQQQQQ 
□ QQPQQQQQ 

r^ r^r^Nr^Ni^i^r^ 



J-O^Oa-CDft'OiDOCI'O 

unNH^nrnfioNta 



ULUON*-0N0~UQon 
QQUJLUlULUlULUUILUllIi. 
QQPDQQQQQQQO 



LU Q 

i-~ r» 

U.M-0 ^(NiDCJLLinO<OOOOIf3 

^c^If-i trHnosH-ooMaiiDn/ 

QOO O'OO'OO'C^OCI'O'CI'O 

03U.Q U j-UIMJIlUIMjJO +N 

q-r^o~ aiQii. — Minr^o-oopii.^ 

LlU-ll LlllU-OOOOOOOO^h 

Q O Q QQQLUUlLdLUuiUJLUUJLU 

^^^ r^r^r^r^r^rsr^r^r^r^r^r^ 







-a 






LU 




-o *r m ro 


o 




U <X Q ■! 


o 




in in in in 


u 




C 00 <X CO 


* 


o- * 


» -0 00 <x 


o 








111 LU 


LU LU LU LU 


LU 


r- is 


rs is rs rs 


s 



. rs as o- ■ 
- o a- o . 



LL LL LL LL O ^ ^ K' * 111 -0 IS 03 Ch 
,h ^ ^ ^h ft ^ r.| r-.j ^ r\j M r,j fj r j 

LULUlUlULlIUJLiILULULlIUJujLiILlI 
rsrsrsisrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsNN 



u 

LC 



•a 

3 

•5 
S 

o 

e 



S 
ac 
uj 

H 
CC 
< 

s 



c 
- a 
oi o 
c in 



J3 4J 

I C 

II II 

c in 

'Z 01 



z 

3 



■-< _l 

10 

C 3 LU 



in 

f w. 

-j a ■ 

Q.-H TJ 

C Ul 

ri c am 

L >-Q I- LL 

00 Q +J O 111 U 

N r z ca ll a 

«UIIIIL» 
L O U » * 



LU 01 

Q in 

o - 

i: i 



_i .- 



I l. j: 
u oj +j z 

m~ +j in Lt 

I 



I- w LC LL 
>" EIDI 

oi (0 a rj Q 



LU 

Z N 

O O 

a cm 

X LU 

u « 

LU O. 

Z z 

as n 



ro ti ll a 00 m 
Q o u o to o 



"* o o o* o u 

M ro M U Q <t 



<I st C <I <L L! LU « tO m 

u -o>o<i-o.o>o-orsrsrs 
a ooaaQaQaQo 
_i rsrsrsrsrsisrsrsrsrs 



oj r 

H u 



hoc 



3 

IT It 



OH O I — I— I— IUOQ.O 

*i- olch in lclclc ao_i^ 

LU UJ M - Ol LU M O N 0. 0. Q. LL O rt LL - 

u.ai'<cai-tao , LaMi-LOi--'iL<iLO<i 
LLi*ioci»i*LCLCcc*iXii:x 

• 0*UUU*Ut'JUL!*UOUU 

LCQa.uiLt£LLi.aa.a :> <3Qi--itt;cc 
iniuEztnrEuEiuauz-'i.tni'i 
TaSLjfiir:nCJasUoa-lLti<na3S'r:r: 



CD CD 

I I 
o u 



I- 



u 



ll a a a a 

ll rs is rs rs 

<t as cm <o in cd cn -a cm ~o a cm ll to u ll m 
LULL-- | O0-rsOLLrjouo«aQL>i^ 

o o £> o o u l> o s o o o ^ «r o o o 

NU.UaN*UH.OlL4U.nN«NN 

asasaiL rf 'a-t--o>itiaLL«toin^ou 
rsrsrsrsoooDCOcDDOo]03ochO s O[>c> 
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 

rsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrstsrsrsrsrs 



LC 

oi > 
> 

in 



u L 

a ai 

■rw H~ r 

-h a u 



c 

□ cc 

H > 

m 

o u 
ac 

L 01 

L 

in o 

L v 

z m 

u ai 

L 



T O 

-0 U 00 

u » * 

«» s- * 

I a <x > <c x 

i > i a a o 

0. I- ll _l -I LU 



ro 

u 



<i <i > <n 

I- _| <c _l 
m o. t- o. 



a 

3 



01 • 

S5 

a 

01 

u in 

c "2 
m -0 

£ 

m at 

y- o x 
OC *J -u 

LU 01 s 
Z TJ 

a o l. 
a u ■+• 

i 

u — — 



a 

LC 



-o * o ■» 

U U 00 u 
Q3CDCJ0«T^0 s * H (DCD0]O 

«*0 K, 4 , <tas^-o s <o<i>o-o 
ll LLo«rM"t-ooj<iinucjLULU 

L> O-stsCsT.lsC'XsC'IsCsCsCC 

a oaaaaaQaciaaaD 

rs rsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrsrs 



□ 

Lt 



r- 

. LT 

< c 



ft IV 



01 

a ^ 

LC 



in o oj £ « •« 
•o c lt u >"^ 



o as 
c a 

LTLC oi 

.. l m 

o -h c 

c u oi 



+J 01 



. L7> M 
C I 



v a 

c * -h ja 

h ai c o in 3 

il TJ sj ti in 

a 



cn cn 

z i- t- 

-iOo cctoon > > 

Ll-OLl IhO" LU LU 
LLt-LL CjaJOOO "i i: 

ui cn lu oo z ul cc lu a 

»H(»*-i»«» * * 
<IJxQLLll-_ll-i-<<I<IsC<rO.<I<L'<I 

ao.azz>- i o.--'_iDiQiixii 
_i03_i<iociiisaiosu_ia.-i£LLLLLCLii 

a 

FH -0 



00 
LU 



LU LU 

.-irsooo-oroaCM lu ll 

iLOnOx-n" r^ to 

qoluo*oucgcdocdo*cdcoctjcdco 

lu ^ to -o oj c a ll r<i t'j ijt -c cn s <x as u 
(jasasmajLtiaifliuuuLJuouuu 
aaaaaaaaaaaaaQaoa 

rsrsrsrsrsrsfsrsrsisrsrsrsrs|s.fsrs 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



35 



Emulates these terminals exactl y. 

IBM 3101 ~~~ 

DEC VT100, VT52 
Data General D200 
ADDS Regent 20, 25, 40 
Hazertlne 1400, 1410, 1500 
LearSleglerADM-3A, ADM-5 
TeleVldeo 910 
Teletype Model 33 KSR 



Apple is a trademark of 
Apple Computer, Inc. 



New File Transfer Language 



BREAK 

CATALOG 

CHAIN 

CONFIGURE 

CONNECT 

CONVERSE 

DIAL 

END 

HANGUP 

LOG 

MONITOR 

NOLOG 

ONERR 

PAUSE 

PROMPT 

RECEIVE 

REMARK 

RETRIES 

SEND 

SPECIAL 

SPEED 

TIMEOUT 

XMIT:WAIT 




Supports these 
interface boards. 



Your host compu 

won't know the difference! 

Softerm provides an exact terminal emulation 
for a wide range of CRT terminals which interface 
to a variety of host computer systems. Special 
function keys, sophisticated editing features, 
even local printer capabilities of the terminals 
emulated by Softerm are fully supported. Softerm 
operates with even the most discriminating host 
computer applications including video editors. 
And at speeds up to 9600 baud using either a 
direct connection or any standard modem. 

Unmatched file transfer capability 

Softerm offers file transfer methods flexible 
enough to match any host computer requirement. 
These include character protocol with user- 
definable terminator and acknowledge strings, 
block size, and character echo wait, and the 
intelligent Softrans™ protocol which provides 
reliable error-free transmission and reception of 
data. The character protocol provides maximum 
flexibility for text file transfers. Any type file 
may be transferred using the Softrans protocol 
which provides automatic binary encoding and 
decoding, block checking with error recovery, and 
data compression to enhance line utilization. 
A FORTRAN 77 source program is supplied with 
Softerm which is easily adaptable to any host 
computer to allow communications with Softerm 



36 



Apple Communications Card 

Apple Parallel Printer 

Apple Serial Interface 

Apple Super Serial Card 

Bit 3 Dual-Comm Plus™ 

CCS 7710,7720, 7728 

Hayes Micromodem II™ 

Hayes Smartmodem™ 300, & 1200 

Intra Computer PS10 

Mountain Computer CPS Card™ 

Novation Apple-Cat II™ 300 & 1200 

Orange Micro Grappler™ 

Prometheus VERSAcard™ 

SSM ASIO, APIO, AIO, AIO II™ 



Supports your 80-column hardware. 



ALS Smarterm™ 

Bit 3 Full- View 80™ 

Computer Stop Omnlvlslon™ 

M&R Sup'RTermlnal™ 

STB Systems STB-80™ 

VWex Videoterm™ 

Vista Computer Vision 80™ 

Wesper Micro Wizard 80™ 



using the Softrans protocol. 

Softerm file transfer utilizes an easy to use 
command language which allows simple defini- 
tion of even complex multiple-file transfers with 
handshaking. Twenty-three high-level commands 
include AMI, CATALOG, SEND, RECEIVE, 
ONERR, HANGUP, MONITOR and others which 
may be executed in immediate command mode 
interactively or from a file transfer macro com- 
mand file which has been previously entered 
and saved on disk. 

Built-in utilities 

Softerm disk utilities allow DOS commands such 
as CATALOG, INIT, RENAME, and DELETE to be 
executed allowing convenient file maintenance. 
Local file transfers allow files to be displayed, 
printed, or even copied to another file without 
exiting the Softerm program. Numerous editing 
options such as tab expansion and space com- 
pression are provided to allow easy reformatting 
of data to accommodate the variations in data 
formats used by host computers. Softerm sup- 
ports automatic dialing in both terminal and file 
transfer modes. Dial utilities allow a phone book of 
frequently used numbers to be defined which are 
accessed by a user-assigned name and specify 



MICRO 



the serial interface parameters to be used. 

Online Update Service 

The Softronics Online Update Service is pro- 
vided as an additional support service at no 
additional cost to Softerm users. Its purpose 
is to allow fast turnaround of Softerm program 
fixes for user-reported problems using the 
automatic patch facility included in Softerm 
as well as a convenient distribution method for 
additional terminal emulations and I/O drivers 
which become available. User correspondence 
can be electronically mailed to Softronics, and 
user-contributed keyboard macros, file transfer 
macros, and host adaptations of the Softrans 
FORTRAN 77 program are available on-line. 

Most advanced communications 
software available 

Just check Softerm's 300 page user manual. 
You simply can't buy a more sophisticated 
package or one that's easier to use. Available 
now for only $150 from your local dealer or 
Softronics, Inc. 

SOFTRONICS 

6626 Prince Edward, MemphisJN 38119. 901-755-5006 

Circle No. 18 

No. 59 - April 1983 



Communications 



3 

■9 

R 
O 

c 



S 
oc 
w 

t- 
oc 

< 

2 
(0 



111 

in 



Q 

o 
u 



1 


LL 


III 


n 


PH 


t- 


u 


Ul 



LC 

00 



x 06 

o r> 

z » 

r- Q 

in _i 



Z ii * 

O (N IN it IN IN H •«: 

LL Q LL LL CD LL CH LL *-i U 

LU ii LL LL > LL LL LL X 11 

wajLUsfLULUiuwiuuj a 

#i;»#*i;»it*cc in 



LLuc<rcuj<iQ<r 
zzoccr-zazi- 
(joo-iomco-icim 



z 
a 

Q 



- in l 

H L II 

LL 111 

" jj n 

x u >. 

en rg m 

■• l ^ 

n 
ai r.r 

r u oq 

■P u 

c 

IT 11 

c ■« r. 

XI u 

« c c 

3 

X 4- 

II 

ai cr ^ 

« C J3 

■h p| ID 

xl jj in 

i h in 

"0 Hi 

TJ ai u 

m u 

in c ii 
in m 

ai m >- 

L L -h 

a u jj 

m u 

01 ai 

L >. L 

m n h 

TI 

>-~ 

ai >.jj 

£. Ul 



Ll 
LU 



o UJ CQ Ll <x IN <3- in u N oq m aq 

OO-O-LUOLlOLlLULlllllIJ 



0-llTLllO-OQO-QOQO-QO 

4H4U040III04NIIIQ 



TJ 




















01 






m 




















XI 2 




L 


a 




















2 
E XI 





JJ 


u 














ll 






XI C 




U 


■H 














XI 






in c h 




01 


L 





















U p, J 




> 


111 


_l 




en 








e 






•H I 






e 


D 


111 


a 


111 


c 










r 4- 


en 


a 


3 


111 


C 


JJ 


c 


z 




JJ 






Of a 


> 


or 


c 




■pi 




<H 





c 


X 


a 




m o 


LU 


t-t 







pH 





pH 


XI 


2 


11 


3 




L 






o5 


JJ 




jj 









JJ 




a 


cr a jj 




01 






JJ 




111 


PH 


XI 




<— i 


3 





_l 


> 


P. 


11 


L 


m 


JJ 


PH 




L 


p-l 




LuH 


<r 


i 


u 


in 


Hi 


m 


SI 





L 


11 





L 


11 




in 


Ul 


« 


01 


i 


l-i 


L 


in 


JJ 


L 


in 


JJ JJ JJ U 




LU 


L 


c 


L 


111 


u 


L 


C 


U 


L 


C 01 01 


LU 





P 


01 


■H 


Ol 


XI 


in 


U 


11 


II 


U 


ai in in 


0. 


p 


■ r. 






















in 




,. 


II 


II 


II 


II 


ll 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II II II 


lL 


u 
u 




(J 




t. 


p 


h 




n 


p. 


,. 


r. r. '- 


a 


* 


0- 


UJ 


b 


1-1 


in 


tO 


T 


in 


JJ 


fs 


00 rj. . 




pH 


00 


LU 




















* 


0. 


ts 


























-0 


























in 






















ao 




* 






















<i 




Kl 






















j- 




IN 






















> 




*■' 






















LU 





0-O tO ** UJ rtLULLiLOj 
Is N»IO«intoiniM110III4 

in N-^N-nnmnnniiiiniH 

-I 

1- I-H-HH-HHI-HH-Il 

cq ffiffim<saiCQtiiCQa.a)aa. 



ca 
<i 

H 
_l 
LL 
Lt 



CQO-0UT>0 1iTl>^LUL>-hLUI 



lLLLLL-'KjinNL>(JLU^n-0031IiQQaQQQLJO-<Ipa(JQLUlLOrtNtO*UT 
U rsNrsCOm(DroOjOOlDChO'0 K K (>0 K E>0 K O^O s ^l><I<I<X<Ia<I<IflQa3CQCQCQa. 
OUJLULULUWLULULUUJLULuLUUjLULULULUWLULULUiUUUJLULUUjUJUJUlWLULjJLUUJ 



a 

£ Q 

9 z 

3 LU 



111 


Is 


Ul 


on 


LU 


LU 





u 


L 




» 




















TJ 




n ; 






It 




X 




















n 




LU ' 




in 


in 




» 












01 








in 




Z ( 




« 


in 




= 


IT 










c 








Ul 




° 1 




n 


01 




r-i 


n 




LT 








01 






01 




I 3 






u 




K 


p* 




n 






-H 


TJ 




01 


L 




i_i i 




E 


01 




IL 


4- 




-H 













c 


a 




r-l * 







c 




LU 






4- 






■ 


U 




-PI 






r- 




L 






_l 


01 










4J 






-p 


>■ 




o 




4- 


4- O 1 






XI 




L 









C 




3 


01 




CCi 






« c 




to 





« 


It 






J3 










_* 








01 


'H 






E 


X 


r. 




*H 




LT 




L 






t- 




XI 


01 L 




i_i 






u 




LIT 


in 









a 




LU 







xi -y 




1-4 


4J 


; 






in 


01 


pH 











in 




u 


o in 






L 3 


f-l 


rH 




>0 TJ 


1 




E 


4J 




i_i 






u 






« ai- 


L 














L 


in 




- 




4J 


4J 




^^ 


r. -p 


Ll 


4J 




c 


E 


4J 




01 






^ 




U 


4J ll 




■ 


u 3 


LU 


C 









3 




P 






0- 




01 


01 E 




L 


1 □ 


J 


u 






■ 


HI 






oi 




N 




•P 


a> l 




II 


>- 








c 


a 













^^ 












£. 


J3 -P 


to 


p 




L 


in 


>- 




p 


■H 




Lti 




L 


•■ 4- 




r-l 


1 01 




01 




3 


.pi 


u 











<I 




HE 




Ll 


l in 


i_i 


in 




+J 


TJ 




. 


LT 


ii 




r- 






LU -P 




Ll 


m 


c 




11 






XI 


c 




r 








■• 


CC L 




O 


c •• 




■• 




!■ 


•* 


01 





■• 


LU 




= 




Z 


u 




i_i 


U £ 




z 


n 


c 


z 


u 


cr 


Z 


LC 




n 




LU 






u 


: LU 


^, 


LU 


■H 


LU LU 


It 





LU 






• > LL 




(T 00 ■• 




n 


ii or 


c 


Lr 


l/l 


or 


cc 


f-l 


pi 


or 






» 3 






-r 




in 


» 


\ 




-H 






a 










TJ lj 






: LU 




> 


XI 


>- 




> 






01 











E = 






LO it 


; 


or 


e 


V 




2 






L 


■p 








= W 






•P 




LJ 








II 
















in 






L 


o 


\ 


z 


in 




» 






01 


4J 








■• u 






E 




01 


LU 


L 




u 






jO 


a 








01 * 






Ul ■• 




c 


I 


« 




u 








E 








TJ u 






z = 




-H 


1- 


£. 










TJ 


01 








o u 






n 


Ul 


f-l 




U 




z 






pH 


•P 






Q 


e = 






Q Z 




Ll 


; 






LU 






3 


■P 






z 


n 






<X 3 


c 


Ll 


H ■■ 


rH 




I 









it 






LU 


in ■■ 






o o 




q 


; ^ 







1- 






u 








■1 


> in 






_i a 


or 




A S 


L 


~^ 










2 






= 


LC L. 


S 








r-l 


V —i 


•p 


= 


z 






01 


O 








Ul -0 




z * 


LU 


r-i 


* - 


C 


>- 


>- 






c 


c 






L 


r-l j: 


oc 




LU IN 




in 


X A 





; 








.pi 








u 


LC U 


UJ 




X 


l-> 




u 


II 


ll 






pH 


XI 






■H 


_l 


1- 




1- i-i 




or 


Ll « 




W 


<* 








p-l 






L 


u -• 


oc 




n 


or 


LJ 


rH X 


>- 


X 


X 






cr 


n 






L 


LJ O 


< 

S 




o t- 




— 


■■ ^^ 


it 


•^ 








c 









it 


r-l L 




IN X 


<i 




* 


_( 


** 


Ll 






■H 


r 




■• 


U 


CL -P 


■• 


- LU 




01 


oi in 


a 


LIT 








J 


in 




o 




O C 


(0 


CC 


A H 


c 


T) 


c in 


m 


in 


■■ 











•* 


to 


P 


r- O 


_l 


\/ LJ 







■« N 


H 


N 


; 






r-| 


3 


t- 


pH 


in 


U 


oc 


L) 


A ft 


in 


E 


rH 1 


T) 


i 


OJ 






H 





z 







I- = 


o 

IL 


•■ 


o hi 




r-i 


1 ' 


r-l 


p- 


pH 









> 


p-i 


z 


J 


LU - 


-0 


o z 


n 


Z 


>-n 


Z 


M 


H 






4- 


n 


LC 


LU 


n 


in o 


v^ 


o a 


in 


3 


u + 


3 


+ 


H 








or 


LL 


X 


in 


LJ tO 


oc 

Ul 

> 


*» 


N X 


> 


O 


1 -0 


o 


-0 


in 




■■ 


01 


_i 




1- 


> 


: v 


N 


n 


cc 


Q 


ai - 


a 


iH 


H 


o 


o 


jr 


u 


»^ 




or 


« CO 


*. 


- CN 


i_i 


i_i 


c * 


i_i 


4* 


> 


o 


N 


•p 


i_i 


to 


0- 


i_i 


in « 


n 


i; 


: 


= 


-. to 


i 


to 


c 


o 


IN 




: 


o 


pH 


= 


U r- Z 


oc 

a 


Lit 


LU i-i 






rl ,H 




-H 


-PI 


r-i 








r-i 


II 




cc 




LU = 


1- 


r- 


; 


1- 




r 


to 


LU 


z 


1— 


to 


4J 


t- 


I- I- a 


lu a. n 


Z 


Zl 


II LU 


D 


LU 


II 




3 


LU 


z 




in 


z 


Z z H 


o 


^ 


W 




LL 


» k' 


0. 


it 


» 


in 


in 


LC 


pH 


UJ 




pH 


m i-i LU 


o 


Ll m 


or 


Z 


TJ O 


z 


O 


U 


> 


a 




or 


> 


LL 


or 


cc o: cc 


w 


CL 


l-H u 


Q. 


i-i 


E 0. 


|-| 


0. 


u 


in 


CD 




LL 


in 


I-* 


LL 


ll a. .. 


< 
m 


Q 


o o 


,-. 


o 


o o 


,-, 


o 


,-. 


o 


.;. 


o 


o 


o 


.-. 


-*' 


o o 


o 


- IN 


n 


* 


ID -0 


N 


00 


a- 


o 


H 


IN 


r. 


■* 


in 


-0 


N 00 




















IN 


(N 


n 


IN 


r-i 


M 


(N 


IN r-l 



LU 
I- 
> 
CO 



3 




O 


HI 




7 


13 




O 


_l 






a 




c 








ID 








_l 




2 
OC 


LU 

a 
n 


111 


!1 


1- 




oc 




< 


u 
n 


2 


(A 


J 



01 O 
+J 4- 



TJ Ul 
01 01 



2 it 

o ai 

-h u in 

m ^ .. 

ctij; 

o c cc 

jj ■« fo 

•p 

in -p cr 

oi oj c 

jl in h 

TJ 
i_ '• z: 
-p a> oi 
in c in 

L >--p| 

01 -P TJ 

tj m 
i . a 



en 

c - 

H >- 

Z 4- 

* 



Ol U 

j: it 



U LU O 

Ii LE 

a y 
m m ph 
o 

XJ L 

PH 01 -P 

< uc 

L C O 

oj it u 



C4- 



h oi m oi o 



rt to a m ru o o o o o o o o 

iMt m h it -. o o o o o o o o 



y *j w 



n a a oi 

or- o-i 

>- +i a-p jj 

at in 3 in to 

jk: i- \ \ 4J 

ii in >- in 

c xi > ai > oi r- 

pi o L -^ L u >- 

e t 01 

l (imiHi 

uj ai in h- in a 

r -p oj -h 

u jj £ 

3 in 
v cr « 

v in _ 

01 



01 Ol 



C pi >* 



■- c 

in t 

v u 

>- in 





u 








01 

TJ P 


3 




01 








o -h m 


J3 




PH 








E 01 






cn 








L. JJ 


C 




CJi 


_^ 






ai qj o in 


pi 




n i- 


m 






JJ V 3 Z> 




1- 




m 






C LTLC 


in 


tn 


o 








3 01 


>- 


> 


.. i- 


n 


11 




LT V V 


01 


LC 


m in 




c 


01 


r. p| pi 


jl 




m 


n 


II 


XI 


C X X 




it 


>- 1 


TJ 


XI 



E 


pi c oi ai 


CI 



r- 03 CQ 

I- Lcm inincr.*<t t- 

i-iQ0.Or-O>r-O|-Qi-i 

xx>in>in>i;>>_i>x 

aUILULCLULLLUZLULUQ-LULU 

ZLCiiUjiLnirspy^oriior 



or 

OQ 
, _ > 

LU » r- H LU 
ii * U * ii 



<ia<ixLuxaxQ.Lucr<iinx_iQ.cicLa 

QLUQQZOUJQZZQI-ULUQ.ZLUZLU 
_liS_l_IOQ-IO->_IUOQ_|inffiCiCQUCQULtl 



> 

Ul 



* in 

o o 

> > 

LU LU 



IN LU Ul IN 

O N N O 

UlLniLQmOOtNUQOOChLLOQ 

o-r-i-ourti>-ioo-o<i-oo 

mOQ-00-llonQOQQ040>0^0 
<CLLCICIQ<ILL<IQQin0000CJ»HL)LLOlL 



O IN is tO tv 

Il-OOh 



LU 
ts 



cc o + t- 

IN LL - a IN Q i-i 

r-i in -i > l> > xx 

» LC r- LU » LU f"l Q LU 

cxaacici!i<iLii 

QQLUr-QH QHZ 

_i_ioDin_iin_iinaj 

-I Q 

CO o 



r-i q iii ll r-i o i"-i uj o 

NUO-llttNGOllI 



o--oOQOQO-mo 

«<ILLIII<I0O<I0OQ 



<icoUQLULLOpHr-jro^Ln>ONOOo^<iffliJQLULLLLLLLLLLiLLL^to>om<iuiuotOLnoam 

M N IN M n m to to to to MMMK)MrlMrlMnMMMMWMMM*******ininnlOlil^ 
LUULULUULULULULUULULULUlUUJUlUIUILULULUUJUIUlUJUILULjJLULULULULULULUUILUIJUIULULUUIUJIilUjL^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



37 



Communications 



Dialing the Networks 



by Cliff Glennon 



Essential steps for a MC6809-based home computer 
to communicate with the two major computer networks. 



Have you ever come home without a 
newspaper and wished you had some- 
thing to read? Are you tired of paying 
high prices for slow mail delivery? 
Subscribers to THE SOURCE and 
COMPUSERVE can get news, instant 
electronic mail, and a host of other 
valuable services delivered right to 
their home computers. 

There are so many services offered 
by COMPUSERVE that a magazine is 
published to provide a convenient in- 
dex to them. THE SOURCE sends out 
an executive manual that covers its 
services. I had the spelling in this arti- 
cle checked by THE SOURCE, and 
COMPUSERVE can give me the prices 
of stereo equipment. 

I have heard it said that by the next 
decade a literate person 'Will have to 
know computers to be able to com- 
municate. This communication most 
likely will be over the telephone lines 
through computer services such as 
THE SOURCE or COMPUSERVE. If 
you want a taste of what it will be like 
to work at home and communicate to a 
large central computer system, it's all 
here. If you have a program that will 
not fit in your memory, you have ac- 
cess to all the memory and disk oper- 
ating systems you can handle over your 
telephone. 

The Modem 

Modem is a contraction for 
modulator-demodulator. Although I 
don't have one, the Originate- Answer 
type of modem is probably best. This 

Dialing 

requires: 

6809-based microcomputer 



Table 1; Summary of the MC6850 ACIA Command Register 

bits 0-1) OOOOOObb 

Divides the system clock to provide output baud rates. 

00 - Divide by 1 

01 - Divide by 16 

10 - Divide by 64 

1 1 - Reset the ACIA 

The SWTPC MP-S2 is set up to use a divide by 16 when 300 baud is 
selected on the interface jumpers. 

bits 2-4) OOObbbOO 

Word Length, Parity, Stop Bit Selections 

000 - 7-bit word, even parity, 2 stop bits 

001 - 7-bit word, odd parity, 2 stop bits 

010 - 7-bit word, even parity, 1 stop bit 

011 - 7-bit word, odd parity, 1 stop bit 

100 - 8-bit word, no parity, 2 stop bits 

101 - 8-bit word, no parity, 1 stop bit 

110 - 8-bit word, even parity, 1 stop bit 

1 1 1 - 8-bit word, odd parity, 1 stop bit 

I access both COMPUSERVE and THE SOURCE with a 7-bit word, 
even parity, 1 stop bit, %00001000 or 010. 

bits 5-6) ObbOOOOO 

Controls RTS output (pin 5), Break Transmission, Transmitter 
Interrupts 

00 - RTS = 0, inhibits transmitter interrupt 

01 - RTS = 0, enables transmitter interrupt 
10 - RTS = 1, inhibits transmitter interrupt 

I I - RTS = 0, inhibits transmitter interrupt, transmits Break 
I do not use these features. 

bit 7) bOOOOOOO 

Controls Interrupts to the 6809 Processor 

1 - enables interrupts when a letter is received 

- disables interrupts when a letter is received 

1 have used this feature in the past, but my Disk Operating System 
uses the interrupt vector and I hesitate to share that vector when I 
am using disk reads and writes. Also I found that using interrupts 
prevents control characters from being sent to the Services (e.g., a 
break or Control-P) by assigning a priority to incoming letters. 



38 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



means that you can be the one to in- 
itiate the call (Originate) or that your 
computer can be called by another 
computer ( Answer] . I have an Origi- 
nate-only modem, and this is sufficient 
to connect to the computer services. 

My modem is a direct-connect, 
which means there is no acoustic 
coupler to add problems to the com- 
munications channel. I see no need to 
convert the electronic signals from the 
computer to sound, and convert the 
sound back to electronic signals to send 
over the phone lines. In addition, 
acoustic couplers are made for round 
phone speakers, and my phone handset 
is square. The phone company installed 
the USOC RJ-11C jack required by the 



modem. This jack, as it turns out, is 
also required by my telephone answer- 
ing machine and enables me to plug or 
unplug phone equipment easily. 

The two Services require at least a 
300-baud rate: 

baud = (approx.)i Ocharacters/second 

but also provide 1200-baud service. 
The future undoubtedly will be with 
the faster baud rates and a modem that 
could operate at such speeds would be 
an advantage. 

The Cable 

If you construct your own modem- 
computer connector, you must trans- 



late 2: The MC6850 ACIA Status Register 



bitO) 

1 



bit II 



0000000b 
Receiver Data Register empty 
Receiver Data Register full 

A character has been received and can be read from the Data 
Register 

OOOOOObO 
Transmitter Data Register full 
* * Note opposite meanings from bit 
Transmitter Data Register empty 
A character can now be sent 



bit 2 1 OOOOObOO 

- Data Carrier Detect is present 

1 - Loss of Data Carrier 

If this line is connected 

bit 3) OOOObOOO 

- Clear to Send signal is detected 

1 - No Clear to Send 

* * * * Note: this line must be connected for the 6850 to operate. If this 
line is high ($08 in the Status Register), no data can be transmitted. 
This is pin 20 on the MP-S2 connector 

bit 4) OOObOOOO 

- No Framing Error 

1 - Framing Error 

Faulty character synchronization 

bit 5) OObOOOOO 

- No Overrun 

1 - Overrun 

More than one character was received before one was read 

bit 6) ObOOOOOO 

- No Parity Error 

1 - Parity in the received character is incorrect 

bit 7 1 bOOOOOOO 

- Any interrupts enabled in the Control register 

1 - Can also be read as output in this bit 



■■■ Communications | 

late the modem manufacturer's terms 
to the computer manufacturer's terms. 
The name RS-232 is code for a loose 
agreement "standard" for connectors 
that original equipment manufacturers 
(OEMs) can use to attach their devices 
to a variety of computers. As long as a 
device follows the RS-232 standard, I 
can attach it to my SWTPC S09 com- 
puter. Here are the modem-to- 
computer conversions: 



Modem 


Line Description 


Computer 


Pin 




(SWTPC 
MP-S2|Pin 


111 


Protective Ground 


(1) 


(2) 


Transmitted Data 


(3) < ••note 
well 


(3) 


Received Data 


(2) 


(51 


Clear to Send 


Not 
connected 


l<SJ 


Data Set Ready 


(20) Clear to 
Send 


(7) 


Signal Ground 


(7) 


(8) 


Data Carrier 
Detector 


|12| SDCD 



The first thing to notice in the list is 
that lines 2 and 3 are reversed in the 
two machines. This is a standard con- 
figuration and should be found in all 
modem-computer connections. The 
Data Carrier Detector line does not 
have to be connected for the MP-S2 in- 
terface to work. A very careful reading 
of the SWTPC documentation dis- 
closes that pin 20, the Clear-to-Send 
pin, should be connected to "the buffer 
full or data terminal ready line. " All in 
all, only five lines need to be 
implemented. 

The cheapest cable is ribbon cable. 
But a major disadvantage is that the 
signals on this cable radiate to interfere 
with any television sets in your house. 
If you live in an apartment, ribbon 
cable is out; you should have a cable 
custom made with the lines twisted and 
mylar shielded. Another alternative is to 
adapt an unused shielded cable. 

DB-25 is the name for the 25 pin 
connectors used with RS-232 inter- 
faces. They are male and female to in- 
dicate whether they are plugs or 
sockets. If you order the cable made, be 
sure you understand how the manufac- 
turer wants the gender of the DB-25 
connector specified. Serial interfaces 
usually require male DB-25 connec- 
tors; parallel interfaces need female 
connectors. Cable and connectors can 
be purchased from computer stores or 
hobby mail-order houses. 

Attaching wires to the connectors is 
easy. A low-wattage soldering iron and 
60/40 rosin-core solder is all that is 
necessary. A short length of heat- 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



39 



Communications 

shrinkable tubing is slipped over the 
wire before soldering. After the solder 
connection is made, this tubing is pulled 
down over the connection and shrunk 
to a tight fit by heat from the iron; or 
you can use plastic electrical tape if you 
prefer. A VOM can be used to check if 
there are any invisible breaks in the 
wire, if the right pin is connected, or if 
there is a short between wires. An inex- 
pensive VOM is sufficient, because on- 
ly resistance measurements are needed. 
The next step is to write the pro- 
gram that allows the computer to talk 
on the telephone. A preliminary pro- 
cedure is to study the device used in the 
computer interface to find out the com- 
mands it needs to operate. The device 
in my system is the Motorola MC6850 
ACIA, or Asynchronous Communica- 
tions Interface Adapter (I am curious to 
see what the spelling checker does with 
that!). To send a command to the 6850, 
a value [such as $03] is placed in the 
Control Register. For example: 

LDA $03 Load accumulator A with 
the 6850 Reset value 

STA $E040 Control/Status Register 
address in my system 

The commands are coded to fit into an 
8-bit byte (see table 1). If table 1 seems 
complicated, remember that all you 
have to do is select one option in each 
of the categories to fit your needs and 
the 6850 does the rest! Thus, COM- 
PUSERVE asks for a 7-bit ASCII word, 
even parity, one start, and one stop bit. 
All this is done with a $09 or 
% 0000 1001. After sending this com- 
mand to the 6850, all data sent out by 
the computer to the modem conforms 
to this requirement, and data received 
is checked to see if it matches as well. 
Characters are transmitted and received 
simultaneously. 

THE SOURCE looks for an 8-bit 
ASCII word, no parity, one stop bit. 
This is obtained with a $15 or 
% 000 10101. I am able to connect on 
my SWTPC 6800 system using this 
command; but my 6809 system balks 
at this code and talks only on the $09 
code. Customer service at THE 
SOURCE told me that a 7-bit word 
could be used to communicate, but 
that an 8-bit word is required in their 
"local mode," which, I guess, is dial- 
ing from Washington D.C. My motto 
in this case is "what works, works," 
but I am sure I will have to find the 
source of the trouble someday. 

Both services require full-duplex 



operation, which means the service 
will echo a character sent by your 
equipment back to you. Note that you 
do not have to echo a character back to 
the service. Full-duplex operation is 
assumed in the attached program. 

The computer processor is process- 
ing data at a megahertz-cycle clip, and 
the ACIA modem is running at only 
300 baud, so a means must be provided 
to see if the slow pair is ready for 
another letter. This is provided by the 
status register, which tells us whether 
or not a letter has come in, or what 
some of the problems in the reception 
are. On my system, this register is read 
by an 

LDA $E040 Reads the ACIA Status 
Register 

The status register is summarized in 
table 2. 

It is necessary only to check bits 
and 1 for normal communications. If a 
parity option has been selected such as 
a $05: 7-bit word; odd parity; and 
divide by 16, and the parity status 
register bit number 6 is not checked by 
a statement such as 

LDA $E040 Read status 
BITA $40 Check parity bit 

then you are sending characters out 
with a parity bit set, but your own 
system is ignoring any parity bits 
received. 

The final piece of information is 
how to read and write to the ACIA. The 
required statement is: 

LDA $E041 Read Data Register 

or 
STA $E041 Write to Data Register 

The Program 

After loading the progam, it 
prompts for a letter to begin initializing 
the ACIA. Enter any letter to start. Dial 
the computer service at this time and 
follow the sign-on procedures detailed 
in their instructions. To record any in- 
formation, type a ' ™ ' or $7E. To stop 
recording, enter another ' ~ ' or $7E. To 
transmit a text file, type a '{' or $7B. 
Do not be alarmed if the characters 
echoed back by the service during the 
transmission of a text file do not agree 
with the characters that are being sent. 
More than likely, when you review the 
file in the service's memory, it will 
agree with what you intended to send. 
But (and there must always be a "but") 



a poor telephone line or static on the 
telephone line may garble the best 
transmissions. You must not touch the 
keyboard during transmission because 
this will end the transmission. Use this 
method to end the transmission, how- 
ever, if the service sends out trouble 
messages such as 

> illegal command 

If the file TODAY.TXT is inadvertently 
closed, you can exit and restart the 
MODEM program without losing the 
telephone connection. Exit from the 
program by typing a ' }' or $7D. 

Problems 

To locate a problem you must first 
isolate it by eliminating any areas of 
the connection that are not (or should 
not be) involved. Generally I assume 
anything that I have done is wrong, 
even though I know that I am right 
beyond a shadow of a doubt. This at- 
titude has solved most of my problems 
quickly. Any manufactured and tested 
part is probably not the source of the 
problem. 

Of course, I hope you do not have 
any problems with the program as it is 
printed here. It is designed for ex- 
changing text messages. Binary trans- 
missions, such as machine-language 
program exchanges, would require that 
parity and framing errors be detected. 
Error-correcting codes would also have 
to be employed to achieve 100% 
accuracy. 

To paraphrase Professor James 
Burke in his CONNECTIONS series: 
The inventions that will probably be 
the most important are the ones that 
will improve communications. 

P.S. The SPELL program caught my "pro- 
priatary" and pointed out the correct "pro- 
prietary." "Asynchronous" passed by "syn- 
chronization" was unknown. The SPELL 
program also listed all the text formatter 
commands that are imbedded in the text 
(such as centering, etc.) as unknown words. 

THE SOURCE is a servicemark of Source Telecom- 
puting Corp., 1616 Anderson Road, McLean, VA 
22102. MICRONET and COMPUSERVE are trade- 
marks of CompuServe Inc., 5000 Arlington, Centre 
Blvd., Columbus, OH 43220. SWTPC, CT-82, 
MP-S2, S09 are trademarks of Southwest 
Technical Products Corp., 219 W. Rhapsody, San 
Antonio, TX 78216. FLEX, FLEX9, TSC are trade- 
marks of Technical Systems Consultants, Inc., 
P.O. Box 2574, West Lafayette, IN 47906. MC6850 
and MC6809 are trademarks of Motorola Inc., In- 
tegrated Circuit Division, 3501 Ed Bluestein Blvd., 
Austin, TX 78721. 

You may contact the author at 3395 
Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11229. 



40 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 




BOX 120 

ALLAMUCHY, N.J. 07820 

201-362-6574 



HUDSON DIGITAL ELECTRONICS INC 

THE TASK* MASTERS 

HDE supports the *TIM, AIM, SYM and KIM (TASK) with a growing line of computer programs and 
peripheral components. All HDE component boards are state-of-the-art 4V2" x 6V2", with on board 
regulation of all required voltages, fully compatible with the KIM-4 bus. 



OMNI DISK 65/8 and 65/5 
Single and dual drive 8" and 5 1 /4" disk systems. 
Complete, ready to plug in, bootstrap and run. 
Include HDE's proprietary operating system, 
FODS (File Oriented Disk System). 



DM816'M8A 

An 8K static RAM board tested for a minimum of 
100 hours and warranted for a full 6 months. 



DM816-UB1 

A prototyping card with on-board 5V regulator 
and address selection. You add the application. 



DM81 6-P8 

A 4/8K EPROM card for 2708 or 271 6 circuits. 
On board regulation of all required voltages. 
Supplied without EPROMS. 



DM81 6-CC1 5 

A 15 position motherboard mounted in a 19" 
REI"MA standard card cage, with power supply. 
KIM, AIM and SYM versions. 



DISK PROGRAM LIBRARY 

Offers exchange of user contributed routines 
and programs for HDE Disk Systems. Contact 
Progressive Computer Software, Inc. for details. 



HDE DISK BASIC 

A full range disk BASIC for KIM based systems. 
Includes PRINT USING, IF ... THEN . . . ELSE. 
Sequential and random file access and much 
more. $175.00 

HDE ADVANCED INTERACTIVE 
DISASSEMBLER (AID) 

Two pass disassembler assigns labels and con- 
structs source files for any object program. 
Saves multiple files to disk. TIM, AIM, SYM, Kl M 
versions. $95.00 

HDE ASSEMBLER 

Advanced, two pass assembler with standard 
mnemonics. KIM, TIM, SYM and KIM cassette 
versions. $75.00 ($80.00 cassette) 

HDE TEXT OUTPUT PROCESSING SYSTEM 
(TOPS) 

A comprehensive text processor with over 30 
commands to format and output letters, docu- 
ments, manuscripts. KIM, TIM and KIM cassette 
versions. $135.00 ($142.50 cassette) 

HDE DYNAMIC DEBUGGING TOOL (DDT) 

Built in assembler/disassembler with program 
controlled single step and dynamic breakpoint 
entry/deletion. TIM, AIM, SYM, KIM AND KIM 
cassette versions. $65.00 ($68.50 cassette) 

HDE COMPREHENSIVE MEMORY TEST 
(CMT) 

Eight separate diagnostic routines for both 
static and dynamic memory. TIM, AIM, SYM, 
KIM and KIM cassette versions. $65.00 ($68.50 
cassette) 



AVAILABLE DIRECT OR FROM THESE FINE DEALERS: 



Progressive Computer Software 
405 Corbin Road 
York, PA 1 7403 
(717)845-4954 



Johnson computers 

Box 523 

Medina, Ohio 44256 

(216) 725-4560 



Lux Associates 
20 Sunland Drive 
Chico, CA 95926 

(916) 343-5033 



Fal k-Baker Associ ates 

382 Franklin Avenue 

Nutley, NJ 07110 

(201)661-2430 

Laboratory Microcomputer Consultants 

P.O. Box 84 

East Amherst, NY 14051 

(716)689-7344 



Perry Peripherals 

P.O. Box 924 

Miller Place, NY 11764 

(516) 744-6462 



Circle No. 52 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



41 



Communications 



UIUI11 


lun Lisuny 


NAM 


MODEM 








PROC 






FLEX9 


:ntry 


POINTS 




D406 


FMS 


EQU 


$0406 


FILE MANAGEMENT 


CD24 


PCRLF 


EQU 


$CD24 


CARRIAGE RETURN 
4 LINE FEED 


CD IB 


IN8UFF 


EQU 


SCD1B 


INPUT INTO LINE BUFFER 


C080 


LINBUF 


EQU 


$C080 


LINE BUFFER ADDRESS 


CC14 


BUFPOINT 


EQU 


$CC14 


LINE BUFFER POINTER 


CD2D 


GETFIL 


EQU 


$CD2D 


GET FILE SPECIFICATION 


CD IE 


PSTRNG 


EQU 


$CD1E 


PRINT STRING 


CD15 


GETCHR 


EQU 


$CD15 


INPUT 1 CHARACTER 


CD3F 


RPTERR 


EQU 


$CD3F 


REPORT ERRORS 


D403 


FMSCLS 


EQU 


$0403 


CLOSE OPEN FILES 


CD03 


WARMS 


EQU 


$CD03 


EXIT TO FLEX9 




ACIA ADDRESSES 




E040 


CNTRL 


EQU 


$E040 


CONTROL/STATUS REGISTER 


E041 


DATA 


EQU 


$E041 


DATA REGISTER 




TERMINAL 


ACIA ADDRESSES 




E004 


TCNTRL 


EQU 


$E004 


CONTROL/STATUS REGISTER 


E005 


TDATA 


EQU 


$E005 


DATA REGISTER 




'. PROGRAM 


ENTR1 


POINT 




0000 


8E 02 84 START: 


LDX #FCB 


THE FILE CONTROL 



0003 10 8E 02 72 



BLOCK (FCB) IS A 320 BYTE BLOCK USED BY 
FLEX9 TO CONTROL DISK INPUT/OUTPUT. 

LDY #FILSPEC A CONVENIENT 
WAY TO INITIALIZE A FCB FOR USE BY 
FLEX9. 



0007 


C6 OF 




LDB #15 


15 LETTERS 


0009 


A6 AO 


STLOOP 


LDA 0,Y+ 


ARE WRITTEN 


OOOB 


A7 80 




STA 0,X+ 


TO THE BLOCK. 


OOOD 


5A 




OECB 




OOOE 


2A F9 




BPL STL OOP 




0010 


8E 02 84 




LDX #FCB 


RESET ACCX 


0013 


BD D4 06 




JSR FMS 


OPEN THE FILE 


0016 


10 26 01 55 




BNE ERROR 


ERROR TRAP 


001A 


8E 01 96 




LDX #PROMPT 


PAUSE BEFORE 


001D 


BD CD IE 




JSR PSTRNG 


INITIALIZING ACIA 


0020 


BD CD 15 




JSR GETCHR 


INPUT CHARACTER 


0023 


86 03 


RESET 


LDA #3 


RESET ACIA 


0025 


B7 EO 40 




STA CNTRL 




0028 


86 09 




LDA #$09 




002A 


B7 EO 40 




STA CNTRL 




002D 


7F 02 71 




CLR aAG 


DISK WRITE FLAG 


0030 


8E 01 8B 




LDX #READMSG 


READY MESSAGE 


0033 


BD CD IE 




JSR PSTRNG 


WRITE TO TERMINAL 






INPUT A LETTER FROM 


THE TERMINAL 


0036 


B6 EO 04 


TERM 


LDA TCNTRL 


CHECK IF TERMINAL 


0039 


85 01 




BITA #$01 


KEY IS DEPRESSED 


003B 


27 33 




BEQ PORT 


NO. GO SEE IF 






• 


MODEM HAS ANYTHING. 


003D 


B6 EO 05 




LDA TDATA 


YES. GET CHAR. 


0040 


81 7E 


' 


CMPA #'"' 


TOGGLE DISK WRITE? 


0042 


26 18 




BNE CKND 


NO. AND SKIP 


D044 


73 02 71 




COM FLAG 


YES. FLIP SWITCH 


0047 


7D 02 71 




TST FLAG 


DECIDE ON MESSAGE 


004A 


27 05 




BEQ MSGOFF 


RECORD OFF 


004C 


8E 02 37 




LDX #MSGON 


RECORD ON 


D04F 


20 03 




BRA MSG666 


PUT ON TERMINAL 


0051 


8E 02 50 


MSGOFF 


LDX #OFFMSG 


RECORD OFF 


0054 


BD CD IE 


MSG666 


JSR PSTRNG 


REPORT IT 


0057 


8E 02 84 




LDX #FCB 


RESTORE POINTER 


D05A 


20 14 




BRA PORT 


GO CHECK ON PORT. 


005C 


81 7D 


CKND 


CMPA #'t' 


GIVE UP? 


005E 


10 27 01 00 




BEQ DOEND 


YES. 


0062 


81 7B 




CMPA #'§' 


TRANSMIT A FILE? 


0064 


27 40 




BEQ FILETRANS 


YES. 


0066 


F6 EO 40 


OUTCH 


LDB CNTRL 


TRANSMITTER READY? 


0069 


C5 02 




BITB #2 




006B 


27 F9 




BEQ OUTCH 


NO. WAIT UNTIL REA 


006D 


B7 EO 41 




STA DATA 


READY, SEND DATA 



INPUT A LETTER FROM THE MODEM. 



0070 F6 EO 40 PORT LDB CNTRL DID ANYTHING 

0073 C5 01 BITB #1 COME IN? 

0075 27 BF BEQ TERM NO. GO CHECK TERMINAL. 

0077 B6 EO 41 ' LDA DATA GET LETTER 

. THE FOLLOWING SCREEN IS NECESSARY TO 

. PREVENT A STRAY MISREAD CHARACTER FROM 

. ACTIVATING ANY OF THE 150 FUNCTIONS ON 

. THE SWTPC CT-82 



007A 
007C 


81 
27 


OD 
16 




007E 
0080 


81 
27 


OA 
12 




0082 
0084 


81 
27 


08 
OE 




0086 
0088 


81 
27 


07 
OA 




008A 
008C 
008E 
0090 
0092 


81 
25 
81 
23 
86 


20 
04 
7E 
02 
7C 


WHAT 


0094 


7D 


02 71 


P0RT1 


0097 


27 


OE 


' 



CMPA #$0D 
BEQ P0RT1 

CMPA #$0A 
BEQ P0RT1 

CMPA #$08 
BEQ P0RT1 

CMPA #$07 
BEQ P0RT1 

CMPA #$20 
BLO WHAT 
CMPA #$7E 
BLS P0RT1 
LDA #'l" 
THAT A BAD CHARACTER WAS RECEIVED. 



CARRIAGE RETURN? 
OK 

LINE FEED? 
OK 

BACKSPACE? 
OK 

CHIMES? 
OK 

OTHER CONTROLS? 

NOT OK 

NOT ASCII? 

NOT OK 

A SYMBOL TO INDICATE 



0099 34 02 

009B 8E 02 84 

009E BD D4 06 

00A1 10 26 00 CA 

00A5 35 02 

00A7 F6 EO 04 

OOAA C5 02 

OOAC 27 F9 



OOAE 
0OB1 



B7 EO 05 
20 83 



TST FLAG 

BEQ P0RT2 

PSHS A 
LDX #FCB 
JSR FMS 
BNE ERROR 
PULS A 

P0RT2 LOB TCNTRL 
BITB #$02 
BEq P0RT2 

STA TDATA 
BRA TERM 

TRANSMIT A DISK FILE 



WRITE LETTER 

TO DISK? 
NO. SKIP 

SAVE ACCA 
WRITE LETTER 
TO DISK. 
ERROR TRAP 
RESTORE ACCA 

TERM READY? 

NO. WAIT 

SEND CHARACTER 

AND GO CHECK TERMINAL. 



00B3 8E 

00B6 BD 

D0B9 8E 

OOBC BF 

OOBF BD 

00C2 8E 

00C5 BF 

00C8 8E 



01 B4 
CD IE 
CO 80 
CC 14 
CD IB 
CO 80 
CC 14 
03 C4 



FILETRANS 



LDX #TRANSMSG PROMPT FOR FILE NAME 



OOCB BD CD 2D 



OCCE 86 01 

OODO A7 84- 

00D2 BD D4 06 

00D5 26 6D 



00D7 8E 03 C4 
OODA BD D4 06 
OODD 26 65 



JSR PSTRNG 
LDX #$C080 
STX $CC14 
JSR INBUFF 
LDX #$C080 
STX $CC14 
LDX #FCB2 

JSR GETFIL 



LDA #$01 
STA 0,X 
JSR FMS 
BNE ERR0R6 



PRINT PROMPT 

LINE BUFFER ADDRESS 

BUFFER POINTER 

INPUT FILE NAME 

LINE BUFFER ADDRESS 

BUFFER POINTER 

NEW FILE CONTROL 

BLOCK 

ENTERS THE FILE 

SPECIFICATION INTO THE 

FILE CONTROL BLOCK 

OPEN FOR READ CODE 

SET FCB 

OPENS THE FILE. 

ERROR TRAP 



. READ EACH CHARACTER FROM THE FILE 

READ CHAR LDX #FCB2 POINTS TO FCB 

JSR FMS LOADS ACCA WITH CHAR. 
BNE ERR0R6 LOOKS FOR END OF FILE 

ELIMINATE MORE THAN ONE CARRIAGE RETURN 
TO PREVENT RETURNING TO COMMAND MODE IN 
THE SOURCE. 



OODF 


81 


OD 




00E1 


26 


X 




0OE3 


7D 


02 


70 


00E6 


26 


EF 




00E8 


C6 


FF 




OOEA 


F7 


02 


70 


OOED 


20 


03 




OOEF 


7F 


02 


70 


00F2 


F6 


EO 


40 


OOF 5 


C5 


02 




OOF 7 


27 


F9 




00F9 


B7 


EO 


41 


OOFC 


F6 


EO 


40 


OOFF 


C5 


01 




0101 


26 


14 




0103 


F6 


EO 


04 


0106 


C5 


01 




0108 


27 


F2 




010A 


26 


73 




010C 


8E 


01 


EE 



NOT CR 



WAIT22 



WAIT30 



CMPA #$0D 
BNE N0T_CR 
TST CRFLAG 
BNE READ CHAR 
LDB #$FF~ 
STB CRFLAG 
BRA WAIT22 
CLR CRFLAG 

LDB CNTRL 
BITB #$02 
BEQ WAIT22 
STA DATA 
LDB CNTRL 
BITB #$01 
BNE WAIT OVER 
LDB TCNTUL 
BITB #$01 
BEQ WAIT30 
BNE ERR66 
LDX #TRANSINT 



CARRIAGE RETURN? 
NO. 

WAS LAST A C.R.? 
YES SKIP THIS 
NO. BUT SKIP 
ALL SUBSE- 
QUENT C.RS. 
CLEAR FLAG 

CHECK FOR EMPTY 
TRANSMITTER. 
NOT READY. 
SEND CHARACTER 
WAIT FOR ECHO 
FROM HOST 

ALLOW EXIT FROM 
LOOP 

TRAP ERROR 
TRANSMISSION- 



42 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Communications 



Glennon Listing (continued) 



010F 


BD CD IE 




JSR PSTRNG 


INTERRUPTED. 


0112 


8E 03 C4 




LDX #FCB2 




0115 


20 20 




BRA ERR0R6 




0117 


B6 EO 41 


WAITJ3VER LDA DATA 


PICK UP 










RETURNED CHAR 


011A 


81 OD 




CMPA #$00 


ALLOW A CARRIAGE RET. 


one 


27 OC 




BEQ PASS OYER 




011E 


81 OA 




CMPA #$0A~ 


ALLOW A LINE FEED 


0120 


27 08 




BEQ PASS OVER 




0122 


81 20 




CMPA #$2TJ 


SCREEN IT 


0124 


25 10 




BLO BAD ECHO 




0126 


81 7E 




CMPA #$7E 


ASCII? 


0128 


22 OC 




BHI BAD ECHO 




01 2A 


F6 EO 04 


PASSJJVER LDB" TCNTRL TERMINAL READY? 


012D 


C5 02 




BITB #$02 




012F 


27 F9 




BEQ PASS OVER 


NOT YET. 


0131 


B7 EO 05 




STA TDATS" 


SEND TO TERMINAL 


0134 


20 Al 




BRA READ CHAR 


GET NEXT CHARACTER. 


0136 


86 7C 


BAD ECHO LDA #'!' 


BAD ECHO INDICATOR 


0138 


F6 EO 04 


BADBAD 


LDB TCNTRL 


TERMINAL READY? 


013B 


C5 02 




BITB #$02 




0130 


27 F9 




BEQ BADBAD 


NOT YET 


01 3F 


B7 EO 05 




STA TDATA 


SEND TO TERMINAL 


0142 


20 93 




BRA READ_CHAR 


TRY NEXT CHARACTER. 


0144 


A6 01 


ERR0R6 


LOA 1,X 


ERROR COOE 


0146 


81 08 




CMPA #$08 


END OF FILE 


0148 


27 03 




BEQ CLOSE SHOP YES THE ENO. 


014A 


BO CO 3F 




JSR RPTERJT 


REPORT OTHER ERROR 


014D 


86 04 


CLOSE_SHOP LDA #$04 


CLOSE FILE COOE 


014F 


A7 84 




STA 0,X 




0151 


BO 04 06 




JSR FMS 


CLOSE FILE 


0154 


26 29 




BNE ERR66 




0156 


8E 02 15 




LOX #TRANSCOMP END TRANSMISSION 


0159 


BD CD IE 




JSR PSTRNG 


PRINT MSG 


01 5C 


8E 02 84 




LDX #FCB 


RESTORE POINTER 


015F 


16 FE D4 


. EXIT 


BRA TERM 
PROGRAM 


RETURN TO MAIN 
PROGRAM LOOP. 


0162 


8E 02 84 


DOENO 


LDX #FCB 


TODAYS RECORD 


0165 


86 04 




LDA #$4 


CLOSE FILE CODE 


0167 


A7 84 




STA 0,X 


CLOSE THE FILE 


0169 


BD D4 06 




JSR FMS 




016C 


7E CD 03 




JMP WARMS 


AND RETURN TO FLEX9 






. DISK OPERATION ERRORS 






IF THE FILE TODAY.TXT EXISTS IT 






MUST BE DELETEO. 




01 6F 


A6 01 


ERROR 


LDA 1,X 


GET ERROR CODE 


0171 


81 03 




CMPA #3 


FILE EXISTS? 


0173 


26 OA 




BNE ERR66 


NO. REAL TROUBLE 


0175 


86 OC 




LDA #12 


DELETE FILE 


0177 


A7 84 




STA 0,X 




0179 


BD D4 06 




JSR FMS 




017C 


16 FE 81 




BRA START 


AND TRY AGAIN 


01 7F 


BD CD 3F 


ERR66 


JSR RPTERR 


REPORT ERROR 


0182 


BD D4 03 




JSR FMSCLS 


CLOSE ALL FILES 


0185 


73 02 71 




COM FLAG 


CLEAR WRITE FLAG 


0188 


16 FE AB 




BRA TERM 


CONTINUE TO RECEIVE 


018B 


52 45 41 44 


READMSG 


FCC /READY/ 




0190 


OA 00 00 00 




FCB $0A,$0O,0,0,0,4 


0196 


54 59 50 45 


PROMPT 


FCC /TYPE ANY 


LETTER TO START/ 


01AE 


OA 00 00 00 




FCB $OA,$OD,0, 


0,0.4 


0184 


45 4E 54 45 


TRANSMSG 


FCC /ENTER FILE SPECIFICATION FOR FILE 








TO BE 


TRANSMITTED./ 


01E8 


OA 00 00 00 




FCB $OA,$OD,0, 


0,0,4 


01EE 


49 4E 54 45 


TRANSINT 


FCC /INTERRUPT RECEIVED FROM 










TERMINAL./ 


020F 


OA 00 00 00 




FCB $OA,$OD,0, 


0,0,4 


0215 


54 52 41 4E 


TRANSCOMP FCC /TRANSMISSION FILE IS CLOSED./ 


0231 


OA CO 00 00 




FCB $OA,$OD,0, 


0,0,4 


0237 


20 20 20 2B 


MSGON 


FCC / ++++ RECORDING ON ++++/ 


0250 


20 20 20 2A 


OFFMSG 


FCC / **** RECORDING OFF ****/ 


026A 


OA OD 00 00 




FCB $OA,$OD,0, 


0,0,4 


0270 




CRFLAG 


RMB I 


CARRIAGE RETURN FLAG 


0271 




FLAG 


RMB 1 




0272 


02 00 00 00 


FILSPEC 


FCB 2,0,0.0,"TOOAY",0.0,0,"TXT",0,0,0 


0284 




FCB 


RMB 320 


RECORD FILE 


03C4 




FCB2 


RMB 320 
END 


TRANSMIT FILE 


OOOO 






ENO START 




— NO 


ERRORS THIS 


ASSEMBLY. 







PET/CBM 

SOFTWARE 



TM 



8032 

DISPLAY 



OR 



4032 

DISPLAY 



FROM THE KEYBOARD OR PROGRAM 
NOW RUN WORD PRO 3 OR WORD PRO 4 

FROM THE SAME MACHINE 

Available for either 4000 or 8000 Series 

ALSO: 
For 2001 / 3000 Series Computers 

Operate these Models in a Full 8032 Like 

Display For Word Pro 4* 

and all other 80 Column Software 

All installation instructions included. 

EXECOM CORP. 

1901 Polaris Ave. 
Racine, Wl 53404 
Ph.414-632-1004 

PET/CBM a trademark of Commodore Business Machines 
'trademark of Professional Software, Inc. 

Circle No. 53 



JMCftO 



* Bimi ovar 15 EPROMS - 15 mlmitas ansa lime 

* Bamant Ma 7700 hours 

* imansltyHZWs'&cm'in" 

* Emet al UV EPROMS (2716. 2732. 2516, 2532. etc.) 



UV EPROM ERASER 

$49.95 

♦ HOBBY MODEL 

INDUSTRIAL MODEL 

QUV-T8 / 2N 

$68.95 

WITH TIMER AND 

SAFETY SWITCH 

0UV-T8 / 2T 
$97.50 




INTELLIGENT 

PROGRAMMER 

STAND ALONE 

RS-232 

* RELIABLE 

* EASY COPY iNo external 
eqmpmeni neededi 

+ USER FRIENDLY 
PROGRAMS: 2508, 2516, 2532, 2716, 27C16, 27C32, „„.. D/1T , D , c 

2732A, 2758, 8748, 8749H, 8748H f B ™PC trs 8 °, APPLE, CPM 

OPTIONAL MODULES : 2564, 2764, 8755A, 8741 FLEX TEKTRONICS MDS 

* STANO ALONE. CRT, OR COMPUTER CONTROL 

* UPLOAD/DOWNLOAD IN MOTOROLA OR INTEL HEX FORMAT 

* MICROPROCESSOR BASED * 4 K INTERNAL RAM 

* 90 DAY PARTS i LABOR WARRANTY ON ALL PRODUCTS 

SOON TO BE RELEASED: 

PROMPRO-8 128K Version $689. 
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

LOGICAL DEVICES IHC. 

781 W. OAKLAND PARK BLVD. • FT. LAUDERDALE, FL 3331 1 

Phone Orders (305) 974-0967 • TWX: 510-955-9496 
^ SEE US AT COMDEX SPRING - BOOTH #3019 _J 

Circle No. 61 



>ROGRAMMIN( 

PRICE INCLUDES 

PERSONALITY MODULE 

$489.00 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



43 



Communications 



A Home-Built 



Communications Interface 

by John Steiner 



Circuitry and techniques to construct 

a communications interface. With modifications 

could be converted to a telephone modem. 

Simple, reliable, and inexpensive design ■ 



Communication between computers is 
rapidly becoming a common-place oc- 
currence. More and more people are in- 
volved with electronic mail, time shar- 
ing, and data base activities. Mechani- 
cal radio teletype systems are being re- 
placed by modern computer technology, 
and the Baudot code is being sup- 
planted by ASCII. This article describes 
the construction and connection of a 
radio teletype modem. Techniques 
found here can be applied to any digital 
data communications application. 

The modem can act as an interface 
with any serial RS-232-C device, but 
this article describes the process used 
to connect it specifically to the TRS-80 
Color Computer. In this case the equip- 
ment being interfaced is an amateur 
radio transceiver; with some changes it 
would be possible to convert this 
device to a telephone-type modem. 

The TRS-80 Color Computer has 



proven to be an excellent communica- 
tions terminal. It is inexpensive, easily 
programmed, and includes an RS-232 
output connection. CoCo is well 
shielded from external sources of radio 
frequency interference and causes little 
of its own. After reading several articles 
in various periodicals and books, Ken 
Christiansen fWOCZ] and I decided we 
would like to experiment with radio 
teletype (RTTY). We selected a basic 
demodulator design from the National 
Semiconductor Data Book. The modu- 
lator is modified from a basic circuit by 
Rodney Colton (WA1SXWJ in an article 
in QST magazine, September 1981. 

In our research, we found several in- 
teresting articles and books. The biblio- 
graphy lists those that were especially 
helpful to us in learning about RTTY. 
Ken and I were interested in communi- 
cating via two meters, so frequency off- 
sets were designed around the VHF 



convention of 170 Hz frequency shift. 
The mark frequency is 2125 Hz and 
space is 2295 Hz. Also included is a 
voltage-regulator circuit that ensures 
stability of operation of the PLL cir- 
cuits. The modems have been used oc- 
casionally on the high-frequency 
bands, but a lack of filtering hampers 
their performance. One of these units 
has been used with excellent results 
with audio filtering preceding the 
demodulator. 

Total cost for all components, if 
purchased new, should be $25 to $35, 
depending on final configuration and 
cabinet. The modem is designed to be 
powered from a 14-volt or higher DC 
source. A simple supply can be built for 
under $20, if one is not available. I use 
an inexpensive CB radio-power supply. 

Demodulator Circuit 

The simple FSK demodulator uses a 
565 phase-lock loop IC and is a modi- 
fied circuit originally found in the NS 
data book. The circuit has excellent 
stability and has worked flawlessly for 
several months now. IC 1 (see figure 1) 
is the PLL. The circuit is adjusted with 
R5 and R6 to be between the high 
(mark) and low (space) frequencies. 



Figure 1 



SPKR 



Q^ 



SPKR 

ON 



J2 " SW1 S OFF 



IN -l~ 



Q 



IN 

J1 




INV 



— f\. 



swa o*- 0- 

Tnor 



-OOUT 



44 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Communications 




Mark and space audio tones input to C2 
cause the PLL output (pin 7 J to be 
higher or lower than a reference voltage 
(pin 6). IC2, a comparator, compares 
the voltages and responds with a logic 
zero or logic one at the output (pin 2). 

A few features have been added to 
the circuit to make it more versatile. 
R5 is mounted on the front panel and is 
a fine-frequency adjustment used to 
tune the PLL precisely to the input 
frequency. LED1 allows a visual indica- 
tion of the data input. In practice, R5 is 
adjusted until the LED blinks with the 
changing data. Once the LED is blink- 
ing, you merely adjust for intelligible 
data on the CRT. Incorrect adjustment 
of R5 causes the LED to remain either 
on or off. Ql is an inverter that reverses 
the state of the output logic, ensuring 
compatibility with any transmission 
standard. J2 is provided to connect an 
external speaker, making it easy to use 
the earphone jack on the transceiver 
and allowing you to monitor the in- 
coming signal. SW1 can turn off the 
speaker once communication is 
established. 

To adjust the demodulator, place a 
2210 Hz signal on the input. Set R5 to 
midrange, then adjust R6 until the LED 



changes state as you turn the poten- 
tiometer back and forth. Check to see 
that the LED changes state as you bring 
the audio frequency between mark and 
space frequencies. If you cannot adjust 
the output within range, you may have 
to change R15 slightly. 
Modulator Circuit 

The modulator circuit uses a 566 
PLL IC as a frequency generator. The 
input to the modulator is serial binary 
data from the computer. A high causes 
the mark frequency to be sent, and a 
low causes the space frequency to be 
sent. Ql is an inverter that allows the 
logic to be inverted. If you have soft- 
ware that can complement the output 
data, these associated components can 
be removed. Q2 is a switch that is used 
to change output frequency. When the 
modulator is receiving a high, this 
switch is on. Frequency is determined 
by the specific adjustments of R7 and 
R8 and the voltage divider of R9 
through R12. When the input goes low, 
Q2 shuts off, switching R7 and R8 out 
of the circuit. During space, RIO and 
the associated divider resistors deter- 
mine the output frequency. 

To adjust the circuit, ground the in- 
put. This switches R7 and R8 out of the 



circuit. Adjust RIO for the space fre- 
quency at the output as measured on a 
frequency counter. Put + 5 volts on the 
input and adjust R8 to midrange and 
tune R7 until the output is at the mark 
frequency. Ground the input again and 
recheck space frequency. You will 
notice some interaction between the 
mark and space controls. Only slight 
adjustments will be required. As with 
the demodulator, you may have to 
change the value of R9 slightly if you 
cannot get the potentiometers within 
range. The entire process of adjusting 
the modem takes much less time to do 
than it does to describe! 

SW2, a tone on/off switch, has been 
included to kill the tone without 
actually powering down the modem. 
As the unit warms up, it drifts very 
slightly. Let it run for a few minutes 
before making adjustments. Any drift 
in the demodulator is taken care of 
easily with the front panel control. 
Once warm, it is completely stable. We 
have had no long-term drift problems 
with the circuit. 

Power Supply Regulator 

The modem has a regulator circuit 
that helps stabilize the PLL circuits. 






+ 12V 

O 



D3 




■* < R7 m 

R10' 



R11 



R12 



C3 -T- 



RS 



Figure 2 





SW2 ON 

o » o ^n 



J^ 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



45 



Communications 

The heart of the circuit is a three- 
terminal IC — an LM 317 adjustable 
positive regulator. The circuit must 
have at least two volts more at the in- 
put than required at the output to re- 
tain regulation. The IC should be heat- 
sinked if you apply a very high input 
voltage. My regulator circuit gets its 
power from a 15-volt supply and does 
not run warm even without a heat sink. 
A power switch is included so that the 
main power supply can be left on for 
other purposes. 

To adjust the circuit, connect a 
voltmeter to the output and adjust Rl 
until the meter reads 12 volts. Be sure 
to adjust the power supply output 
voltage before attempting to adjust the 
modem. 

Construction 

None of the circuits are critical, and 
they can be wired on printed circuit or 
perf board as desired. We have had 
three units constructed using the same 
basic circuit; even though the layouts 
have been totally different, each has 
worked without any problems for several 
months. You should use a metal 
cabinet if you plan to run the unit in 
high RF fields. We have not noticd any 
particular RFI problems with our units. 
Jacks and cable connectors that match 
the appropriate connectors on the 
transmitting device are required. 



Interfacing the Modem 

The connection between the Color 
Computer and modem is through the 
RS-232 jack marked SERIAL I/O on the 
rear panel of the computer. The easiest 
way to obtain the required four-pin 
DIN plug is to order the Radio Shack 
printer cable. If you cut it exactly in 
two, you will have two four-pin cables 
that can be used as I/O connections. 
The cable has color-coded conductors 
that are connected as follows: 
Red to ground of modem 
Green to output of demodulator 



White to input of modulator 
Yellow to positive voltage 

Connection to the transmitter is via 
the audio output or external speaker 
jack. This connection goes between 
ground and the demodulator input. The 
modulator output connects between 
ground and the microphone or auxiliary 
input jack on the transceiver. In my 
particular installation, I ordered an ex- 
ternal microphone for the handi-talkie, 
and installed a mini-stereo jack in it 
since I didn't want to drill into the 
case. As an added convenience, I con- 
nected the extra conductor in the stereo 
jack to the PTT line inside the micro- 
phone. This line is controlled by a 
switch on the modem marked XMIT, 
and allows me to remain in transmit 
without holding in the PTT switch. 

When Ken and I completed the con- 
struction of the two modems, the only 
available software we knew about was 
Radio Shack's VIDEOTEX terminal 
program. This machine-language pro- 
gram operates at 300 baud ASCII with 
even parity protocol. Ken and I were 
assured of private transmissions as we 
were the only RTTY stations in the 
area with 300-baud capability. The 
modem operates at this speed with no 
problems, under normal two-meter 
reception conditions. 

One evening I heard from a friend 
who spends much time on RTTY. He 
had just finished a contact with a sta- 
tion that was using a TRS-80C on 60 
WPM Baudot, the standard used mostly 
on HF. Bill (WOLHSJ told me that a 
radio ham was communicating with 
several individuals, all with color com- 
puters. He told of sending programs 
back and forth between terminals and 
informed me that the software they 
were using was called RTTYCW, writ- 
ten by K6AEP. Coincidentally Ken had 
just sent for a RTTY program he read 
about. His order to Clay Abrams Soft- 
ware was the same program — 
RTTYCW. It is capable of 60, 75, 100, 
and 110 WPM Baudot, as well as 50, 



Figure 3 




75, 100, 150, and 300 baud ASCII. The 
program will also send and receive 
morse code at 1 to 99 words per 
minute. 

There are four message buffers and 
12K transmit and receive buffers in a 
32K CoCo. If you have a 16K machine, 
you are limited to a buffer size of about 
4K. The transmit buffers can be loaded 
via tape, and all buffers can be saved to 
tape for loading at start-up time. 

By loading a program saved in ASCII 
format into the transmit buffer, you 
can transmit that program to a receiver 
where it can be saved to tape. Then you 
can load the tape into the computer at a 
later time and resave it in standard for- 
mat. If you want a hard copy of the 
text, all buffers can be sent to the 
printer. In short, I cannot say enough 
about the quality and capability of this 
software. It has all of the features I 
wanted when I thought of writing my 
own program. 

The Color Computer is easy to in- 
terface, and the simple modem circuit 
has provided me with many hours of 
fun and education. The easy-to-adjust 
circuit can be built in just a few hours 
at little expense. If you have any ques- 
tions or problems with construction, 
you may contact me at the address 
below, or on the Color Computer NET. 
This net meets at 2Q00 hours UTC Sun- 
days on 14.343 Mhz, and I try to check 
in regularly. If you write, please 
enclose a stamped, self-addressed 
envelope for a reply. 

Bibliography 

1. ARPL Staff, "Radio Amateurs Hand- 
book," American Radio Relay 
League, 1982. 

2. Carr, Joseph J., "The UART," Com- 
puters and Programming, September 
1981. 

3. Colton, Rondey, "A PLL Demodu- 
lator and Modulator," QST 
Magazine, September 1981. 

4. Dejong, Marvin L., "Morse Code 
Send/Receive Program," Best of 
MICRO, Volume 3. 

5. Henry, George W., Jr., "ASCII 
Baudot and Radio Amateur," QST 
Magazine, September 1980. 

6. Rouleau and Hodgson, Packet Radio, 
Tab Books, 1981. 



You may contact John Steiner at ARS 
WB0NFX, 508 Fourth Ave. NW, Riverside, 
ND 58078. 



46 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



Communications 



PET-to-PET Communications 



by F. Arthur Cochrane 



This article describes a 
machine-language program to 
transfer an array from one PET 
to another over the User Port. 

I have developed a method to com- 
municate data between two Com- 
modore PETs. Two PETs (PET A and 
PET B) are needed for on-line data col- 
lection and simultaneous graphic dis- 
play and real-time monitoring of a 
chemical separations process. The 
tasks for PET A are instrument set-up, 
data collection, and data storage on 
disk. Tasks for PET B are graphic 
display, and reading and storing infor- 
mation on disk. The data for each 
transfer between PETs are limited to 14 
floating-point values. For this applica- 
tion communication was necessary in 
only one direction — from PET A to 
PET B. 

The Method 

I employed the user port on the PET 
to transfer 8-bit data. Table 1 describes 
the user port signals. The CB2 and CA1 
lines are used for handshaking the data. 
The sender sets the 8-bit port for output 
mode and the receiver for input mode. 

Table 1: User Port Signals 

PET 
Connections Signal 

A Ground 

B CA1 - Input Handshake 

Line 
C Most Significant Data 

Line PA7 
D Data Line PA6 

E Data Line PA5 

F Data Line PA4 

H Data Line PA3 

I Data Line PA2 

K Data Line PA1 

L Least Significant Data 

Line PAO 
M CB2 - Output 

Handshake Line 
N Ground 



The CB2 line from the sender is con- 
nected to the CA1 line of the receiver 
and acts as a Data Ready signal. The 
CB2 line from the reciever is connected 
to the CA1 line of the sender and acts as 
a Data Accepted signal. The wiring 
hookup is shown in figure 1 . 

I could have transferred the data 
from the BASIC program with PEEKs and 
POKEs. But for this application, I wrote 
a simple machine-lanugage program 
that transfers data much faster and 
allows the PETs to spend most of their 
time collecting data and doing numeric 
calculations, and very little time with 
the PET-to-PET communication. 

The data sent are the first 14 ele- 
ments of the first dimensioned real ar- 
ray. This puts the restriction on the 
BASIC program that the first dimen- 
sioned array in the program is the one 
to be sent or received. 

The set-up code for the sender (a 
SYS 637 command in the program 
listed) sets CB2 high, sets the data 
direction register for input, and clears 
CA1. When the sender wishes to send 
data, a SYS 634 is initiated in the 
sender code. 

The set-up code for the receiver (a 
SYS 640 command in the program 
listed) sets CB2 high, sets the data 
direction register for input, and clears 
CA1. Also, the machine code changes 
the IRQ vector on the reciever to point 
to the machine-language routine that 
checks for a Data Ready signal from the 
sender. 

The data are received in the receiver 
during the 60-Hz keyboard-scan rou- 
tine, independent of action by the 
BASIC program. This is done by check- 
ing for a Data Ready from the sender 
each scan. If data are not ready, the nor- 
mal keyboard scan functions as nor- 
mal. If data are ready, the receiver code 
is executed, after which the keyboard- 
scan code continues. Because the data 
are received independently of the 



BASIC program, the receiver program 
must be able to determine whether or 
not new data have been sent. This is 
done by using the zero element of the 
array as a flag. The receiver sets the 
zero element to zero, and the sender 

Figure 1. PET to PET Connection 



-{> 



-D>- 



sets it to minus one. These numbers 
are chosen because PET BASIC takes a 
value of zero in decisions to be false 
and a minus one to be true. In an IF 
statement the receiver PET can check 
the zero element. If it is minus one, 
new data have been sent and can be 
copied to a safe location and the zero 
element flag can be reset to zero. 

Limitations 

Although the sender PET can send 
information faster than the receiver 
PET needs it, in this application the 
sender spends most of its time collec- 
ting data and the receiver can plot them 
very quickly. This is not a problem if 
only the latest data are needed. If a 
future problem arises, additional 
coding in the program can be used to 
solve it. The additional machine code 
could check the zero element to see if it 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



47 



Communications 

is still minus one from the previous 
communication, in which case the 
receiver would not do the communica- 
tion until it becomes zero. 

The current program can be expanded 
only to send forty-nine elements of an 
array because the Y register of the 6502 
microprocessor is used as a counter. 
This problem can be overcome by 
placing a two-byte counter in memory. 

Description of Programs 

The first three instructions in lines 
1090 to 1110 of the machine code 
(listing 1) form a jump table. The next 
group of instructions in lines 1130 to 
1170 set up the PET as a sender. After 
that, lines 1190 to 1250 set up the PET 
as a receiver. The PET IRQ routine for 
the receiver starts in line 1280. Lines 
1270 to 1320 look for the first Data 
Ready from the sender by checking the 
CA1 interrupt flag. The macro in line 



1350 loops for the number of bytes to 
receive. The receiver code waits for a 
Data Ready, gets the data, and sends a 
Data Accepted. Line 1420 is the macro 
that loops for the number of bytes to 
send. The sender code writes the data, 
sends a Data Ready, and waits for a 
Data Accepted. Lines 1500 to 1550 
detects a Data Ready or Data Accepted. 
Data are read or written in lines 1730 to 
1820, using the array pointer. 

This machine code is for BASIC 2.0 
and loads into Cassette Buffer 1 . To use 
the code with BASIC 4.0, the keyboard 
scan address must be changed from 
$E62E to $E455 and the return to 
BASIC READY from $C389 to $B3FF. 

The sample BASIC listing consists of 
two programs. Lines 100 to 260 form a 
sender program, and lines 270 to 380 
form a receiver program. After the ma- 
chine code has been loaded into both 
PETs, the BASIC program (listing 2) is 



run by the sequence given in the re- 
marks in lines 120 to 160 of the program. 

Conclusion 

This program shows how easy it is 
to expand the firmware of the Commo- 
dore PET to implement new functions. 
EPROMs can be added to the hardware 
for these expanded firmware programs. 
This program also shows how machine 
language can improve the speed of the 
PET, and have a program function in- 
dependently of a BASIC program. 

Acknowledgements 

The information contained in this 
article was developed during the course 
of work under Contract No. DE-AC09- 
76SR00001 with the U.S. Department 
of Energy. 

You may contact Mr. Cochrane at E.I. du 
Pont de Nemours & Co., Savannah River 
Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808. 













Listing 1 


Listing 1 (Continued) 




0010 ;THE SENDER PET SENDS THE FIRST FIFTEEN (0-14) ELEMENTS OF 


0570 AND ...REG 




0020 ; THE FIRST DIMENSIONED ARRAY 


0580 STA . . .REG 




0030 


0590 .ME 




0040 ;THE RECEIVER PET RECEIVES DATA ALSO IN THE FIRST ARRAY 


0600 




0050 


0610 ;SET IRQ VECTOR TO NEW VALUE 




0060 ; SYS 634 - SEND DATA 


0620 1 I ISET.IRQ .MD (...VECTOR) 




0070 


0630 SEI ;DISABLE IRQ'S 




0080 ; SYS 637 - SET UP SENDER PET 


0640 LDA «,,... VECTOR 




0090 


0650 STA »IRQ 




0100 ; SYS 640 - SET UP RECEIVER PET 


0660 LDA *H, .. .VECTOR 




0110 


0670 STA *IRQ1 




0120 ;THE RECEIVER PET GETS DATA DURING THE KEYBOARD SCAN. 


0680 CLI ; RESTORE IRQ'S 




0130 ;THE RECEIVER PET CAN DETECT IF NEW DATA HAS BEEN RECEIVED 


0690 


.ME 




0140 ; BY CHECKING THE ZERO ELEMENT OF THE ARRAY. IF NEW DATA 


0700 






0150 ; HAS BEEN RECEIVED THEN MOVE IT AND RESET THE 


0710 


LOOP ROUTINE FOR SENDING AND RECEIVING 




0160 ; ZERO ELEMENT. 


0720 


1IL00P .MD (...FIRST ...SECOND ...THIRD) 




0170 


0730 


SEI ; DISABLE IRQ'S 




0180 ;IF THE PET HANGS UP AND THE STOP KEY DOES NOT FUNCTION 


0740 


LDY ^COUNTER ; SETUP POINTER TO Af 




0190 ; USE THE KEY TO RETURN TO READY. 


0750 


..AGAIN JSR ...FIRST 




0200 


0760 


JSR ...SECOND 




0210 POINTER .DE 44 


START OF ARRAYS 


0770 


JSR ...THIRD 




0220 IRQ .DE $90 


PET IRQ VECTOR 


0780 


DEY ; DECREMENT THE C0UN1 




0230 READY .DE $C389 


WARM START OF BASIC 


0790 


BPL... AGAIN ; INCLUDES ZERO 




0240 PET. IRQ .DE JE62E 


PET IRQ ROUTINE 


0800 


CLI ; RESTORE IRQ'S 




0250 PIAK .DE 59410 


KEYBOARD PORT 


0810 


RTS 




0260 


0820 


.ME 




0270 ; HEADER BYTES/ELEMENT » ELEMENTS MOVED - ONE LESS 


0830 






0280 ; 7 5 * 15 - 1 


0840 






0290 COUNTER .DE 775-1 ;BYTES TO TRANSFER 


0850 


.BA 634 ; FIRST CASSETTE BUFI 




0300 


0860 


.CE ; CONTINUE IF ERRORS 




0310 HDATA .DE 59457 


DATA WITH HANDSHAKE 


0870 






0320 DDR .DE 59459 


DATA DIRECTION REG 


0880 


.PR PET TO PET COMMUNICATION 




0330 AUXREG .DE 59467 


AUXILIARY CONTROL REG 


0890 






0340 PCREG .DE 59468 


PERIPHERAL CONTROL REG 


0900 






0350 IFREG .DE 59469 


INTERRUPT FLAG REG 


0910 


.PR STORE OBJECT CODE? (0N0, 1YES) 




0360 DATA .DE 59471 


DATA REG 


0920 


OBJ .IN OBJ 




0370 


0930 


IFN OBJ 




0380 ;SET REGISTER 3 FOR INPUT OR OUTPUT 


0940 


.OS 




0390 IMSET.DIR .MD (...DIR) 


0950 


*»» 




0400 LDA #...DIR 


0960 






0410 STA DDR 


0970 


.PR LISTING OUTPUT? (0NO, 1YES) 




0420 .ME 


0980 


LISTIT .IN LISTIT 




0430 


0990 


IFN LISTIT 




0440 ;SET BITS IN SPECIFIED REGISTER WHICH CORRESPOND WITH 


1000 


.LS 




0450 jl'S IN MASK. 


1010 


.PR EXPAND MACROS? (0NO, 1YES) 




0460 11ISET.BIT .MD (...MASK ...REG) 


1020 


EXPAND .IN EXPAND 




0470 LDA #. ..MASK 


1030 


IFN EXPAND 




0480 0RA ...REG 


1040 


.ES 




0490 STA ...REG 


1050 


*** 




0500 .ME 


1060 


**» 




0510 


1070 






0520 ;CLEAR BITS IN SPECIFIED REGISTER WHICH CORRESPOND 


1080 


;JUMP TABLE 




0530 ;WITH l'S IN MASK. 


0Z7A- 4C EC 02 1090 


JMP SEND. MAIN ;SYS 634 FOR SENDINC 




0540 II1CLR.BIT .MD (...MASK ...REG) 


027D- 4C 83 02 1100 


JMP BEGIN. S ;SYS 637 FOR SENDER 




0550 LDA #...MASK 


0280- 4C 9E 02 1110 


JMP BEGIN. R ;SYS 640 FOR RECEIVI 




0560 E0R Mllllllll ; INVERT MASK 


1120 






48 MICR 





No. 59 -April 1983 




. . . 


... .. . - 







Communications 



Listing 1 (Continued) 

1130 BEGIN. S SET. BIT (JtlHOOOOO PCREG) ;SET CB2 HIGH 



0283- A9 EO 
0285- OD 4C E8 
0288- 8D 4C E8 


1140 


SET.DIR (jUlllllll) ;SET FOR OUTPUT 


028B- A9 FF 
028D- 8D 43 E8 


1150 


CLR.BIT (J00011100 AUXREG) jDISABLE SHII 


0290- A9 IC 
0292- 49 FF 
0294- 2D 4B E8 
0297- 8D 4B E8 






029A- AD 41 E8 
029D- 60 


1160 
1170 
1180 
1190 BEGIN. R 


IDA HDATA ; CLEARS CA1 
RTS 

SET. BIT (JflllOOOOO PCREG) ;SET CB2 HIGH 


029E- A9 EO 
02A0- OD 4C E8 
02A3- 8D 4C E8 







02A6- A9 00 
02A8- 8D 43 E8 



02AB- A9 IC 
02AD- 49 FF 
02AF- 2D 4B E8 
02B2- 8D 4B E8 

02B5- AD 41 E8 



02B8- A9 01 
02BA- OD 4B E8 
02BD- 8D 4B E8 



02C0- 78 
02C1- A9 CE 
02C3- 85 90 
02C5- A9 02 
02C7- 85 91 
02C9- 58 

02CA- 60 

02CB- 4C 2E E6 
02CE- A9 02 
02D0- 2C 4D E8 
02D3- FO F6 
02D5- 20 DB 02 
02D8- 4C CB 02 



02DB- 78 
02DC- AO 51 
02DE- 20 FD 02 
02E1- 20 27 03 
02E4- 20 OA 03 
02E7- 88 
02E8- 10 F4 
02EA- 58 
02EB- 60 



1200 



1210 



02EC- 
02ED- 
02EF- 
02F2- 
02F5- 
02F8- 
02F9- 



SET.DIR (JfOOOOOOOO) ;SET FOR INPUT 



CLR.BIT (JKOOlllOO AUXREG) ;DISABLE SHIFT REGIS 



1220 
1230 



L240 



LDA HDATA ; CLEARS CA1 

SET. BIT (JtOOOOOOOl AUXREG) ;ENABLE LATCHING OF 



SET. IRQ (LOOK) 



; CHANGE PET IRQ VECTOR 



RTS 



1250 

L260 

1270 PETROUT 

1280 LOOK 

1290 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 ;MAIN RECEIVER ROUTINE 

1350 REC.MAIN LOOP (WAIT.CA1 RECEIVE SEND.CB2 



JMP PET. IRQ 
LDA iMOOOOOOlO 
BIT IFREG 
BEQ PETROUT 
JSR REC.MAIN 
JMP PETROUT 



;T0 PET IRQ ROUTINE 



;CA1 NOT SET SO NO DATA RE 
; FINISH UP PET IRQ ROUTINE 



1360 

1370 ;1. WAIT FOR DATA READY 

1380 ;2. GET DATA & CLEAR CA1 

1390 ;3. SEND DATA ACCEPTED 

1400 

1410 ;KAIN SENDER ROUTINE 

1420 SEND. MAIN LOOP (SENDER SEND.CB2 UAIT.CA1) 



78 

AO 51 
20 IF 03 
20 OA 03 
20 FD 02 
88 
10 F4 



Listing 1 

02FB- 
02 FC- 



(Continaed) 



58 
60 



02FD- 
02FF- 
0302- 
0304- 



A9 02 
2C 12 E8 
10 29 

2C 4D E8 



1440 jl. WRITE DATA & CLEAR CA1 

1450 ;2. SEND DATA READY 

1460 ;3. WAIT FOR DATA ACCEPTED 

1470 

1480 

1490 ;WAIT FOR CA1 TO BE SET 

1500 WAIT.CA1 LDA 1WOOOOOOIO 



0307- FO F6 
0309- 60 



BIT PIAK 
BPL ESCAPE 
BIT IFREG 
BEQ LOOP 
RTS 



MASK TO READ CA1 

TEST FOR PANIC KEY 

IF KEY THEN SIGN BIT SI : 

LOOP IF CA1 NOT SET 



030A- 
030D- 
030E- 
030F- 
0310- 
0311- 
0312- 
0315- 



20 16 03 

EA 

EA 

EA 

EA 

EA 

20 16 03 

60 



; DELAY SOME 



0316- A9 20 
0318- 4D 4C E8 
031B- 8D 4C E8 
03 IE- 60 



031F- Bl 2C 
0321- 49 FF 
0323- 8D 41 E8 
0326- 60 



0327- 
032A- 
032C- 



AD 41 E8 
91 2C 
60 



032D- 58 
032E- 4C 89 C3 



1510 LOOP 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 ;SEND DATA READY OR DATA ACCEPTED 

1580 SEND.CB2 JSR TOGGLE. CB2 

1590 NOP 

1600 NOP 

1610 NOP 

1620 NOP 

1630 NOP 

1640 JSR TOGGLE. CB2 

1650 RTS 

1660 

1670 ;SET CB2 TO REVERSE STATE 

1680 TOGGLE. CB2 LDA W00100000 

1690 EOR PCREG 

1700 STA PCREG 

1710 RTS 

1720 

1730 ;SET DATA TO SEND OUT 

1740 SENDER LDA (POINTER), Y 

1750 EOR iWllllllll 

1760 STA HDATA 

1770 RTS 

1780 

1790 ; STORE DATA RECEIVED 

1800 RECEIVE LDA HDATA 

1810 STA ( POINTER), Y 

1820 RTS 

1830 

1840 

1850 ; ESCAPE CODE IF PANIC KEY () PRESSED 

1860 ESCAPE CLI 

1870 JMP READY ;RETURN TO BASIC 

1880 

1890 

1900 .EN 



MASK FOR CB2 OUTPUT CON ; 
TOGGLE BIT 5 i 

WHICH CHANGES CB2 HIGHL } 



j INVERT FOR INVERTERS 
; CLEARS CA1 



; CLEARS CA1 



END OF MAE PASS I 

LABEL FILE: 

AUXREG E84B 
COUNTER 0051 
ESCAPE 032D 
IFREG E84D 
LOOK 02CE 
PCREG E84C 
PIAK E812 
REC.MAIN 02DB 
SEND. MAIN 02EC 
WAIT.CA1 02FD 

//OOOO, 0331, 0331 



BEGIN. R 029E 
DATA E84F 
EXPAND 0001 
IRQ 0090 
LOOP 02FF 
PET. IRQ E62E 
POINTER 002C 
RECEIVE 0327 
SENDER 031F 



BEGIN. S 0283 
DDR E843 
HDATA E84l 
LISTIT 0001 
OBJ 0000 
PETROUT 02CB 
READY C389 
SEND.CB2 030A 
TOGGLE. CB2 0316 



Listing 2 



180 REM PET TO PET TEST PROGRAM 

110 REM SENDER PROGRAM 

12S SVS 637: REM SET UP FOR SEND 

130 PRINT"BHBHC0NT3in" :STOP 



SEND 
REM LOAD ARRAV 



149 DIM XC6:>sREM DEFINE ARRAY TC 

150 FOR 1=0 TO 6: READ X< I > sNEHT : 
TO SEND 

160 SVS 634iREM SEND DATA 
170 END 

190 DATA -1,1,2,3,4,5,6 
190 REM 

200 REM RECEIVER PROGRAM 
210 SVS640:REM SET UP FOR RECEIVING 
228 PRINT"SISSmC:0HT3Xn" :STOP 
236 DIM X<6> :X<0>=B sTE=34 
240 F0RI=1 TO 6:X<i:>=0:NEXT 
250 PftINT"3SMCURRENT ARRAY ELEMENTS"" 
260 FOR 1 = 1 TO 6 : PR I NTX C I :> : NEXT 

270 IF X<8::' THEN PRINT"3" :FOR 1 = 1 TO 6:PRINT> 
: NEXT : PR I NT " SfiPRRAV RECE I VED " : X <. 6 > =6 
2S0 PR I NT " S" ; TAB < TB > ; " fl" ,■ T 1 4 ; 
290 GOTO270 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



JNCftO 

49 



Communications 



Multi-Microprocessor Tidbits 



by Mike Rosing 



Running a 6502 and 6809 in the same computer 

simultaneously creates a powerful device. 

This article describes problems you might encounter 

and a general description of a specific task 

for which two processors were used. 



Watching two 300-baud lines simul- 
taneously and recalling each record 
that comes over those lines is easy with 
a multiprocessing system. By using two 
Asynchronous Communication Interface 
Adaptors |ACIAs) connected to an Ap- 
ple's Interrupt Request Line (IRQ) and a 
Stellation Two 6809 board, the data 
collection is done in background and 
the data display is done in foreground. 

Some problems running two micros 
simultaneously include waking up, 
communication, and debugging. The 
major problem is finding a 6809 assem- 
bler for the Apple. At the time I pur- 
chased the Stellation Two board there 
was no software. Now you can get a 
very nice assembler and debugger from 
Stellation Two for about $150. 

I bought the assembler package that 
runs under the UCSD p-System from 
Softech Microsystems. It works on the 
Apple Pascal system but is difficult to 
transfer from the 8-inch floppy (with no 
paper work to tell how to read the disk) 
to the Apple 5!4-inch floppy. The assem- 
bler also has several bugs. For $12,000 
Softech will release the source listing 
but they won't fix the bugs for you! 

The hardware consists of an Apple n 
with a 16K board in slot zero. The 
board was modified by breaking a tie 
and soldering a circle on the Apple 16K 
board to allow use of 2716 EPROMs. 
When the Apple is turned on the 2716 
holds the reset vector enabling the 
Apple to become a dedicated machine. 



The Stellation Two 6809 board has an 
EPROM slot built in so no modification 
of that board is necessary. The ACIAs 
are mounted on an Apple prototype 
board along with a few chips for buffers 
and logic for chip selection. 

Each 300-baud line is terminated in 
a line receiver chip. The receiver out- 
puts go to two Synertek ACIAs. After 
building the board with two crystals I 
learned that four ACIAs could be run 
with one crystal by using the clock out- 
puts on the chips and programming the 
ACIAs correctly. It is possible to talk 
and listen to four serial lines using the 
multiprocessing system described here. 

The wake-up routine for each com- 
puter is different. When Reset is pressed 
the 6502 is on and the 6809 is off. The 
6502 executes the following code to turn 
the 6809 on (note that all interrupt lines 
are high before the 6809 is turned on): 



SLOT 

IRQ02 

HALT 

RESET 

NMI 

FIRQ 

IRQ 

ROM 



EQU 70 

EQU C080 + SLOT 
EQU C081+SLOT 
EQU C082 + SLOT 
EQU C083+ SLOT 

EQU C084 + SLOT 
EQU C085+ SLOT 
EQU C086 + SLOT 



SWAP EQU C087 + SLOT 



;most significant bit of each 
what lines will do 



;6809 slot pos. (ex.) 
;6502 IRQ line 
;6809 halt line 
;6809 reset line 
;6809 non-maskable 

interrupt line 
;6809 fast interrupt In 
;6809 interrupt reqst In 
;on bd ROM enable bit 

for Stellation Two 
;switches A15 to be 

opposite or same 

as 6502 
location determines 



STA IRQ02 


,6502 interrupt goes out invert gate 


LDA #80 


; raise 


STA FIRQ 


;all 6809 


STA IRQ 


;interrupt 


STA NMI 


;lines 


STA SWAP 


;tells 6809 bd that A15 isn't flipped 




;both CPU s view RAM the same way 


STA ROM 


;80 ■ ROM slot used, 00 • not used 


STA HALT 


;6809 on and 


STA RESET 


;going through reset procedure 



When the 6502 reaches the last instruc- 
tion the 6809 is on and running. The 
6502 goes at about l/5th its normal 
pace and the 6809 goes at full speed. 

The 6809 wake-up routine is sim- 
ple. As shown below, the 6809 defines 
its stacks, turns on the ACIAs and then 
unmasks its IRQ line. 



WAKEUP ORCC #50H 

LDU iCUSRSTK 
LDS #SYSSTK 
CLR STATUS 
CLR STATUS + 4 
LDA #16H 
STACNTRL 
STACNTRL + 4 
LDA#1 
STA CMD 
STA CMD + 4 
CLRA 
TFR A,DP 
ANDCC #OEFH 



;mask interrupts 

;set up 

;stack pointers 

;set up 

;ACIAs with 

;1 stop, 8 data bits 

;300 baud 

;no parity 

;receiver interrupt 

.enabled 

.transmitter disabled 

;set direct page 

;same as Apple's zero pg 

.enable IRQ 



LDA#0 
STA HALT 
STA RESET 



ensure that 
6809 is 
off 



The addresses used depend on the logic 
used to get to each ACIA. These can be 
set using equates at the beginning of 
the code file. 

The background task of collecting 
data from two serial lines is accom- 
plished using interrupts from the 
ACIAs to the 6502 and the IRQ line 
from the 6502 to the 6809. This allows 
the operator to view call data from two 
hours ago at the same time new calls 
are coming in. 

Once eight bits have been collected, 
either ACIA pulls the IRQ low to the 
6502. The 6502 vectors to the interrupt 
handler and checks each ACIA to see 
which one is requesting service. If both 
ACIAs are requesting service, then IRQ 
will not clear and the 6502 will vector 
to the interrupt handler again. At 300 
baud there is no loss of data for an inter- 
rupt handler that takes less than 30 



50 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



Communications 



milliseconds. When the 6809 is the 
master computer, the 6502 runs at 
about l/5th normal speed. An average 
instruction takes four clock cycles on 
the 6502. Taking 5 » IE - 6 seconds as a 
clock cycle and 4*5E-6 seconds as an 
instruction (on average), the total 
number of instructions before loss of 
datais3E-2/2E-5 = 1.5E + 3. The in- 
terrupt handler in my system uses only 
50 instructions. This allows plenty of 
time for foreground. 

The beginning of the interrupt 
handler for the 6502 is shown below. 
After saving the registers, each ACIA 
must be polled to find which one is re- 
questing service. Reading the status 
register of the 6551 ACIA clears the in- 
terrupt. The most significant bit tells 
the 6502 if the interrupt came from the 
device polled. 



INTRPT 



and pulls the 6809 IRQ. The 6809 
checks which line has sent a completed 
message and then processes that buffer. 
There are many choices for the 6809, so 
its interrupt handler is over 250 in- 
structions. Since the 6809 is the master 
CPU it takes about the same time as 50 
instructions on the 6502. The 6809 also 
has more foreground tasks to do than 
the 6502. Both programs fit in 2K 
EPROMs. The rest of memory is used 
for record storage. 

The beginning of the 6809 interrupt 
handler is shown below. A mailbox 
system is used to tell the 6809 which 
buffer to take care of. Since the IRQ is 
masked on vectoring to the interrupt, 
levels of interrupt are not allowed 
without unmasking. Because the oper- 
ation of two 300-baud lines is slow, no 
attempt was made to make this system 
that complex. 







INTRPT 


LDA #80H 


; raise 


PHA 


;save 




STA IRQ 


;6809 IRQ line 


TYA 


;all 




LDA IJOB 


;box 1 or 2? 


PHA 


;registers 




STA TJOB 


;save in case another 


TXA 








interrupt is coming in fast 


PHA 






BNE BOX2 


;non zero for box 2, zero 


BITP1STUS 


port 1 status checked 






for box 1 


BMI BOX1 


;if N bit set then ACIA 1 




LDD B1IB 


;X reg is 




gave interrupt 




BRA GTBUF 


;input buffer 


BIT P1STUS + 4 


;port 2 status checked 


BOX2 


LDD B2IB 


;pointer 


BMI BOX2 


;if N bit set then ACIA 2 
gave interrupt 


GTBUF 


EXG A,B 


;swap byte sex (this is 
important!) 


LDA ERMSG 


;if neither set then there 




TFR D,X 


;now have input buffer ptr 




was an error 




NEGB 


;go back to first char 


JMP PRNTMSG 


;so tell operator and 
then stop 




LDA B,X 


;get first char in buffer 



After saving the byte into the buffer 
and incrementing the buffer pointer, 
the 6502 pulls all registers from the 
stack and executes RTI. The error mes- 
sage at the end is for debugging pur- 
poses. The IRQ from the 6809 to the 
6502 goes through an inverting gate; this 
caused some problems before discovery. 

At the end of each serial line the 
computer sends a start of text (STX) 
and end of text |ETX] for each message. 
The 6502 reads an entire message from 
STX to ETX and saves this to an input 
buffer. Upon receiving an ETX, it saves 
the line number in a common location 



The location HOB is the mailbox. 
TJOB is a temporary storage location in 
case another interrupt is attempted 
from the other box. BUB (Box 1 Input 



alone, it is easy to step through the 
input buffer. When B is zero, the end of 
the buffer has been reached. 

The memory is organized with two 
256-byte buffers for the input 
messages. Above those are two IK buf- 
fers for "live calls." These are 32 slots 
(one for each phone line], which are 32 
bytes each. When a call is finished, the 
slot corresponding to that line is packed 
in BCD format into the top of memory. 
This region is actually a ring buffer that 
holds about 2400 calls. As more calls 
come in, old calls are lost. 

The operator can examine either 
live calls or past calls by using menu 
commands. The 6502 constantly polls 
the keyboard in foreground and when a 
key is pressed the processor compares 
the key to the acceptable commands. 
The 6502 then jumps to the routine 
that gathers the data the 6809 fore- 
ground program needs. For example, 
searching past records for all calls to 
area code 307 requires the 6502 to put 
the message "AREACODE?" on the 
screen. The 6502 then reads the key- 
board for the area code and saves it to a 
common zero-page location. The 6809 
is constantly checking a common loca- 
tion known as a mailbox. As long as the 
mailbox is zero the 6809 foreground 
has little to do. Once the 6502 gets the 
area code into a common buffer it puts 
a job number into the mailbox. The 
6502 then goes to an input routine that 
controls the paging of records (since 
only 24 lines are visible on the screen at 
a time]. 



"When the 6809 is the master computer, 
the 6502 runs at about 1/5th normal speed." 



Buffer) and B2IB are 6502 zero-page 
pointers that tell the 6502 where to put 
the next input character. The 6809 uses 
these as pointers to the input buffers as 
well as for the length of the message in 
the buffer. By incrementing the B 
register and leaving the X register 



The foreground codes for the 6502 
and 6809 are similar. The 6502 scans 
the keyboard location to see if any key 
has been pressed. The 6809 scans a 
mailbox to see if any jobs have been re- 
quested. In the meantime the back- 
ground is running via interrupts. The 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



51 




^HLfOHIO SCIENTIFIC"^ 



NEW PROGRAMS! 

SCOUT -Full color, machine 
language, fast action and 
graphics! After a year of 
development, comes the all 
machine language SCOUT. 
Patrol the planet surface pro- 
tecting and saving the human 
population from abductors. 
Turn your OSI into a real ar- 
cade! 
$24.95 C4PMF, C8PDF. 

Send for our FREE catalog. 
We have what you want for 
less: S-FORTH $39, FULL 
SCREEN EDITOR $19, 
ADVENTURE $19, SKYHAWK 
$8, TOUCH TYPING $19, IN- 
TELLIGENT TERMINAL $24, 
THE WIZARD'S CITY $12, 
UTILITIES, and much more for 
theC1PtotheC8PDF. 

(312) 259-3150 
AURORA SOFTWARE 

rsl 37 S. Mitchell 
Arlington Heights, 
^ft*\ Illinois 60005 

Circle No. 19 

"■•■•erjiijpu SenSei:/ 

CARDBOARD 6 
$87.95 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20. 
Allowsexpansion to 40 K or accepts up 
to six games. May be daisy chained for 
more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 
$39.95 

Economy expansion interface for 
the VIC-20 

CARD "?" CARD/PRINT 
$79.95 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer 
Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. 
Use an Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or 
TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE 
$39.95 

Use any standard cassette player/re- 
corder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

LIGHT PEN 
$29.95 

A light pen with six good programs to 
use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 



Prices subject to change. 
TO ORDER: P. O. BOX 18765 

WICHITA. KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 
Personal Checks Accepted (Allow 3 Weeks) 
or COD (Add $2) Handling Charges $2.00 



Circle No. 21 



6809 foreground code is shown in the 
next code listing. Once the 6502 has 
collected all the data from the operator, 
it sends the 6809 a job number via a 
JOBBOX. The 6809 continuously scans 
the JOBBOX until a non-zero value 
appears via the 6502. It uses this job 
number as an index into a pointer table, 
and the job is executed as a subroutine. 
The code is written as relocatable, 
which really is not necessary for the 
job at hand. (This is only one of many 
ways to communicate between the two 
computers.) 



JOBBOX EQU 4 

START LDA JOBBOX 
BEQ START 
ASLA 

LEAX JMPVECPCR 

LDX A,X 

LEAY WAKEUP.PCR 

TFR Y,D 
JSR D,X 

BRA START 
JMPVEC WORD DUMMY 
WORD JOB1 
WORD JOB2 
WORD JOB3 



;zero pg for both 
6502 and 6809 
;any jobs? 
;loop till there is 
;convert job number 
to offset 

;get tbl address into 
X reg 

; get relative offset 
into code 
;get actual start of 
code location 
relative offset plus 
;starting loc gives 
absolute position 
look for next job 
never used 
when assembled will 
hold offsets into 
file from zero pos 
which was wakeup 
in this case 



Once the 6809 gets a job number it 
jumps to the routine requested. In this 
case it packs the area code sent by the 
6502 into BCD format and then scans 
all of the ring buffer for calls matching 
that area code. On a match the record is 
unpacked onto the screen. When 24 
records have been found the 6809 waits 
for the 6502 to send a go signal to keep 
looking. Once all of the ring buffer has 
been scanned, both 6502 and 6809 
return to polling their respective 
memory locations for the next fore- 
ground job. Meanwhile the background 
is still recording information coming 
over the two lines. 

The 6809 can scan for input lines, 
output lines, authorization codes, and 
status messages, as well as area code. 
Each of these are part of a call record. 
The routines that scan memory use 
some common subroutines for bump- 
ing from one record to the next in the 
ring buffer. The Stellation Two board 
can support a 4K EPROM, but only 2K 
is needed for this dedicated application. 

Choosing what each processor 
should do is arbitrary. The system 
described here uses the 6502 for inter- 
active I/O operations and the 6809 for 



all memory tasks. I find the 6809 easier 
to program than the 6502. Whether or 
not one microprocessor could do all the 
above as fast as two is not clear 

The 6502 routine uses the 16K of 
RAM on the card as well as the 2K 
EPROM. By writing itself onto the 
RAM and then throwing the soft switch 
that allows the RAM to be read/write, 
the full 16K is available. The 6809 uses 
the bottom part of this RAM for its 
stack, leaving the 48K of RAM on the 
mother board for buffers. The code that 
does this follows: 



RAMWRT EQU C089 
RAMRD EQU C08B 



;write enable RAM cd 
;read enable RAM cd 



TRONST LDA #OFF ;will be zero 

BEQ TRON2X ;on warm start 
LDA RAMWRT ;write enable 
LDA RAMWRT ;RAM cd while getting 

code from EPROM 
LDA #0 ;clear index counter 

TAY 
STAO ;set zero pg ptr to start 

of ROM 
LDA #0F8 ;which is F800 

STA 1 ;up to FFFF 

$1 LDA @0,Y ;get a byte from ROM 

STA @0,Y ;copy into RAM! 

INY ;bump counter 

BNE $1 ;bump 

INC 1 ;zero-page counter 

BNE $1 ;until past FFFF 

LDA #0 ;set RAM for warm 

reset 
STA TRONST + 1 ;because we don't 

need to do this again 

TRON2X LDA RAMRD ;read/write 
LDA RAMRD ;enable RAM 
; at this point the EPROM is not used 
; but its code is running in RAM on the 
; 16K board. On a warm reset the 
; above code is bypassed since the 
; reset vector is unchanged but the 
; branch instruction will see zero 

Debugging the above system re- 
quired putting out messages on the 
screen to state how far into its program 
each computer had gotten. When I put 
6502 messages at the top of the screen 
and 6809 messages at the bottom, the 
problem point was found easily. Usually 
the problems I had were byte-sex 
related or mailboxes not at the same ad- 
dress. By clearly separating the tasks of 
the two processors, mistakes and bugs 
can be found relatively quickly. 

The specific examples used above 
work. They are not necessarily the only 
way to do multiprocessing in a dedi- 
cated environment. If you spend time 
deciding what each computer should 
do, the power of multiprocessing will 
become apparent. 



You may contact Mike Rosing at 4260 E. 
Evans Ave., Denver, CO 80222. 



AKftO 



52 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



FOR YOUR APPLE II 

Industry standard products at super saver discount prices 



SOFTWARE 

ARTSCI List SGC 

Magicalc $149.00 $ 99.00 

Magic Window II 149.00 99.00 

DBase (Apple) 695.00 475.00 

BRODERBUND 

Payroll $395.00 $295.00 

Choplifter 34.95 25.00 

Arcade Machine 44.95 29.95 

Serpentine 34.95 25.00 

Home Accountant 74.95 55.00 

Home Accountant Plus 150.00 109.00 

DATAMOST 

Snackattack $ 29.95 $ 22.50 

Thief 29.95 22.50 

Swashbuckler 34.95 24.95 

Zork I, II, or III 39.95 27.95 

Starcross 39.95 27.95 

Format II 250.00 175.00 

System Saver & Fan 59.95 49.00 

Multiplan 275.00 199.00 

ON LINE 

Mystery House $ 24.95 $ 19.95 

Cranston Mannor 34.95 24.95 

Frogger 34.95 24.95 

Screen Writer II 129.95 99.95 

Memory Management II .. . 49.95 39.95 

PEACHTREE 

GL, AR, AP, 

Inventory, Payroll ea. $400.00 ea. $295.00 

Micro Buffer II 299.00 249.00 

SENSIBLE SOFTWARE 

Super Disk Copy III $ 29.95 $ 22.95 

DOS Plus 24.95 17.95 

SERIUS SOFTWARE 

Bandits $ 34.95 $ 26.95 

Epoch 34.95 26.95 

Fly Wars 29.95 22.95 

Gorgon 39.95 29.95 

Sneakers 29.95 22.95 

Joy Port 74.95 59.95 

Wizardry 49.95 34.95 

Night of Diamonds 34.95 26.95 

Star Maze 34.95 26.95 

PFS 125.00 89.95 

PFS Report 95.00 69.95 

PFS Graph 125.00 89.95 

Data Capture 4.0 64.95 49.95 

Merlin/Assembly Lines 1 19.95 89.95 

Merlin 64.95 49.95 

ASCII Express Pro 129.95 99.95 

Transendll 149.00 119.00 

Transend I 89.00 65.00 

DB Master 229.00 165.00 

DB Utility Pack 99.00 79.00 

STRATIGIC SIMULATION 

All Software $ 59.95 $ 39.95 

All Software 39.95 27.95 

SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 

Wilderness & Dungeon ... $ 32.50 $ 24.95 

GPLE 64.95 49.95 

TG Joystick 59.95 45.00 

Select-A-Port 59.95 45.00 

Wordstar 325.00 

Spellstar 175.00 

SuperCalc 175.00 

VisiCalc 179.00 



SPECIAL AND NEW 



FRANKLIN ACE 1000 COMPUTER 

Hardware and Software compatible 
with Apple II $950 

FRANKLIN ACE 1000 COMPUTER plus 
DISK DRIVE, CONTROLLER, 
and MAGICALC $1,250 

EXPAND-A-RAM® PLUS MAGICALC® 

Everything that Visicalc* can do and much more 
-plus additional memory. Fully compatible with 
Visicalc. Includes DOS, CP/M, Pascal Disk 
Emulator. No preboot or Apple modification 
required. 

64K EXPAND-A-RAM plus 

MAGICALC S375 

128K EXPAND-A-RAM plus 

MAGICALC $449 



APPLEsurance II® 

Diagnostic Disk Controller and System 
Assurance Package. Standard disk 
controller plus automatic check 
of system hardware 



$99 



5 1 /4" DISK DRIVE 

Use with either standard Apple II disk 
drive or APPLEsurance II $249 



GRAPHITTI CARD 

Prints HIRES page 1 or 2 from onboard firmware. 
Features: True 1:1 aspect ratio, prints emphasized 
mode, reverse mode, rotates 90 degrees . . . plus 
more. Compare all this with the Grappler. We think 
you'll agree that this is the best graphics card on 
the market. Specify for use with EPSON, NEC- 
8023, C-ITOH Prowriter, or Okidata. 

(List: $125) $89 

PARALLEL PRINTERS 

NEC 8023 or C-ITOH 8510 

(Virtually identical) Specifications: • 100 CPS dot 
matrix printer • 80 column print- 136 characters 
per line • Tractor/friction feed • 7 different print 
fonts included • 2K printer buffer • Proportional 
spacing • Bit image graphics and graphic symbols. 

NEC 8023 or C-ITOH $475 

NEC 8023 or C-ITOH 8510 with 
Parallel Interface and Cable $550 

EPSON 100 with Parallel Interface 

and Cable $775 

BROTHER Daisywheel Printer $895 

VERSAcard FROM PROMETHEUS 

Four cards on one! With true simultaneous opera- 
tion. Includes: (1) Serial Input/Output Interface, 
(2) Parallel Output Interface, (3) Precision Clock/ 
Calendar, and (4) BSR Control. All on one card. 
Fully compatible with CP/M - and Apple Pascal'. 
(List: $249) $169 



WORD PROCESSING SPECIAL 
WITH WORDSTAR AND SUPERCALC! 

Do professional word processing on your APPLE. 
All necessary hardware and software included. 
Complete 80 column video display, enhanced 
character set, 16K memory board, Z-Card with 
CP/M" software, Wordstar and word processing 
software and SuperCALC. 

(List: $1,228) ... Special at $795 



Z-80 CARDS 

Microsoft Softcard Z-80 . . 

ALS Synergizer 

U-Z-80 Processor Board . 
Microsoft + Premium Syst. 


List 

$399.00 
749.00 


SGC 

$289.00 

595.00 

125.00 

595.00 


80-COLUMN CARDS 

Smarterm 80-Col Display . 
Smarterm Expanded 
Character Set 


$345.00 

149.00 
49.95 


$225.00 
40.00 


Combination Smarterm 

& Exp. Char. Set 

Videx videoterm 

VidexEnhanacerll 

Videx VisiCalc Preboot . . . 


260.00 

275.00 

125.00 

45.00 


MODEMS FOR YOUR AP 

Hayes Smartmodem 300 . 
Hayes Smartmodem 1200 
Micromodem II 


PLEII 

699.00 

389.00 
199.00 


$229.00 
550.00 
279.00 


Hayes 100 Baud 


Call 


Apple Cat II 


299.00 


D Cat Modem 


175.00 


MONITORS 

Amdek 300G Green 
Color-Taxam RGB 
with Interface 


$159.00 
395.00 


PARALLEL INTERFACE 

Centronics Compat. PRT-1 




$ 69.00 


JOYSTICK Replaces two 
Apple Paddle Controllers 


$ 59.00 


$ 39.00 


FUNCTION STRIP 


$ 79.00 


$ 65.00 


MEMORY EXPANSION 

Prometheus 16K RAM Module 
complete $169.00 


$ 65.00 


5V4" FLOPPY DISKS 
Box of 10 with hub rings 

With other purchase 

Without other purchase . . 




$ 19.95 
23.00 



All equipment shipped factory fresh. Manufacturers' warranties 
included. California customers add 6V2% tax. Include payment by 
personal check, money order, or cashier's check with order and 
SGC will pay shipping charge. Call for amount of shipping charge 
when paying by credit card. 

All items are normally in stock 

415)4903420 

... And we'll be here to help after you 

receive your order. Feel free to call the SGC 

Technical Staff for assistance. 

The matt order specialists 

I 342 Quartz Circle, Livermore, CA 94550 




No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



53 



Communications 



In-House Communication 



by Phil Daley 





MICRO has always been in the fore- 
front of disseminating information 
useful to computerists of many types of 
systems. This necessitates our having 
different kinds of hardware, disks, and 
tape formats. In addition, the staff 
must know many different languages 
and dialects. To help overcome this 
drawback, we have established a cen- 
tralized system that other computers 
can "talk" to and, eventually, receive 
from. 

At MICRO, we have set up a system 
that utilizes a 6809 computer, the 
FOCUS, as the end source of all our 
files, and a word-processing system 
called TYPE + , written by Bob Tripp. 
An interface to a Compugraphic Edit- 
writer allows us to transfer text files to 
the phototypesetter without human in- 
tervention, and to typeset those files 
without further editing. This is made 
possible by preprocessing the text files 
with the TYPE + program. 

Author-submitted and in-house ar- t 
tides and programs are written on 
whatever computer is available and ap- 
propriate to the task at hand. Then they 
are sent to the FOCUS using the Stylo- 
graph text editor, entry mode. This pro- 
gram takes the text or listing in from 
the serial port and stores it line by line 
in the 6809 RAM |see listing 1), then 
the file is saved to disk. The Stylograph 



text editor imposes two restrictions on 
the listings: the first character on a line 
cannot be a "#", and the input buffer 
on the Flex operating system must not 
exceed 128 characters, including the 
carriage return. A line that is too long 
results in a carriage return being unac- 
cepted, and the remainder of the file 
continuing to overflow the buffer. 
Although you will have quite a mess on 
the screen, you need only delete the 
current line to enable a normal SAVE 
operation. 

The TYPE+ program includes a 
word processor that has the several 
Editwriter keyboards encoded to 
special keys on the FOCUS, enabling 
screen display of all the special Edit- 
writer functions. In addition to the 
preprocessing function, we use the 
FOCUS as an additional Compugraphic 
terminal for normal typesetting input. 

Since the Editwriter uses different 
ASCII codes for display than a standard 
computer, and has several dozen extra 
keys and codes, it is necessary to con- 
vert many of the standard codes in the 
text file to the non-standard Editwriter 
format. In addition, the display uses 
standard ASCII whenever possible, so 
the normal keys have to be converted 
from standard display to Editwriter 
display when transferring the file. 

The standard file includes special 
Editwriter information so that the 
Compugraphic will understand what to 
do with the file when it arrives. Such 
things as font number and type size 
have to be specified at the beginning of 
the file and whenever any of the para- 
meters have to be changed. A SEARCH 
and REPLACE function substitutes the 
required Editwriter codes for each 
regular character that has to be changed. 
For instance, the Editwriter will not ac- 
cept the double quote ("). Each occur- 
rence of the " is replaced by lower 



precedent ( p| ). This ensures that 
the quote will appear as the proper 
code when the transfer takes place. 

The most complicated change in- 
volves the 0. The SUN-MOON listing 
in January (MICRO 56:36) used the 
variable O extensively throughout the 
listing. When I proofread the listing, I 
couldn't see any difference in the O and 
the [although the production people 
could) . I thought that anyone trying to 
key in the program would be unable to 
notice the distinction. 

I learned that the Compugraphic 
has a command called "Flash Only," 
which means that the character is 
printed but the paper is not advanced. 
This allows over-striking: the / is 
printed without advancing and then the 
is printed on top of it. Simple in 
theory, unfortunately it turns out that 
this causes the slash to appear too low 
in the to look natural. However, 
another command on the Compu- 
graphic allows a character to be raised 
or lowered any number of points (plus 
or minus a point of lead lq [d J . With 
this command, you can raise the slash 
in the zero to the center. The final 
substitution becomes: replace 0: with 
minus a point of lead, flash only, /, 
plus a point of lead, 0. 

After adjusting the non-allowable 
characters to Compugraphic character 
codes, and the line lengths to the 
proper size for publication, a short pro- 
gram called TRANSFER is invoked to 
LIST the program to the Editwriter 
where it is entered as a file. The inter- 
face to the FOCUS has the Editwriter 
thinking that someone is typing the file 
into the keyboard instead of being sent 
through the serial port. The received 
file is then rejustified and saved to disk 
to be output in the normal manner 
when needed. 



54 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



Communications 



We are currently working on a pro- 
gram that will take a previously defined 
glossary and make all the necessary 
changes to the text file automatically. 
This will increase our productivity and, 
at the same time, decrease our typo- 
graphical errors (when the bugs are 
out). 

The Bulletin Board 

The MICRO Bulletin Board System 
is working well and we have many 
regular callers. The BBS runs on our 
Apple II, but may be called by anyone 
with a modem. It normally runs four 
days a week, Monday through Thurs- 
day from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. We 
are moving our offices and do not have 
the new phone number yet, but will let 
you know in our May issue. Anyone 
may call the system, but only 
subscribers are issued passwords for 
writing on the system. There are 
several useful programs that users may 
download onto their own systems, and 
we hope to have a selection for different 
machines before too long. If anyone has 
a program (personal or public domain) 
they would like to see get wider 
distribution, send it to us [via the BBS) 
and we will put it on-line. 

Articles also can be received 
through this system and we have on- 
line capabilities with COMPUSERVE 
and THE SOURCE. An author can 
download to them and we can retrieve 
the file. (We received part of Clifford 
Glennon's communication article this 
way.) There are a few bugs to be 
worked out to make this a viable alter- 
native; the lower-to-upper-case conver- 
sion and maximum file-length restric- 
tion are two. 



You may contact Phil at MICRO, P.O. Box 6502, 
Chelmsford, MA 01824. 



k 





KEYB0ARD/ACIA INPUT DRIVER 




1-14-83 TSC ASSEMBLER 










» TERMINAL DRIVER PROGRAM FOR FLEXI-PLUS 










» 27 MARCH 1982 - FOCUS VERSION - JR 










» 27 MARCH 1982 - BAUD RATE SELECTION ADDED - RMT 










» 14 APRIL 1982 - MODIFIED FOR APPLE - RMT 










» 7 MAY 1982 - BASED ON APPLE.TXT - RMT+JJR 










» 3 N0VEM 1982 - MODIFIED TO CMD - PRD 










» EQUATES 












CD03 


WARMS 


EQU 


?CD03 










CD42 


GETHEX 


EQU 


?CD42 










F829 


VKIN 


EQU 


*F829 










F82C 


VKSTAT 


EQU 


?F82C 










E549 


STDIN 


EQU 


*E549 










F815 


MRSTAT 


EQU 


*F815 










E180 


ADATA 


EQU 


$E180 










E181 


ASTAT 


EQU 


ADATA+S01 










E182 


ACMD 


EQU 


ASTAT+Wl 










E183 


ACTRL 


EQU 


ACMD+301 








C100 






ORG 


3C100 






/ 


C100 BD 


CD42 


APPLE2 


JSR 


GETHEX 


GET USER'S BAUD RATE 




C103 CC 


0B18 




LDD 


#$0B18 


1200 BAUD 






C106 8C 


1200 




CKPX 


#31200 


IF NOT 1200 






C109 27 


02 




BEQ 


NOADJ 


THEN DEFAULT TO 






C10B C6 


16 




LDB 


#$16 


300 BAUD 






C10D 8D 


IF 


NOADJ 


BSR 


VAINIT 








C10F 30 


8D 000D 




LEAX 


INPUT ,PCR 








C113 BF 


E54A 




STX 


STDIN+1 








C116 30 


8D 002D 




LEAX 


STATUS, PCR 






C11A BF 


F816 




STX 


MRSTAT+1 








C11D 7E 


CD03 




JMP 


WARMS 


GO BACK TO FLEX 






C120 BD 


F829 


INPUT 


JSR 


VKIN 


NO 






C123 25 


01 




BCS 


RTEST 








C125 39 






RTS 










C126 8D 


0D 


RTEST 


BSR 


VRCVR 








C128 25 


03 




BCS 


KTEST 








C12A 4D 






TSTA 










C12B 27 


F3 




BEq 


INPUT 


IGNORE NULLS 






C12D 39 




KTEST 


RTS 










C12E FC 


E182 


VAINIT 


STD 


ACMD 








C131 B6 


E180 




LDA 


ADATA 


READ OLD DATA 






C134 39 






RTS 










C135 34 


04 


VRCVR 


PSHS 


B 








C137 53 






COMB 




SET CARRY TO INDICATE 
NO DATA (YET) 






C138 F6 


E181 




LDB 


ASTAT 








CUB C4 


08 




ANDB 


#108 








C13D 27 


06 




BEQ 


N0DATR 








C13F B6 


E180 




LDA 


ADATA 








C142 84 


7F 




ANDA 


#$7F 


STRIP PARITY 






C144 5F 






CLRB 




CLEAR CARRY INDICATES DATA RCVD 




0145 35 


84 


N0DATR 


PULS 


B,PC 








C147 BD 


F82C 


STATUS 


JSR 


VKSTAT 








C14A 24 


03 




BCC 


RETURN 








C14C BD 


F815 




JSR 


MRSTAT 








C14F 39 




RETURN 


RTS 
END 


APPLE2 




MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



55 



Products for Commodore, Atari, Apple, and others! 



^ 



THE MONKEY WRENCH II 

A PROGRAMMERS AID FOR ATARI 800 

NEW AND IMPROVED - 18 COMMANDS 

PLUGS INTO RIGHT CARTRIDGE SLOT 




$59.95 



If you are a person who likes to monkey around with 
the ATARI 800, then THE MONKEY WRENCH II is 
for you!! Make your programming tasks easier, less 
time-consuming and more fun. Why spend extra 
hours working on a BASIC program when the 
MONKEY WRENCH can do it for you in seconds. 
It can also make backup copies of boot type 
cassette programs. Plugs into the right slot and 
works with ATARI BASIC cartridge. 
The MONKEY WRENCH provides 18 direct mode 
commands. They are: AUTO LINE NUMBERING - Pro- 
vides new line numbers when entering BASIC program 
lines. RENUMBER — Renumbers BASIC'S line numbers 
including internal references. DELETE LINE NUMBERS 
— Removes a range BASIC line numbers. 
VARIABLES — Display all BASIC variables and their current value. Scrolling — Use the 
START & SELECT keys to display BASIC lines automatically. Scroll up or down BASIC pro- 
gram. FIND STRING — Find every occurrence of a string, XCHANGE STRING — Find every 
occurrence of a string and replace it with another string. MOVE LINES — Move lines from 
one part of program to another part of program. COPY LINES — Copy lines from one part 
of program to another part of program. FORMATTED LIST — Print BASIC program in 
special line format and automatic page numbering. DISK DIRECTORY — Display Disk 
Directory. CHANGE MARGINS — Provides the capability to easily change the screen 
margins. MEMORY TEST — Provides the capability to test RAM memory. CURSOR 
EXCHANGE — Allows usage of the cursor keys without holding down the CTRL key. 
UPPER CASE LOCK — Keeps the computer in the upper case character set. HEX CON- 
VERSION —Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number. DECIMAL CONVER- 
SION — Converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number. MONITOR — Enter the 
machine language monitor. 

In addition to the BASIC commands, the Monkey Wrench also contains a machine 
language monitor with 16 commands used to interact with the powerful features of the 
6502 microprocessor. 



* 



4 



VIC RABBIT CARTRIDGE 
AND CBM 64 RABBIT CARTRIDGE 



"High-Speed 
Cassette 
Load and Save! 




$39.95 

(includes Cartridge 
and Manual) 



Expansion Connector 
on the VIC Cartridge 



' ' Don 't waste your Lite away waiting to LOAD and SAVE 
programs on Cassete Deck." 

Load or Save 8K in approximately 30 seconds! Try 
it — your Un-Rabbitized VIC takes almost 3 minutes. 
It's not only Fast but VERY RELIABLE. 

Almost as fast as VIC Disk Drive! Don't be foolish — 
Why buy the disk when you can get the VIC Rabbit 
for much, much less! 

Easy to install — it just plugs in. 

Expansion Connector on rear. 

Works with or without Expansion Memory. 

Works with VIC Cassette Deck. 

12 Commands provide other neat features. 

Also Available for 2001 , 4001 , and 8032 



<<*^STCP- 300/1200 Baud 

Slandard Terminal Communications Package 

•PFO-IOD OOA CP<D1>D2 BELL - 12:30:0010:14 36 



Don't settle for non-standard Communications Protocol! 
Access Micro Net, Source. Bulletin Boards, Local Main- 
frame, etc. 

I • Complete Package - Includes RS232 Inter 
1 face Board and software (does not include 

/ • modeml 

■* • Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII 
\ • Upload/Download to/from Disk 

• Automatic File Translation 

• Can be controlled from keyDoard or user sup- 
plied basic or machine language program 

Specify ao dt 4.0 ROMS or 8032 Commodore Computer 
4040 or 8050 or PEDISK II Disk or CBM64 on 1541 . 

Price: $129.95 




ATARI AND PET 
EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Programs 2716 and 2532 
EPROMs. Includes hardware 
and software. PET = $75.00- 
ATARI (includes sophisticated 
machine language monitor) = 
$119.95 



■sjwmu- 




PET BASIC SCROLL PROGRAM 

Scroll thru Basic Programs using cursor 
up/down keys. Specify computer. $6.00 on 
cassette, $9.00 on diskette. 

65C02 MAE 

Same as our MAE but enhanced for the new 
65C02 Opcodes. Turns your computer into a 
development system for the new ROCKWELL 
65C02 Microprocessor. $200.00 — Specify 
Computer. 

6800 CROSS ASSEMBLER 

A Cross Assembler based on the MAE that 
runs on the PET, Apple, or Atari but assembles 
opcodes for the Motorola 6800 microproces- 
sor. Turns your computer into a development 
system for the Motorola 6800 Microprocessor. 
$200.00 — Specify Computer. 

ATARI and VIC Cartridges 

EHS can supply large quantities of ATARI and 
VIC Cartridges for software-developers. If you 
need cartridges, call for pricing. 




TRAP 65 

TRAP 65 is a hardware device that 

plugs into your 6502's socket. Prevents 

execution of unimplemented opcodes 

and provides capability to extend the 

machines' instruction set. 

ForPET/APPLE/SYM. 

Reduced from $149.95 to $69.95 



DC Hayes Smart Modem = $235 00 I Hi 
DC Hayes Micro Modem II = $289 00 1 4 



More than just an Assembler/Editor) 
Now tor the "64" A _ _ . _ 

MAE 



It's a 

Professionally 

Designed 

Software 

Development 

System 




for 

PET 

APPLE 

ATARI 

$t69S5 

New 

Price 

$99.95 

Blast off with the software used on the space 
shuttle project! 

• Designed to improve Programmer Productivity. 

• Similar syntax and commands — No need to releam 
peculiar syntaxes and commands when you go 
Irom PET 10 APPLE to ATARI. 

• Coresident Assembler/Editor — No need to load 
the Editor then the Assembler then the Editor, etc. 

• Also includes Word Processor, Relocating Ujader. 
and much more. 

• Options'. EPROM Programmer, unimplemented 
opcode circuitry. 

• STILL NOT CONVINCED: Send tor tree spec sheet! 



5% INCH SOFT 
SECTORED DISKETTES 

Highest quality. We use them on 
our PETs, APPLEs, ATARIs, and other 
computers. $22.50/10 or $44.50/20 




Prownter Printer - Excellent dot matrix print Parallel = S489 00 
Serial - $600.00 IEEE > $589 00 



flana Disk Orive - 375 
Orive Controller - 114 



EPROMS 2716 = $4.50 2532 = $7.50 

Over 40 Commodore Programs by Baker (on 4040) = 



$25.00 




Circle No. 25 



56 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



BULLETIN BOARD 



ABBS ABACUS U, Toledo, OH (419) 865 1594 

ABBS AGS, Atlanta GA (404) 733 3461 

ABBS Akron Digital Group, Akron, H (2161 745 7855 

ABBS Apple Bin Washington (206) 937 0444 

ABBS Apple Crate I, Seattle, WA 12061935 9119 

ABBS Apple Crate II, Seattle, WA (206) 244 5438 

ABBS Apple-Med, Iowa City, IA (319)353 6528 

ABBS Apple-Mate, New York, NY (201) 864 5345 

ABBS Baileys Computer Store, Augusta, GA (404| 790 8614 

ABBS Baton Rouge, LA (504) 291 1360 

ABBS Byte Shop, Ft. Lauderdale, FL (305 1 486 2983 

ABBS Byte Shop, Miami, FL (305)2613639 

ABBS Calvary Mission Church, Mnpls, MN |612J 471 0252 

ABBS CCN], Pompton Plains, NJ (201 835 7228 

ABBS Century Next Computers, St. Louis, MO 314 442 6502 

ABBS Charlotte, NC (704 364 5254 

ABBS CODE, GlenEllyn IL (312 537 7063 

ABBS Colortron Computer, WI (414 637 9990 

ABBS Compumart, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (613 725 2243 

ABBS Computerland, Fremont, CA 415 794 9314 

ABBS Computer Corner, Amarillo, TX |806 355 5610 

ABBS Computer Conspiracy, Santa Monica, CA 1213) 829 1140 

ABBS Computer Crossroads, Columbia, MD (30 1 j 730 0922 

ABBS Computer Lab, Memphis, TN [901 761 4743 

ABBS Computer Room, Kalamazoo, MI |616| 382 0101 

ABBS Computer Store, Toledo, OH (419) 531 3845 

ABBS Dallas Info Board (214) 248 4539 

ABBS Denver, CO |303| 759 2625 

ABBS Detroit, MI (313)477 4471 

ABBS Electro-Mart, Spokane, WA (509) 534 2419 

ABBS Fort Walton Beach, Destin, FL (904)243 1257 

ABBS Gamemaster, Chicago, IL (312) 475 4884 

ABBS Hayward, CA (415) 881 5662 

ABBS Illini Microcomputer Naperville, IL (312) 420 7995 

ABBS Jonathan's Marlton, NJ |609) 983 5970 

ABBS Ketchikan, AK (907) 225 6789 

ABBS Livingston, NJ (201)994 9620 

ABBS Long Island, NY (212) 448 6576 

ABBS Louisville, KY |502) 426 2975 

ABBS Madam Bokeatha Society, Houston, TX (713) 455 9502 

ABBS Michigan Apple-Fone, Southiield, MI 313) 357 1422 

ABBS Newport Beach, CA (714) 645 5256 

ABBS Omaha, NE (4021 339 7809 

ABBS PCnet, San Francisco, CA (415) 863 4703 

ABBS Pacific Palasades, Los Angeles, CA (213) 459 6400 

ABBS Peoria, IL (309)692 6502 

ABBS Philadelphia, PA (215| 628 3134 

ABBS Phoenix, AZ (602) 898 0891 

ABBS Pirates Cove, Long Island, NY (516)698 4008 

ABBS Rogers Park, Chicago, IL (312) 973 2227 

ABBS Software Sorcery, Hemdon, VA (703) 471 0610 

ABBS South of Market, San Francisco, CA (415) 469 8111 

ABBS St. Louis, MO 314) 838 7784 

ABBS Teledunjon I, Dallas, TX |817| 469 1626 

ABBS Teledunjon n, Dallas, TX (214)530 0858 

ABBS Teledunjon HI, Dallas, TX (214) 960 7654 

ABBS The Moon, Dallas, TX (214) 931 3437 

ABBS Tumersville, NJ (609) 228 1149 

ABBS Vancouver, B.C |604| 437 7001 

ABBS Vermont, Essex Junction, VT (802| 879 4981 

ABBS West Palm Beach, FL (305) 848 3802 

ABBS Rob Roy Computer, Yakima, WA |509| 575 7704 

ABBS Youngs Elect Svc, College Station, TX (713) 693 3462 

ABBS #X, Atlanta, GA (404) 256 1549 

A-C-C-E-S-S Annapolis, MD (301) 267 7666 

A-C-C-E-S-S Olympia, WA (206| 866 9043 

A-C-C-E-S-S Phoenix, AZ * 1 (602) 996 9709 

A-C-C-E-S-S Phoenix, AZ &(602| 957 4428 

A-C-C-E-S-S Phoenix, AZ (602) 274 5964 

A-C-C E S-S Scotsdale, AZ 602| 998 9411 

A-C-C-E-S-S Wyckoff, N| |20I| 891 7441 

AMIS A.R.C. A.D.E. Sterling Heights, MI (313) 978 8087 

AMIS Chicago, IL 312) 789 3610 

AMIS APOGEE Miami, FL 305) 238-1231 

AMIS GRAFEX Cupertino, CA "- 

AMIS G.R.A.S.S. Grand Rapids, MI 

AMIS IBBBS San )ose, CA 

AMIS M.A.C.E. Detroit, MI #1 

AMIS Magic Lantern, Madison, WI 

AMIS SB-12 Boston, MA 



•24 
'24 



408)2535216 
616| 241 1971 
4081298 6930 
313) 868 2064 
608) 251 8538 
617)8764885 

AMIS Space Seattle, WA 206| 226 1117" 

' "" " " 2151 876 8854 



AMIS Starbase 12 Philadelphia, PA. 



"24 
'24 



'24 
•24 



'24 



•24 
•24 



•24 



•24 



'24 
•24 
•24 
•24 

•24 
•24 

•24 
•24 
-rb 

•24 

•24 



AMIST.A.B.B.S. Sunnyvale, CA (408) 942 6975 

ARMU FLEGLG New York, NY (212) 598 0719 

ARMU GREKLCOM Oklahoma City, OK (405| 722 5056 

ARMU PACE Pittsburg, PA |412| 655 3046 

ARM UD1C Washington, DC #1 (202) 276 8342 

ARM UDIC Computer Age, Baltimore, MD (301) 587 2132 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Atlanta, GA !|404) 252 4146 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Claremont, CA !(7I4) 624 1767 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Fairfax, VA !(703) 978 9592 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Fairfax, VA !(703| 978 0921 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Fairfax, VA !(703| 591 5120 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Fairfax. VA !(703| 425 9452 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Springfield, VA !(703| 425 7229 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Houston, TX !|713| 890 0310 

BBS IBM Hostcomm Toronto, Ontario, CN !(416) 499 7023 

BBS IBM PC Atlanta, GA !|404| 294 6879 

BBS IBM PC Atlanta, GA !|404) 252 9438 

BBS IBM PC Beltsville, MD !(301| 937 4339 

BBS IBM PC Bethesda, MD 1(301)460 0538 

BBS IBM PC Billings, MT (406 6569624 

BBS IBM PC California Users Group !|805 987 4127 

BBS IBM PC Dale City, VA !(703| 680 5220 



•24 
"24 
"24 
"24 
•24 



•24 
•24 
•24 

•24 
•24 



BBS IBM PC Denver, CO !(303) 773 2699 '24 

BBS IBM PC Gaithersburg, MD !(301) 251 6293 *24 

BBS IBM PC Madison, WI !(608| 262 4939 '24 

BBS IBM PC New York, NY 1(201)678 6670 '24 

BBS IBM PC Rockviile, MD !(301| 949 8848 '24 

BBS IBM PC Vienna, VA !(703) 560 7803 '24 

BBS IBM PCmodem Chicago, IL !(312] 259 8086 *24 

BULLET-80 Boston, MA &|617) 266 7789 *24 

BULLET-80 Chesterland, OH (216) 729 2769 

BULLET-80 Clarks Summit, PA (717) 586 2112 

BULLET-80 Danbury, CT #1(203) 744 4644 

BULLET-80 Fayetteville, GA (404) 461 9686 

BULLET-80 Hawkins, TX (214) 769 3036 

BULLET-80 Holstcin, IA (712) 368 2651 

BULLET-80 Houston, TX (713) 331 2599 

BULLET-80 Ironton, OH (614| 532 6920 

BULLET-80 Laguna Hills, CA (714) 770 5052 

BULLET-80 Langhome, PA (215) 364 2180 

BULLET-80 Littlefield, TX (806| 385 6843 

BULLET-80 New York, NY |212| 740 5680 

BULLET-80 Orange County, Anaheim, CA (714 952 2110 

BULLET-80 San Jose, CA (408) 241 0769 

BULLET-80 Seymour, CT (203) 888 7952 

BULLET-80 Springfield, IL (217)529 1113 

BULLET-80 Tulsa, OK (918| 749 0059 

BULLET-80 Waterford, MI (313) 683 5076 

CBBSAMRAD, Washington, DC (703) 734 1387 

CBBS Atlanta, GA (404)394 4220 

CBBS Baton Rouge, LA (504)273 3116 

CBBS Bloomington, IN (812) 334 2522 

CBBS Boston, MA 617| 6463610 

CBBS Cedar Rapids, IA |319| 364 0811 

CBBS Chicago, IL *1 (312) 545 8086 

CBBS Corpus Christi, TX 1512)855 1512 

CBBS CPEUG/ICST Gaithersburg, MD (301) 948 5717 

CBBS CP/M Long Island, NY (516) 698 8619 

CBBS Lambda, Berkeley, CA 415) 658 2919 

CBBS Lawrence General Hospital, Boston, MA (617) 683 2119 

CBBS LICA LIMBS, Long Island, NY (516) 561 6590 

CBBS London England.jEuropean standard) (044) 1 399 2136 

CBBS Long Island, NY (516) 334 3134 

CBBS MAUDE Milwaukee, WI (414) 241 8364 

CBBS MicroStar. Worcester, MA (617) 752 7284 

CBBS NW, Portland, OR (503) 646 5510 

CBBS PACC, Pittsburgh, PA (412) 822 7176 '24 

CBBS Prince George, B.C., Canada (604) 562 9515 

CBBS Proxima, Berkeley, CA., (415) 357 1130 

CBBS RAMS, Rochester, NY (716J 244 9531 

CBBS Richfield, MN (612)423 5016 

CBBS Strictly Software, Honolulu, HI (808| 944 0562 

CBBS TSG, Tucson, AZ (602) 746 3956 '24 

COMNET-80 Akron, OH &(216( 645 0827 *24 

COMNET-80 Las Vegas, NV &|702| 870 9986 

COMNET-80 Mt. Clemens, MI &(313| 465 9531 

COMNET-80 North Wales, PA (215) 855 3809 

COMNET-80 Riverside, CA &(714) 359 3189 

COMNET-80 Riverside, CA &|714) 877 2253 

COMNET-80 Wichita Falls, TX (817(767 5847 

CONNECTTON-80 Centereach, NY (516) 588 5836 

CONNECTION-80 Denver, CO (303) 690 4566 '24 

CONNECT1ON-80 Escondido, CA (619) 746 6265 

CONNECTION-80 Fremont, CA (415) 651 4147 *24 

CONNECTION-80 GaitheTsburg, MD (301) 840 8588 "24 

CONNECTION-80 Great Neck, NY (516) 482 8491 '24 

CONNECTION-80 Lansing, MI (517) 3393367 

CONNECTION-80 Laval BELE, Laval, Quebec, CN 514 622 1274 *24 

CONNECTION-80 Little Rock, AS |501j 372 0576 

CONNECTION-80 Lincroft, NJ (201) 842 7644 

CONNECTION-80 Manhattan, NY (212) 991 1664 

CONNECTION-80 North York, Ontario (416) 667 9981 

CONNECTION-80 Orlando, FL (305)644 8327 "24 

CONNECTTON-80 PAUG, Portland, OR 1503} 281 7653 

CONNECTION-80 Peterborough, NH (6C3| 924 7920 

CONNECTION-80 Tulsa, OK (918) 747 1310 "24 

CONNECTION-80 W. Mich. Micro Group, MI (616) 457 1840 *24 

CONNECTION-80 Willowdale, Ontario (416 226 9260 

CONNECTTON-80 Winter Garden, FL (305) 894 1886 '24 

CONNECTION-80 Woodhaven, NY (212) 441 3755 *24 

CONNECTION-80 Tampa, FL (813(977 0989 

CONFERENCE-TREE #3, Hayward, CA (415) 538 3580 

CONFERENCE-TREE 14, Santa Monica, CA (213) 394 1505 

CONFERENCE-TREE Anchorage, AK 907) 344 5251 

CONFERENCE-TREE Computerland, Honolulu, HI (808$ 487 2001 *24 

CONFERENCE-TREE Flagship, Denville, NJ (201) 627 5151 '24 

CONFERENCE-TREE Kelp Bed, Los Angeles, CA (213) 372 4800 

CONFERENCE-TREE Minneapolis, MN (612) 854 9691 

CONFERENCE-TREE ?, New Jersey (201) 627 5151 

CONFERENCE-TREE Victoria, TX (512) 578 5833 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #1 (213) 842 3322 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #3 (912) 233 0863 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #4 (213) 783 2305 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH » 9 (213) 345 1047 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #11 (213) 242 1882 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #12, Houston, TX (713) 556 1531 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #14 (201) 272 3686 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #16 (206) 256 6624 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #17 1415) 9914911 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #18 617) 334 6369 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #20 919) 362 0676 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH ##22 (213) 990 6830 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #23, Omaha, NE 402) 571 8942 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #24, Houston, TX (713) 783 4136 -so 

DIAL-YOUR-MATCH #26, Clovis, CA (209) 298 1328 -so 





to 


w 




g 


C 




s 


r 


•24 


V 


i- 1 




— 


w 




o 


H 




- 1 


HN 


•24 
•24 


6 

01 


z 


•24 
•24 


5' 

3 


w 


•24 


3" 


o 


•24 


CD 
CD 


> 


-rb 


* 


w 


•24 


U 





•24 






•24 







Complements of Peoples' Message System, Santee CA 
(619) 561-7277 



(Continued on page 123) 



APPLE, Mountain, and 
Data Capture 



by H. Bruce Land, III 



The CPS Multifunction Card from 
Mountain Computer ($180 to $240) 
and Data Capture 4.0/80, CPS Version 
($90) from Southeastern Software, can 
provide your Apple Computer with a 
complete RS-232 I/O port with five 
true handshake lines, a parallel printer 
output port, clock and calendar, and 
battery backup. You can have a smart 
terminal, hardware, and software by 
using only one of the Apple's few slots 
and some of its limited power supply — 
all for as little as $270. 



The Hardware 

The Mountain Computer card ROM 
contains a system configuration pro- 
gram that allows you to determine how 
the card will function. From a menu 
you can set baud rate, parity, number of 
data bits, and number of stop bits. You 
can even use a 5-bit ASCII; and you can 
set the appropriate functions for the 
parallel port. 

By choosing items from the menu, 
you can select which slot the Apple 
"thinks' ' the card is in, regardless of its 
actual location. For example, you can 
place the card in Slot 2 but address the 
printer as Slot 1, the modem as Slot 3, 
and the clock as Slot 4. These assign- 
ments can be reset by software so that 
other real cards can reside in these slots. 

The serial output can automatically 
change lower case to upper case if you 
don't have a lower-case adapter for your 
Apple, and it can echo characters back 
to the sender. The serial output also 
can define a control character to func- 
tion as an escape character, set or clear 
the high-order bit, supply auto-line 
feeds, set line length, do automatic 
paging for pages of any size, and add a 
carriage-return delay. 



Once you configure the system, the 
parameters are stored in the permanent 
CMOS memory and you can ignore 
them until you want to make changes. 

Additional high-level software sup- 
plied with the unit allows you to turn 
the Apple monitor into an analog clock 
complete with sweep second hand. The 
CPS Lister program allows you to make 
formatted Applesoft program listings, 
properly spaced, with the date and time 
printed at the top of each page, page 
numbers, and with no printing over the 
perforations on continuous paper. If 
you often forget which is your most re- 
cent listing, then these dated and timed 
listings are for you. 

The Software 

When you use Applesoft with a nor- 
mal serial I/O card and type data to a 
modem, every time you hit RETURN 
Applesoft says 'SYNTAX ERROR' 
because it thinks you're erroneously 
entering a BASIC statement. Install the 
Mountain CPS card, enter a couple of 
control codes, and your Apple will 
function as a dumb terminal. You can 
talk to another computer through your 
keyboard, and it can display messages 
on your CRT. Although you can com- 
municate, at this level of operation you 
can't send a message to the printer, 
store it in memory, or save it on disk. 

Enter Data Capture 4.0, 40/80 col- 
umn, CPS version. This combination is 
not the only one available, but it's 
the only one I've found that does the 
whole job. With the CPS card and Data 
Capture, your Apple can be a computer 
one moment and a smart terminal the 
next. You can compose your message 
off-line and then burst it over the line 
at up to 1200 baud to another com- 
puter, a time-sharing system, or even 
to a mainframe computer. You can 



hold a received message in memory, 
edit it, save it to disk or cassette, and 
print it at your leisure. 

Run Data Capture and press ESC. 
You will see the following menu: 



C)atalog 


disk 


D)elete 


text 


Ijnsert 


text 


LJist 


text 


MJerge 


from file 


P)rint 


text 


OJuit 


program 


Sjend 
T)oggle: 


text 


Alternative drive (1/ 




BJaud rate 




C)apture (on/off) 




DJuplex (full/half) 




Ljocal carrier (on/off) 




Sjpecial characters 




(on/off) 



W J rite to file 

Any of these functions can be selected 
and executed while you are off-line. 
When you are on-line you can send a 
signal to place the other computer on 
"hold," select and execute commands 
from the menu, and then resume com- 
munication on the other computer. 
While the computers are talking to each 
other, status lines display the operating 
mode and tell you how many lines of 
text have passed through your Apple. 

If the capture mode is off, nothing is 
saved; if it is on, both sides of the 
transmission are saved as a text file in a 
RAM buffer. At any time you can write 
the text to a disk file for later use; and 
at any time the buffer can be partially 
or fully cleared (deleted), relisted, 
saved, or printed. Additional text can 
be merged from disk to buffer and then 
sent to the other computer. You can 
send and receive text, numerical data, 



58 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



and program listings, and you can 
transfer programs directly to another 
Apple. [Note: Data Capture does not 
work in auto-dial or auto-answer mode 
with the CPS card.) 

Some mainframes require special 
key codes that the Apple normally can- 
not generate without Data Capture (for 
example, the UNIX system I've been 
using requires a true delete code and an 
underline) . The Apple keyboard gener- 
ates a backspace and the hardware in- 
terprets this as a backspace/delete. 
Data Capture allows you to redefine 
portions of the Apple keyboard to gen- 
erate any ASCII code you may need, in- 
cluding any of the control codes. 

Both the CPS card and Data Capture 
come with more documentation than 
you'll ever read, but it is comforting to 
know that it's there in case you want to 
do something different. My printer is a 
Selectric typewriter and my modem is 
homemade, so I needed the extra 
documentation. 

You may wonder why Data Capture 
is so expensive. The task it must per- 
form is tricky. The Apple cannot talk to 
two I/O devices at the same time. It 



cannot send data from the keyboard to 
both the modem and the, display at the 
same time. Data Capture has so much 
to do in so short a period of time that it 
uses machine code for an intricate 
routine that 1. looks at the keyboard; 2. 
if data is available there, checks to see 
whether or not the data is a control 
character,- 3. if not, stores the data in a 
RAM buffer; 4. sends it to the display; 
and 5. sends it to the modem. While 
this is happening, Data Capture must, 
in effect, look over its shoulder and 
check the modem to see if it is sending 
a character to the Apple, decide 
whether or not this is a control 
character, and if not, store the 
character in the buffer and send it to 
the display. 

Meanwhile Data Capture must for- 
mat each character into the proper 
word length, control stop bits, baud 
rate, etc. — all on data moving at 
speeds up to 1200 baud. 

Unlike the high-speed software that 
handles the bits and the bytes, the soft- 
ware that services the menu is in 
Applesoft, and you can modify it 
without difficulty. To get the attention 



of a big system running under UNIX, I 
had to change the length of the BREAK 
command and make it repeat twice. 
This was easy to do in BASIC. 

Data Capture is not copy protected, 
so if you want to talk to several 
different systems with different re- 
quirements, you can prepare a disk for 
each, and avoid frequent software 
modifications. 

To sum up, the Apple and the CPS 
card and Data Capture make a fine 
team. Together, they can handle 
anything at 1200 baud or less, and they 
do it in a friendly fashion. 

Note: You can buy the CPS Multi- 
function Card from Mountain Com- 
puter, Inc., 300 El Pueblo Road, Scotts 
Valley, CA 95066, (408) 438-6650. 
Data Capture 4.0/80, CPS Version, can 
be obtained from Southeastern Soft- 
ware, 6414 Derbyshire Drive, New 
Orleans, LA 70126, (504) 246-8438. 



You may contact the author at 6916 Park 
Place, Baltimore, MD 21227. 



AlCftO 



Circle No. 26 



Circle No. 28 



BUY! SELL! TRADE! 

COMPUTER & HAM EQUIPMENT 

f" COMPUTER' 



I TRADER 

ANNUAL 

SUBSCRIPTION 
$10.00 

Low Ad Rates — Mailed Monthly 
Foreign Subscriptions - $25.00 Year 

FREE 50 Word Classified Ad with Subscription Order 

COMPUTER TRADER* 

Chet Lambert, W4WDR 

1704 Sam Drive • Birmingham, AL 35235 
(205) 854-0271 



CSE means OSI 

Software and Hardware 
Introducing 5 new disk programs 



From DMP Systems: 

Superdefender $14.95 

Universe $14.95 

Edit-all $19.95 

De-bug $12.95 

From Dwo Quong Fok Lok Sow: 
WP-6502 Word processor. Available in three 

versions. 

5" disk $200.00 

8" disk $234.95 

Cassette $39.95 

Training Manual $20.00 

CSE's Rom Source Code Listing 100 Pages! . .$15.95 

NEW! NEW! NEW! 

ANCHOR SIGNALMAN MODEMS $89.50 

Please write tor more info on new disk programs or 
send $2.00 for catalog. Please include $2.00 shipping 
($3.00 for modems). 



Box 50 • 291 Huntington Ave. Boston 02115 
617-423-9501 




No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



59 



^JJeV Alspa Computer, Inc. 



The price-performance leader. Includes Z80A, 1 or 2 lull 8" 
drives (double density, double sided), 3 serial and 1 parallel 
port, and Winchester port. Prices start at less than $2000. 
DEALER and OEM inquiries invited. _ 

SPECIALS on INTREGATED CIRCUITS 



6502 7.45 10/6.95 50/6. 

6502A/6512A 840 10/7.95 50/7. 

6520 PIA 5.15 10/4.90 50/4. 

6522 VIA 6.45 10/6.10 50/5. 

6532 7.90 10/7.40 50/7 

2114-L200 2.45 25/2 

2716EPR0M 4.90 5/4. 

2532 EPROM 7.90 5/ 7. 

6116 2KX8CM0SRAM 7.90 5/7 
4116RAM 
Zerolnsertion Force 24 jjn Socket JScanbe} 

Hewlett Packard 



Wr J!?-?.L c . al1 *¥. KlSSi. 



55 100/6.15 
.35 100/6.90 
.45 100/4.15 
75 100/5.45 
.00 100/6.60 
.30 100/2.15 
50 10/4.00 
45 10/6.90 
45 10/6.90 
8 for 14 
2.00 




Anchor Automation Signalman Modems 

FREE SOURCE MEMBERSHIP WITH SIGNALMAN 

All Signalman Modems are Direct Connect, and include cables 

to connect to your computer and to the telephone. Signalman 

Modems provide the best price- performance values, and start 

at less than $ 1 00. Dialer nd OEM liqilriu iniM 

Mark I RS232 

Mark II for Atari 850 

Mark IV for CBM/PET with software 

Mark V for Osborne (software available) 

Mark VI for IBM Personal Computer 

Mark VII Auto Dial/Auto Answer 

Mark VIII Bell 212 Auto Dial/Answer 



DC HAYES Smirtmodem 

DC Hayes Smartmodem 1 200 



229 

545 



We carry Apple 11+ from 
Bell & Howell 




16K SAM Card v^*— (or Apple 

Solid Oak 2 Level Stand for Apple 

Apple LOGO 

Video Recorder Interface 

Super Serial Card 

Thunderclock Plus 

Z80 Softcard and CP/M (Microsoft) 

Parallel Printer Interface/Cable 

Grappler Interface 

TG Prutfucts Joystick fir Aaale 

TG Paddles 

DC Hayes Micromodem II 

Videx 80 Column Card 

Haydn Softnro for Aiilt 20% OFF 

Apple PASCAL Language 

Apple FORTRAN 

We stock EDUWARE Software 

GENIS I Courseware Development System 

Unicom Grade Reporting or School Inventory 

Executive Briefing System with fonts 

Apple Oumpling (Microtek) Printerlnterface 
Apple Dumpling with 1 6K Buffer 
PIE Writer Word Processor 



65 
29 

150 

545 

149 

119 

235 

80 

139 

48 

32 

299 

239 

195 
160 

90 
250 
225 

US 
160 
120 



H commodore 

See us for Personal, Business, 
and Educational requirements. 
Educational Discounts available. 



PETSCAN $245 base price 

Allows you to connect up to 35 CBM/PET Computers to 
shared disk drives and printers. Completely transparent to the 
user. Perfect for schools or multiple word processing con- 
figurations. Base configuration supports 2 computers. Addi- 
tional computer hookups $100 each. 

Commodore COMMUNICATES! 

COMPACK 

Intelligent Terminal Package includes: 

ACIA hardware based interface; DB25 Cable and STCP Soft- 
ware with remote telemetry, transfer to/from disk, printer out- 
put, XON-XOFF control, user program control, and status 
line. 

VE-2 IEEE to Parallel Interface 110 

Includes case, power supply, full 8-bit transmission, and 
switch selectable character conversion to ASCII. 



$115 



VIC 20 Products 

Backup V1.0 20 

VIC RAM Cards in stock 
VIC SuperExpander 53 
VIC 16K RAM 
Thorn EMI Software 
HES Software 
VIC Omega Race 
Spiders of Mars (UMI) 
Programmers Aid 



95 



VICTORY Software 



Street Sweepers 
Night Rider 
Treasures of Bat Cave 
Games Pack I 
Victory Casino 
Adventure Pack II 



12 
11 
12 
12 
8 
12 



VIC Sargon II Chess 
VIC GORF 
Meteor Run (UMI) 
VIC Radar Ratrace 
Amok (UMI) 
Snakman 
Rubik's Cube 
Programmers Reference 
Renaissance (UMI) 
VIC Adventure Series 
lor VIC and C64 
Maze in 3-D 
Cosmic Debris 
Grave Robbers Advent 
Games Pack II 
Adventure Pack I 
Trek 



Commodore 64 Programmers Reference Guide 17 

Computers First Book of PET/CBM 1 1 

POWER ROM Utilities for PET/CBM 78 

WordPro 3+ - 32K CBM, disk, printer 195 

WordPro 3+/B4 70 

WordPro 4+ - 8032, disk, printer 300 

SPELLMASTER aaellina checker lor WordPro 1 70 

VISICALC for PET, ATARI, or Apple 1 90 

PETRAJt PET to EpiM Graphics Softwire 40 

SM-KIT enhanced PET/CBM ROM UtHHiei 40 

Programmers Toolkit - PET ROM Utilities 35 

PET Spacemaker II ROM Switch 36 

2 Meter PET to IEEE or IEEE to IEEE Cable 40 

Dust Cover for PET, CBM, 4040, or 8050 8 

VIC or C64 Parallel Printer Interface 79 

CmC IEEE-RS232 Printer Interface — PET 120 

SADI Intelligent IEEE-RS232 or parallel 235 

ZRAM- CBM 64K RAM, Z80, CP/M 550 

Programming the PET/CBM IComputel] — R. Weal 20 

Compute! First Book o1 VIC 1 1 

Whole PET Catalog (Midnight Gazette) 8 

Color Chart Video Board for PET 1 25 

PET Fun and Games (Cursor) 1 1 

FlexFiie for PET CBM, C64 $110 

Database, Report Writer with Calculations, Mailing Lists 

FORTH for PET full FIG model - Cargill/Riley $50 

MatacompilerferFORTH for]ndependentobject_code 30 

KMMM PASCAL for PET/CBM/C64 85 

EARL for PET/CBMDisk^ased ASSEMBLER _ 65 

Sopor Graphics — BASIC Lingoage Exorcises 45 

Fast machine language graphics routines for PET/CBM 



RAM/ROM for PET/CBM 



4K $75 8K $90 



252 Bethlehem Pike 
Colmar, PA 18915 



DISK 
SPECIALS 




10/2.25 50/2.10 100/2.05 

10/3.15 50/2.90 100/2.85 

10/2.40 50/2.20 100/2.15 

10/2.95 50/2.70 100/2.65 



Scotch (3M) 5" ss/dd 
Scotch (3M) 5" ds/dd 
Scotch (3M) 8" ss/sd 
Scotch (3M) 8" ss/dd 

We stock VERBATIM DISKS 

Write for Dealer and OEM prices. 

BASF 5" or 8" 10/2.00 20/1.95 100/1.85 

NEW BASF Qualimetric Disks also in stock 

Wabash 5"ss/sd 1 0/ 1 .80 50/ 1 .75 1 00/ 1 .70 

Wabash 5" ss/dd 10/2.00 50/1.95 100/1.90 

Wabash 8" ss/sd 10/2.00 50/1.95 100/1.90 

We stock MAXELL DISKS 

Write for dealer and OEM prices. 

Disk Storage Pages 10 for $5 Hub Rings 50 lor $6 
Disk Library Cases 8" — 3 00 5" — 2 25 
Mead Cleaning Kits 1 1 



CASSETTES— AGFA PE-6U PREMIUM 

High output, low noise, 5 screw housings. 

C-10 10/61 50/58 100/50 

C-30 10/85 50/ .82 100/70 



SPECIALS 



109 



Zenith ZVM-121 Green Phosphor Monitor 

VOICE BOX Speech Synthesizer (Apple or Atari) 

Many printers available (Star, Brother, OKI, etc.) 

We Stock AMDEK Monitors 

Watanabe Intelligent Plotter 990 6-pen 1290 

ISOBAR 4 Outlet Sorgo Soprosur/Nolio Filter 49 

We stock Electrohome Monitors 

dBASE II 390 

Panasonic TR-120M1P 12" Monitor (20 MHz) 149 

Panasonic CT-160 Dual Mode Color Monitor 285 

Franklin Computers - special system price 
Hewlett Packard Calculators available 

USI Video Monitors— Green or AMBER 20 MHz Id-res. 
Oealer and OEM inquiries invited 

A P Products 15 %.9.y 

Synertek SYM-1 Microcomputer SALE 189 

KTM-2/80 Synertek Video and Keyboard 349 

Y£njth | data 

I systems 

Z29 Terminal (VT100, VT-52, ADM3A, 

Hazl500 compatible) 680 

CT- 1 1ntelligent Communications Terminal 479 

Z100 1 E-bit/8-bit System CALL 

We stock entire Zenith line. 




ATARI* 

SPECIALS 



800 Computer 
400— 16K 
810 Disk Drive 
Thora EMI Software 
850 Interface 
Inside Atari DOS 
Joysticks or Paddles 
Microtek RAM Cards 
EdoFon Solhnri 
Pilot 

Super Breakout 
APX Software 



499 
199 
440 

170 
18 
19 



65 

29 

Call 



Microsoft BASIC 
MISSILE COMMANO 
ASTEROIDS 
STAR RAIDERS 

Space Invaders 
Atari Graph. (Compute!) 
Caverns of Mars 
PAC-MAN 
CENTIPEDE 
First Book of Atari 
Anchor Modem— Atari 
Other Atari products 



72 
29 
29 
34 
29 
11 
33 
36 
36 
11 
85 
Call 



215-822-7727 



A B Computers 



WRITE FOR CATALOG 

Add S 1 25 per order for shipping We pay balance ol UPS surface 
charges on all prepaid orders Prices listed are on cash discount 
basis Regular prices slightly higher Prices subiect to change 



60 



MICRO 



Circle No. 29 
No. 59- April 1983 



Unleash the AIM "A" Block 



by Tom Lillevig 



Memory is a valuable commodity 
on the AIM 65. This article 
shows how to recover some 
memory space and provides 
suggestions for uses. 



Figure 1: AIM-65 modification. 



A8>- 



A9>~ 






-My^$>^~+™ 



9-1 



Your first look at the address map for 
the AIM 65 reveals a 36K block of space 
available for those helpful additions 
every computer user needs. If, how- 
ever, you add a couple of 16K RAM 
boards and a video interface, you soon 
discover that 36K isn't as much space 
as you thought. 

If you take a closer look at the ad- 
dress map you will see a design that 
saved Rockwell some money in manu- 
facturing, but cost you the use of 
valuable memory space. Four interface 
devices, which require a total of less 
than 256 bytes of memory, have been 
allotted an entire 4K block! I refer, of 
course, to the PIA, RIOT, and VLAs that 
inhabit the ' 'A' ' block. This article dis- 
cusses a simple method to unleash 
much of the "A" block and several ap- 
plications for the available space. 

The reason that the four devices in 
the "A" block take up so much 
memory is that the enable signals are 
produced by loose decoding. The AIM 
65 schematic shows that the enables 
come from decoder Z19 and are derived 
from CSA and address lines A10 and 
All. This method of decoding allocates 
IK of memory space to each device. A 
better method, first proposed by Larry 



Figure 2: Adding 2114 RAM to "A" block. 

9 



1.0 

CSA>-Ei 
A9 >- 

SYS02>- 



15 



13 



ED 



»r^ 



4.7K 



iij^y-^E 



u 



U17485 
U2:74LS245 
U374LS00 
U4-U7:2114RAM 



ADDRESSES 

U4.U5: AAO0-ABFF 
AE00-AFFF 

U6.U7: A200-A3FF 
A600-A7FF 



J SYS 
"x R/W 




No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



61 



Westergren in the computer club news- 
letter Interchange, squeezes each 
device into a space of 256 bytes, thus 
freeing up 3K of usable memory. 
Larry's method requires the addition of 
one IC, so I decided to see if the 
decoding could be done using spare 
gates on the AIM. 

See figure 1 for my update of Larry's 
idea. The NAND gate and inverters are 
all spare devices, and no circuit cuts are 
required. The connection to Z19-1 
deactivates the existing "A" block 
enables to the I/O devices, except 
when both A8 and A9 are at zero. This 



modification makes address blocks 
$A100-$A3FF, $A500-$A7FF, $A900- 
$ABFF, and $AD00-$AFFF available. 

Now that these blocks are free, 
what can be installed? Since each slot is 
only 768 bytes wide, RAM addition 
does not appear to be a good choice. If, 
however, you can live with four 
separate blocks of 512 bytes, then you 
can wire four 2114's to provide 2K of 
memory with no waste or overlap |see 
figure 2|. The RAM blocks occupy ad- 
dresses $A200-$A3FF, $A600-$A7FF, 
$AA0O-$ABFF, and $AE00-$AFFF. As 
shown in figure 3, a 6116 RAM or 2716 



Figure 3: Adding 6116 RAM or 2716 EPROM to "A" block. 

9 



CSAvJi 



A9> 
SYS 02 > 




SYS 



6502 
D0-D7 



A1P>- 



A11 > 



< A0-A8 



.SYS 
*R/W 



U1:7485 

U2: 74LS245 

U3: 74LS00 

U4: 6116 RAM OR 2716 EPROM 



ADDRESSES: A200-A3FF. 
A600-A7FF, AA00-ABFF, AE00-AFFF 



EPROM could be installed instead of 
the 2114's. 

The rest of the available space can 
be decoded further to provide enable 
lines for a variety of devices. The 
circuit in figure 4 illustrates a simple 
method for deriving eight enables from 
the remaining blocks. The enables may 
be used for any chips that require 128 
bytes of memory space, or less. PIAs, 
VIAs, and real-time clocks are just 
a few example of devices that will 
fit 'nicely. 



Tom Lillevig is a Senior Training 
Representative at Rockwell-Collins. He is 
also secretary of the Cedar Valley 
Computer Association, an organization 
that includes nearly 500 AIM 65 owners. 
You may contact Mr. Lillevig at 130 
Carnaby Dr. NE, Cedar Rapids, IA 52402. 

JWCftO 



Figure 4: Decoding for spare enable lines. 



*> > 



A7> 



A10> 



A11 > 



A9> 
CSA> 




4 A100-A17F 
> A180-AIFF 

* A500-A57F 
} A580-A5FF 

* A900-A97F 
>A980-A9FP 
i AD00-AD7F 
}AO80-AOFF 



62 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 



*a 



Plug yourself into a new 
world of possibilities for 
you and your APPLE. 

Have you ever wished that 
your APPLE computer could do 
just one more thing? 

To somehow perform that 
one taskthat would just exactly fit 
your particular need. 

You may have found that a 
hardware limitation prevents you 
from accomplishing your goal 
and thatthereare no interfacesor 
expansion modules designed for 
your particular application. Are 
vou frustrated? Not any more! 

THE CUSTOM APPLE & 
OTHER MYSTERIES, volume 
one in IJG'S APPLE Information 
Series, provides you with the 
information, specifications and 



references you need to do it 
yourself, whether a novice or 
expert, and includes the basic 
information required for 
hardware enhancements that are 
common to many projects. 

Guide to APPLE 
Hardware and software 
modification. 

THE CUSTOM APPLE & 
OTHER MYSTERIES includes a 
number of data acquisition and 
control projects with printed 
circuit layouts like an 8-Bit D/A 
and A/D Converter, a 6522 
application interface board, a 
sound and noise generator 
board, an EPROM Burner 
board, an APPLE Slot 
Repeater, and 



»% 



'*/*/„ 



includes information on the 
APPLE as a square wave 
generator, the control of stepper 
motors, connecting two 6502 
systems, and lots more. 

The Custom APPLE & 
Other Mysteries is a valuable tool 
for all APPLE or APPLE II 
computer users and is available 
for $24^25-^ computer stores. B. 
Dalton Booksellers and 
independent book dealers. If 
your dealer is out of stock, order 
direct from I.JG. 

Include $4.00 for shipping 
and handling. Foreign residents 
add $11.00 plus purchase price. 
U.S. funds only please. 



1953 West 11th Street 
Upland, California 91786 
Phone: 714/946-5805 





Helping You 
Help Yourself. 



PLUG IN 
TO YOUR 
APPLE. 

New Book 
On Sale NOW! 



No. 59 -April 1983 



© IJG, Inc. 1982 

TM APPLE and APPLE II are registered trademarks of 

Apple Computer Inc. 



63 






B£ftSH 



HP 

Bill 






IP 

1S111 






dSH9|fri 






&K-3& 









,; . >■ ' • ;' JM«B«ffiMH h|| 




YOUR COMPATIBILITY CHART MORE COMPATIBILITY INTERFACES DUE SOON . . . CHECK FACTOf 


1 COMPUTER 


MONITORS 


PLOTTER 


3' MICRO- 
DISC DRIVE 


NOTES 


VIOEO-300 


VIDEO-310 


COLOR-! 


COLOR-II 


COLOR-IIA 


COLOR-III 


COLOR-IV 




1 IBM-PC 


• 


• 


• 


• 


* 


• 


* 


• 


• 


* Special Cabling Required 


1 APPLE III 


• 






* 


* 


* 


* 


• 




♦Special Cabling or 
Converter Required 


1 APPLE II 


• 




• 


* 


* 


* 


* 


• 




* DVM Board Required 


II ATARI BOO 


* 




* 














* Opt. Atari Cable Required 


1 VIC-20 






* 














* Opt. VIC Cable Required 


| TRS-80 


* 


















* Opt. TRS Cable Required 


1 Osborne 


* 


















* Opt. Interface Required 


1 TI-99 






* 














* Opt. Tl Cable Required 


| Commodore-64 


* 




* 














* Opt. Commodore Cable Req. 





innovative computing ! 








I MCftO-FLOPPYMSK I 



Revolutionary 



> (unfnrnatted) storage • TracMo-fraciecon^ 

' floppy-disk drives: • Bult-ii 

, protective floppydBk cartridge 






Amdek Corp. is dedicated to marketing quality compu- 
ter peripheral equipment to enhance the use of popular 
personal computers. Our research & development staff 
keeps abreast of progress in computer techology and 
equipment and strives to offer you state-of-the-art ad- 
vances in peripheral equipment. 



Amdek products are distributed nationwide and in Cana- 
da through major distributors. And, we have factory- 
trained manufacturer's representatives ready to serve 
you in every major marketing area. Amdek offices are 
located in Chicago. Los Angeles & Dallas. 

Just circle the reader service number, or contact us to 
receive complete technical specifications on these 
Amdek products. 




Your Salvation 

In The Sea Of 

Inflation. 



P.O. Box 2025 
Corona, CA91720 



^kjA ^m^S ^u 




Microsoft Premium System 
Includes: softcard, ramcard, videx 
Videoterm, Softswitch, user guide. 



Novation Smart Cat 
1 200 Baud full duplex. 



List: 595.00 
ARK: 495.00 



■^iu-gz:w:-M » -j^ 




ASSEMBLERS 






List ARK 






A.LD.S. 125.00 89.95 






LISA 79.95 59.95 






LISA ED PAK 1 1 9.95 79.95 






MERLIN 64.95 54.95 






COMMUNICATIONS 


R 




List ARK 






ASCII 






Expresso Pro 1 29.95 99.95 






DATA 






Capture 4.0 64.95 49.95 






VISITERM 100.00 79.95 






Z TERM PRO 1 49.95 1 09.95 


iii 




DATABASES 






List ARK 






dBASE II 695.00499.95 




lI 


DB MASTER 229.00 1 59.95 






DB Utility #1 99.00 69.95 






DB Utility #2 99.00 69.95 






PFS 125.00 89.95 






VISIFILE 250.00184.95 






EDUCATIONAL 


1 ifl 




List ARK 






Know 






Your Apple 34.95 29.95 






Mastertype 39.95 29.95 


lijl 




Speed 






Reading 






Courseware 99.95 79.95 






Typing Tutor II 24.95 19.95 




VI 


FINANCIAL MODELING 






List ARK 






Calestar 145.00109.95 






Desktop Plan II 250.00 1 84.95 






Visicalc 250.00184.95 




m- d- TSMggcacJI 



tta <pb <s» om as* e> | 


1 

1 


GRAPHICS 


\a 


J 


List ARK 






The Artist 79.95 59.95 




i 


EZ Draw 49.95 39.95 


M 


J 


GAS 75.00 54.95 




1 


Graphics 




J 


Magician 59.95 44.95 






Hires Secrets 125.00 89.95 




3 


Visiplot 200.00159.95 




1 


HARDWARE 




j 


List ARK 




i 


Applicard 6mhz 595.00 395.00 


A 


j 


Graphics Plus 149.95 99.95 






Keyboard Plus 99.95 69.95 




j 


Kraft Joystick 64.95 49.95 


F 




Lower Case 


M 




Plus 64.95 49.95 






Lower Case 






Plus II 24.95 14.95 




i 


Micromodemll 




J 


w/term. pak 409.00 31 9.95 


Ii 




Microsoft 


V 


j 


16KCard 99.95 79.95 


e 


* 


Microtek 


I 


<i 


Parallel 




j 


Interface 139.50 64.95 


I 


a 


Videx Combo 425.00 250.00 




I 


MAILING LISTS 


t 


[■ 


List ARK 


t 


ii 


Address Book 49.95 39.95 


t, 




1st Class Mail 74.95 54.95 






Magic Mailer 69.95 


!i 


s 


Magic Mailer 69.95 54.95 


$ 




MailMerge 250.00189.95 




Mr- w- J ^r = ^^ ! -*'W- m -<m ^M 



■^■^■^^■TT-wr: 






j PRINTERS 






List ARK 






C. Itoh 






Prowriter 85 1 595.00 475.00 






C. Itoh 






Prowriter 1 550 995.00 750.00 






C. Itoh 






StarwriterFlO 1395. 1500. 






NEC 






NEC 8023 695.00 475.00 






UTILITIES 






List ARK 






Apple Doc 39.95 29.95 






Applewriter 






Preboot 19.00 15.00 






The Dictionary 99.95 79.95 




ifi 


E P F IV 79.95 59.95 






Disk Recovery 30.00 21.95 






Dos Boss 24.00 17.95 




Hi I 


Dosource 39.95 24.95 




kU 


Locksmith 99.95 69.95 






Super Disk 






Copy III 30.00 21.95 






Tip Disk #1 20.00 14.95 




U 


Utility City 29.50 21.95 




Visicalc 






Preboot 49.95 39.95 






Watson 49.95 39.95 






WORD PROCESSORS 






List ARK 






Exec Sec. 250.00 1 89.95 




l 


Magic Window 99.95 79.95 




Magic 






Window II 149.95119.95 






Pie Writer 149.95 99.95 






Screenwriter 11129.95 79.95 






Super 






Text 40/80 175.00129.95 






Word Handler 199.00149.95 






Wordstar 49S.00 369.95 




■■^ »*— 'J 8 ^^*^! — 





IF YOU DONT SEE WHAT YOU NEED, GIVE 

US A CALL AND WE'LL TRY TO 

GET IT FOR YOU! 

CALL FOR FREE CATALOG 

(714)735-2250 



We accept VISA/MASTERCARD, Personal checks 
(allow 1 days to clear) or COD (2.00 charge). Please 
include 3% for shipping (2.00 min.) or 5% for blue 
label (3.00 min.). Calif, residents add 6% sales tax All 
items are new and carry manufacturers warranty. 
Prices and availability are subject to change without 
notice. 



Circle No. S 



The 




LEARNING CENTER 




Atari 800 



Texas Instrument 



Features: 



• MASTER for VIC and 
COMMODORE 64 

by Loren Wright 

A guessing game involving concealed letter 
patterns. 



• Conservation of Momemtum 
for Atari and Commodore 

by Terry Faughn 

A tutorial appropriate for an introductory physics 
class. 



is a Number a Number? 

by Phil Daley 

An easy way to convert from one base to 
another. 




• A Beginner's Computer Glossary 

Part two of our introductory dictionary. 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



67 



PUT THE FULL POWER OF YOUR 
VIC-20 AT YOUR COMMAND! 

Order your copy of MICRO'S newest book... 

MASTERING YOUR VIC-20 

t. with eight BASIC projects 



Youpi 
Receive: 



MICRO Calc... 

: sheet program that makes coi ugh 

calculations a breeze* • ; ~ •;' " '" "^C^Mii^^^^ 



HI 



m 






MASTER... a guessing gam jfa 

programming wWi randpni mmn gk "'"""^ 









-VIC Clod |p| 

and character 'graph^f |? ; 'i '% ^^M^W^^^^^^^^m, 



ahlmatibniacl ^aWmS^SBBHs^SaHi 



Use this coupon or the postage paid cat 

MICRO B^&fli 

m 









etstiyiij 



mn 



P9 hB 




Hip* 



STAMP OUT HIGH PRICE 

On Apple® Software & Accessories... 

... without sacrificing on prompt delivery or quality service. Micro Mountain sells 
everything at prices substantially less than the manufacturer's list. Since we 
maintain such a large inventory (1000's of items in stock) most orders can be filled 
and shipped within 24 hours after you order. And, because Micro Mountain is one of 
the largest retail distributors of Apple® Software in the world, we will be here should 
you need service at anytime after you receive your order. 

So, if you're interested in— Low Prices, Prompt Delivery AND Quality Service, 

SHOP AT . . . 




'W\\S\\\w' 



IIIL«"l«. 

mountain 



NOW WE 
CARRY 



FRANKLIN COMPUTERS 



CALL FOR THE 
BEST PRICES! 



OMEGA 



UMtUA tSTkCtl SILICON VALLEY ♦£/- M rn 

Locksmith S69 50 List Handler 3 64 50 



TAXAN — 12" AMBER <£~4 A*VCfi STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS (tyi-TCn 

Monitor $14750 Bomb AHey $4750 

EASTSIDE SOFTWARE t.4/Wien HAYES tfW^ttt 

Wildcard '109 50 Micro Modem II ..'277 50 

$27550 

$2650 
. . $595° 



MICRO LAB £-*•/■ "7^ 

Tax Manager $14/ 50 

KENSINGTON MICROWARE +<+ (\m- cn 

Visicalc 3.3 518750 

Wok? Disk Drive . $273™ 



DOW JONES 

Market Analyzer 

EDU-WARE 

Alegebra IV 



SPINNAKER &rkf\ cn 

Rhymes & Riddles . '23 50 

KENSINGTON MICROWARE _, 

System Saver 5&5 50 

-ASK FOR FREE CATALOG- 



VISTA 

16K Ram Card . 

SILICON VALLEY SYSTEMS 

Word Handler . . 

MICROSOFT 

MultiPlan 



$ 139 50 

$21950 



tp&* 



Any order 
of 3 or more 
programs entitles you to 
your choice of Original 
Adventure Game or Applesoft® 
Tutorial on disk FREEI 



PHONE IN 
YOUR ORDER 
—TOLL FREE— 

(800) 854-5649 

Washington State residents 
see phone numbers in 
Order Blank at Right. 

ORDER PHONE HOURS: 

Mon.-Frl. 9 to 6 (PST) 
Sat. ft Sun. 10 to 2 (PST) 



BE SURE TO ADD $2JM SHIPPING AND HANDLING FOR ALL 
SOFTWARE ORDERS, ADD ADDITIONAL $3.00 FOR BLUE LABEL 
(Air). SHIPPING ON HARDWARE ITEMS— EXTRA. Washington 
ratldenU add SW4 talm lax. W« accept MASTERCARD, VISA and 
AMERICAN EXPRESS. C.O.D.'t add $5.00. 



NAME. 



STREET . 



CITY_ 



STATE t, ZIP_ 



CARD »_ 



. EXP. DATE . 



SIGNATURE . 



14617 N.E. 169th ST., WOODINVILLE, WA 98072 

ORDER PHONE - Outslds Wish. - (800) 854-5849 

Wash. Residents ft Cust. Service (206) 483-2000 



I 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



Circle No. 35 



CENTER 



III 



MASTER for VIC-20 
and COMMODORE 64 



by Loren Wrigh 



Apple Listing appears on page 82 



MASTER is a simple guessing game for one or two 
players. The commercial version of this game 
involves colored pegs. One player constructs a 
pattern of four colored pegs behind a screen, and it 
is up to the other player to guess the concealed 
pattern. The first player provides the second player 
with clues, telling him how many pegs have been 
guessed in the right position, and how many pegs 
are the right color but in the wrong position. The 
second player continues to guess until he has 
discovered the colors and correct positions of all 
four pegs. The number of guesses is the score, and 
the player with the lower score wins. The computer 
uses letters instead of pegs, but the rules are the 
same. In fact, the MASTER program offers you a 
choice of three different game versions, and you 
can modify the program to play even more games. 



Running the Program 



Position the tape to load the program MASTER. 
Hold down the shift key and press RUN /STOP. 
When the program is loaded, the screen will clear 
and the message '1 OR 2 PLAYERS?' will be 
displayed at the top. For the moment, select '1'. 
The two-player game is described later. Next you 
are offered a menu of game difficulty levels. Press 
'1', '2', Gr '3' to select a game. (You can change 
your choice for the next game, if you want.) The 
rules appropriate to the game you have selected 
are then displayed. The rules are printed here for 
reference. 

In the EASY game, only A, B, C, and D are 
allowed, and no letter may be repeated in the 
secret pattern. Your guesses may include repeated 
letters, though. In the MID game, only A, B, C, 
and D are allowed, but these letters may be 
repeated in the pattern. In the HARD game, A, B, 
C, D, E, and F are allowed, and letters may be 
repeated. 



Press any key (except RUN/STOP) to continue. 
The computer now generates, at random, a secret 
pattern. The screen will clear and appear as below: 

SELECT LETTER ON OFF 

> ■ 

The flashing-square cursor appears right after 
the ' > '. Only '?', ' +- ', and the letters allowed in 
the game will be accepted from the keyboard. (The 
RUN /STOP key does work, though!) Acceptable 
characters will be printed on the screen; 
unacceptable ones will have no effect. As soon as 
you enter the fourth letter in your guess pattern, 
the program will process it. Until you enter that 
fourth character, though, you may change your 
mind. Press ' •*- ' to restart your guess. If at any 
time you want to give up, the '?' key will print 
the secret pattern and let you start over with a 
new game and pattern. 

When you enter the fourth item in your guess 
pattern, the computer matches it against the 
secret pattern. In the 'ON' column is the number 
of letters guessed correctly, and in the right 
position,- in the 'OFF' column is the number 
guessed right, but in the wrong position. 
Understanding the matching process will help you 
learn to play the game better. For instance, if you 
guessed 'D C C A', and the secret pattern is 'D B 
A C, the computer will return a '1' in the 'ON' 
column and a '2' in the 'OFF' column. 



Figure f 



Guess: 


lm c^c; 


Secret: 


D B l?k 


Result: 


ON OFF 




1 2 



The 'D' is in the correct position (indicated by 
the shading), but the 'C and the 'A' (matches 
indicated with arrows), while they do exist in the 



70 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 198: 



secret pattern, were guessed in the wrong position. 
Only one of the C's in the guess is counted, since 
there is only one C in the secret pattern. If the 
secret pattern were 'C B A C instead, the program 
would return '0' in the 'ON' column and '3' in the 
'OFF' column. Both C's in the guess are now 
counted. 




When you have guessed the secret pattern 
correctly, you will be congratulated and told the 
number of guesses yOu took. Then the program is 
restarted with selection of the game level. 

As you play more and more games, you will 
begin to develop systems to help you guess the 
pattern as quickly as possible. One technique that 
is sometimes useful is substituting one character 
at a time. 

Two-peison Game 

The two-person option allows a second player 
to input a secret pattern instead of having the 
computer come up with one. The player who will 
be guessing should look away from the screen 
while the other player inputs a pattern. The 
program tests for the letters allowed but it does 
not check for repetitions. Be sure to follow the 
repetition rule in effect. To go back to the one- 
person version press RUN/STOP, type RUN and 
press RETURN. This time answer '1' for the 
number of players. 



Programming Techniques in MASTER 



Random Numbers 

In the one-player version of MASTER, the 
program is able to come up with a different secret 
pattern of letters each time the game is played. 
How is this done? The secret is in random 
numbers. BASIC is able to generate random 
numbers using the RND function.' 

A random number is one that is obtained 
without any predictability or repeatability. Rolling 
a die, flipping a coin, and spinning a roulette 
wheel are all means of obtaining random numbers 
in the real world. 

Many programming applications require a 
source of random numbers. For statistics programs 
they can provide sample data to test a model, and 



LEARNING 

in physics they can be used for applications such 
as demonstrating the behavior of gas particles. 

Many game programs require random numbers. 
These may be used in the form of playing cards, 
dice, or locations of hidden treasures. In the 
1 -player version of MASTER, random numbers are 
used to generate the secret pattern of letters. 

The BASIC function RND generates pseudo- 
random numbers in the range between and 1 . 
Pseudo-random means each succeeding number 
depends to some extent on the previous one. As a 
result, after many thousands of numbers, the 
sequence will start over. This makes statistics 
involving very large samples sometimes difficult, 
but it usually causes no problem in games, which 
use considerably fewer numbers. 

The only problem we must avoid is generating 
the same sequence of random numbers every time 
the program is run. The technique used in 
MASTER is to be sure the RND function has a 
different starting number or 'seed' each time. This 
is accomplished with the statement 
'I = RND( -TIJ' in line 8040 as part of the 
initialization sequence. Using a negative number 
as the argument for RND causes a function of the 
argument to be used as the seed to start the 
sequence of random numbers. TI is the value of an 
internal clock that starts at zero when the com- 
puter is turned on and increments every sixtieth of 
a second. Since you are very unlikely to start the 
program at exactly the same moment each time, 
you are practically assured of getting a different 
seed each time. If you use a negative constant 
instead of - TI in line 8040, you will generate the 
same sequence of random numbers each time. Run 
the program this way and you will be able to 
astound your friends with your psychic powers! 

Now that we have a sequence of random 
numbers, how do we turn this sequence into the 
letter patterns for MASTER? Line 1020 does it all 
in one BASIC expression: RN = INT 
(RND(1)*N + 1), where N is number of letters 
allowed in the game. See figure 3 for a graphic 
illustration of how four random numbers are 
converted into the four letters of a secret MASTER 
pattern. RND(l) produces numbers in the range of 
to 1, but this does not include either or 1 
themselves. First we multiply the number by the 
number of letters allowed in the game. If we allow 
four letters (N = 4), then we multiply the random 
numbers by four to get numbers in the range to 
3.999.... Next we add 1 to make it 1 to 4.999.... 
Then we use the BASIC INT function to remove 
whatever is to the right of the decimal point, 
leaving us with 1, 2, 3, or 4. These numbers are 
never actually converted to letters. Instead, the 
letters the player types for a guess are converted to 
numbers. 



o 
m 



m 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



71 



r 



O CENTER 



z 














Z 








Element # 






< 
in 




BASIC 










Figure 3 


Function 


I % 


HNNHI 


3 


■4 


-i 




RNE>(1) 


.555877482. 


...689094948 


.828839479 


.0619696133 






bBhhhn 


2,223509939 


5w5637979 


3.31535792 


.247878453 






wmhbmp 


3V22350993: 


'3.75637979 


4.31535792 


1.24787845 






INT| 1 


3 ^1 


■HSHil 


Sips^is 


1 






LETTER 


.■:-.•. ' -',C~ ■■'■■?--■ 


-.\ ::•■.,£■ ■ 


D 


A 



The same technique can be used to get random 
numbers over any range. For dice, multiply by six, 
take the integer, and add 1. For playing cards, 
multiply by 52, take the integer, and add 1. 
(Converting 1 to 52 into suits and ranks is another 
problem!) 

Flags and Logic 

One of the most powerful features of a 
computer is its ability to make decisions. 
MASTER uses the computer's decision-making 
ability throughout its program. 

Every decision boils down to deciding whether 
an expression is true or false. The BASIC 
IF... THEN construction decides whether an 
expression is true or false. If the expression after 
the IF is true, then whatever appears on the line 
after the THEN is executed. If the expression is 
false, then the rest of the line is skipped and 
execution continues with the next line. 

BASIC doesn't actually handle the words 'true' 
and 'false.' Instead, it assigns - 1 to represent 
'true' and to represent 'false'. When evaluating 
expressions, any non-zero result is considered 
'true'. To see this in action try the following 
example: 

10 INPUT "A=";A 

20 INPUT"B = ";B 

30 IF A= B THEN PRINT "TRUE": GOTO 50 

40 PRINT "FALSE" 

50 PRINT A=B 

60 GOTO 10 

Run this program. Type in a value for A, press 
RETURN, type in a value for B, and press 
RETURN. If the number you entered for A equals 
the number you typed for B, then 'TRUE' will be 
printed, followed by -1. Otherwise 'FALSE' is 
printed, followed by 0. The number - 1 or is the 
value BASIC assigned to the expression 'A = B'. 
Line 180 in MASTER checks to see if the number 
of correct position matches (PM) is equal to the 
number of letters (NN) in the pattern. If so, the 
player has correctly guessed the pattern and the 



congratulation routine 6000 is executed before 
starting a new game by returning to line 100. 

Now enter the following program example that 
demonstrates the use of a flag. 



10 INPUT A 
20 IF A THEM PRINT 
30 PRINT "FALSE" 
40 GOTO 10 



TRUE": GOTO 40 



Try a few numbers. Every number except will 
result in 'TRUE' being printed. Entering will 
produce a 'FALSE'. The 'A' in line 20 is evaluated 
just like any other expression. If it is non-zero 
then it is considered true. 

A flag is a convenient device in a program. It 
can be either set (true or - 1) or clear (false or 0). 
BASIC doesn't have a special variable type for 
flags, but either integer of floating point variables 
may be used that way. MASTER uses several 
variables as flags: RP, RQ, and the arrays PF[ ) and 
PG( ). RP is set or cleared in the game selection 
routine (in line 7100, 7200, or 7300), depending or 
the game chosen. In line 1030, if RP is set ( = - 1) 
then lines 1040-1080, which prevent duplicate 
letters in the pattern, are skipped. RQ stays 
cleared unless a duplicate letter is found. If the 
flag is set, then the program returns to 1020 to 
determine a new number. Each element of the 
secret pattern has an element in the flag array 
PF( ), and each element in the guessed pattern has 
an element in the flag array PG( ) . See the 
discussion under "Processing a Guess" for details 
of how these flags are used. 

Another interesting use of a flag is in the 
display of the congratulation message (6080-6150). 
A FOR... NEXT loop is used to alternate the 
variable I between - 1 and 0. The flag I is tested in 
lines 6090 and 6120. If the flag is set, then the 
reverse-field character is printed. When the flag is 
clear, the following message is printed in normal 
characters. This produces the alternating reverse- 
field effect. 

The program has to make decisions in a 
number of other places, evaluating an expression 



72 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1' 



to determine what to do next. The IF... THEN 
statement is used most commonly for decision 
making, but ON...GOSUB and ON. ..GOTO are 
also used. ON...GOSUB is used in line 110 to 
decide whether to generate a random pattern in a 
1-player game, or to let a player input a pattern. 

Processing a Guess 

As explained earlier, the match count is 
determined by first checking for exact position 
matches and then going through to check for out- 
of-position matches. No element in either the 
secret or guess pattern may be used more than 
once in a match. 

To avoid re-using pattern elements in matches, 
we need to program a way to "cross off" pattern 
elements that have been used in a match. In 
addition to the two arrays of the elements 
themselves, two corresponding flag arrays are 
used. 

At the beginning of the matching process, all 
the flags are cleared, or set to zero (3010-3030). As 
each match is detected, the flags corresponding to 
the matched elements are set (in lines 3050 and 
3550). The flags are checked in lines 3520 and 
3540. If the flag is set, then the matching process 
is skipped and the next element is checked. In 
addition, when a match is found in line 3550, the 
higher numbered elements in the guess pattern are 
skipped by setting the loop index J to its 
maximum value, NN. The NEXT J statement in 
line 3560 sees J equal to its maximum value and is 
fooled into thinking it's through with the specified 
repetitions. Control passes to the NEXT I 
statement in line 3570. 

This process is graphically demonstrated in 
figure 4. I is the index into the secret pattern, 
while J is the index into the guess pattern. The 
boxes indicate the two elements currently being 
compared, PM is the number of position matches, 



LEARNING O 

m 



and OM is the number of out-of-position matches. 
A shaded box indicates a match and a diagonal line 
through an element indicates that it has been used 
in a match already. First, the position matches are 
checked. The result is 1, with the D's in the first 
position crossed off. In the program, the flags PF(1) 
and PG(1) are set to -1. 

Next, the out-of-position matches are checked. 
Since the first elements in each pattern have 
already been used, the comparison begins with the 
second elements. No match is found for the B, so 
the search continues with the third element of the 
secret pattern and the second element of the guess 
pattern. When the match is found with the fourth 
guess element, these two are crossed off, and the 
out-of-position match counter OM is incremented. 
A match is found immediately for the fourth 
secret pattern element, so the remaining two 
elements are skipped, and the counter 
incremented again. One position match and two 
out-of-position matches are reported to the player. 

If you are still confused about how this works, 
try a different pattern and construct a table similar 
to figure 4. You might also try running through 
the program lines with an example. 



Customizing your MASTER Game 



Adding an EXPERT Level 

Because of the way MASTER is written it is 
easy to add your own version to the game. As an 
example of how to do this, let's add an EXPERT 
game to the three choices we have already. Add or 
substitute the following lines to the program 
supplied. 

2100PRINT"[RVS]"CHR$(T + 64)"[OFF]"; 

7050 PRINT"[CD][2 CR][RVS]1[OFF] EXPERT" 



m 





Secret Pattern 






Guess Pattern 




PM OM 


I 






J 













1 


D B A 


c 


1 


: m. 


c 


c 


A 


^^^^^^^Hfci, 


2 


X IS a 


c 


^ 


zr 


PI 


c 


A 


^^^^^^^^^ l 


Figure 4 3 


X B [K] 


c 


3 


& 


c * 


® 


A 


1 


4 


Xf B A 


fcl 


4 


& 


c 


c :: 


"■PI 


1 


2 


xB" m A 


c 


n 


xr 


fcl 


c 


A 


^^^^^^^p^l 


2 


J* ED A 


c 


3 


xr 


c 


m 


A 


1 


2 


<Xf 1] A 


c 


4 


& 


c 


c \ 


[Al 


1 


3 


jsr B [A] 


c 


2 


& 


m 


c 


A 


1 


3 


JET ■ B [A] 


c 


3 


& 


c 


® 


A 


1 


3 


jer b a 


c 


4 


jer 


c 


c 


"' : W- : 


^^i^^^^^ifii 


4 


jer b X 


\* 


2 


& 


c 


c 


X 


i i 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



73 



O CENTER 

Z 7070 T = VAL(T$):IFT < 1 0RT > 4THEN7060 
Z 7080 ONTGOSUB7100,7200,7300,7600 
S 7600 N = 8:RP = - 1:G(1) = 8:G(2)= 12:G(3)= 16: 
5 G(4) = 20:G(5) = 25 

Jjj 7610 PRINT"[CLR]EXPERT GAME:" 
III 7620 GOSUB7400 

J 7630 PRINT"[CD][2 CR]MORE THAN ONCE" 
7640 RETURN 

This version of the game allows the first eight 
letters of the alphabet. The operation of the game 
itself is controlled by the values of N and RP in 
line 7600. The rest of the program changes involve 
adding the game to the menu and displaying the 
rules. The value of N determines the number of 
letters allowed in the game. RP is a flag, which, if 
set, allows repeats of letters in the pattern [see the 
"Flags" section above). The array G( J holds the 
cut-off numbers of guesses for each congratulation 
message. Adjust these values and program the 
appropriate messages, as in the example above, 
and you will be able to add your own game 
version. 

Congratulation Messages 

As part of the initialization routine, six 
congratulation messages are defined in lines 8060 
and 8070. You can change these messages, as well 
as the cut-off values G( ) defined in lines 7100, 
7200, and 7300. 

Numbei of Elements in Pattern 

The number of elements is four for all versions 
of the game described so far. This number can be 
changed to practically any number, the only 
limitations being the width of the display and the 
amount of memory in your VIC-20. The number 
of elements in the pattern is determined by the 
value of NN in line 8050 of the initialization 
routine. Change line 8050 to read: 8050 NN = 3. 
Now run the program. Notice that everything 
works as before, except only three letters are 
generated in the secret pattern, and only three are 
expected in each guess. 

To program more elements in the pattern, two 
additional changes must be made, both in line 
8040: 

8040 FD$="[BLK"|[SPC]":BK$ = "[CL]" 
:CR$ = CHR$(13):CF = 204 

With this change, five or six elements can be 
accommodated without disturbing the rest of the 
display. Substitute for line 8050, as above: 8050 
NN = 5 or 8050 NN = 6. One solution for longer 
patterns is to print the clues on the next line: 

180 PRINTTAB(34)"[BLK][SPC]"PM;OM 



Another solution is to further compress the letters 
in the guess: 

8040 FD$ = "[BLK]":BK$" ":CR$ = CHR$(13) 
:CF = 204 

Patterns of 1 1 or more elements require a DIM 
statement in the initialization routine. For 
example, 

8050 NN = 1 1 :DIMR(NN),GU(NN),PF(NN),PG(NN) 

along with one of the display adjustments above, 
sets up the game for 11 elements. 



Program Description 



Initialization (10): Subroutine 8000 sets up a 
number of constants, and subroutine 7500 gets the 
number of players. 

Program mainline (100-200): Subroutine 7000 
gets the skill level for the game and displays the 
instructions for the game. Subroutine 5000 waits 
for a key to be pressed before continuing with the 
main program. 

Line 110 uses the ON...GOSUB structure to 
determine whether to call subroutine 1000, which 
generates a random pattern, or subroutine 4000, 
which allows one player to input a pattern. NP 
can have only two values, 1 or 2. On 1, subroutine 
1000 is called; on 2, subroutine 4000 is called. 

GN is used to count the number of guesses. 
Line 130 calls subroutine 2000, which prints the 
header on the screen and receives the first guess. 
The second and subsequent guesses return to line 
140 where the same subroutine is called at 2020, 
to avoid having the header reprinted for each 
guess. 

A '?' indicates that the player has given up. A 
call is made to subroutine 9000, which prints out 
the secret pattern. GOTO 100 starts the player out 
with a new game. 

Next the guess must be processed. Before each 
call to the processing routines, the match counters 
PM and OM are zeroed. Subroutine 3000 processes 
the guess, first checking for position matches and 
then for out-of-position matches. If PM (the 
number of position matches) equals NN (the 
number of elements in the pattern), then the 
player has guessed the pattern. Subroutine 6000 is 
the congratulations routine. 

Line 190 prints out the results of the matching, 
with the position matches under the heading 'ON' 
and the out-of-position matches under the heading 
'OFF'. When the TAB (12) expression is 



74 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 19! 



DON'T ASK PROVIDES THE MISSING LINKS 



oo> the link between your modem and the outside world. For hassle-free 
communications, phone right in with TELETARI, The Friendly Terminal. 




Your Atari has never had such easy access to the whole world of telecommunications - bulletin boards, news reports, large time- 
sharing computers, the works. Now ifs a snap to tap into all these, and it's just as easy to transfer your program or text files to and from a 
remote computer. Meet TELETARI, The Friendly Terminal. It's just what your modem needs: a powerful, adaptable telecommunications 
package that's a cinch to use. With TELETARI, you simply choose the desired communications function from a menu. Commonly used 
terminal parameters are included in the program, but you can change them to suit your needs with a couple of keystrokes, using another 
handy menu, and store the ones you plan to use again. TELETARI's generous buffer stores up to 20K, so you can review, print, or save 
received information long after you've hung up the phone. You never knew using a modem could be so convenient. Because it's very 
flexible, TELETARI is compatible with most modems and a wide variety of computers. And because it works through the RS 232 port, 
TELETARI is not limited to modem/telephone uses. Put it to work in any RS232 application your imagination can devise- even operating a 
laser disk! 



• buffer of up to 20K • menu-driven • highly adaptable 
• compatible with 1 200 baud modems and BiT 3 Full-view 80" board 

$39.95 Requires Basic, 32K RAM, disk, 850 Interface 



• supports all 850 options 
suitable for any RS232 application 



CX» the link between BASIC and arcade-style graphics. Draw and animate pictures for your own BASIC games 
and other programs with pm ANIMATOR. Create running men, flying rockets, moving figures of all kinds. 



Now available 
from DONT ASK 




QQimator 



BASIC programmers, pm ANIMATOR puts the power of 
Player-Missile Graphics at your fingertips. 



Requires 32K RAM, BASIC, disk. 



ajrimajoj- 



To order direct from Don't Ask, send a check or money 
order, or call to order COD. Add $2.00 for shipping and 
handling. California residents add 6% sales tax (6.5% if 
you reside in L.A. County). 



00> the link between fast game action and verbal learning: 



Kids and adults, increase your vocabulary while you compete in this 
exciting word game. 
Disk version: 

3 levels of play - Beginner, Regular, Challenge 

Requires 32K RAM, disk. BASIC. $24.95 
Cassette version: 

2 levels of play - Beginner, Intermediate 

Requires 1 6K RAM, cassette, BASIC. $1 9.95 
O-OMum WORDRACE into a history game or a famous athletes 
game, and get more vocabulary words, with the WORDRACE 
accessory disk: CLAIM TO FAME/SPORTS DERBY. 3 new games in 
all. 

Oiskonty. Requires WORDRACE disk. $19.95 



Man a a trademark of Atan. inc. FuH-view 80 is a tredemwfc gf BiT 3 Computer Corporator) 




9-0»the link between you 

and what your Atari is 

realty thinking: 

ABUSE 

the insult-exchange program. 

Have you cursed out your computer? Now 

it can understand you and answer back! 

Requires 40K RAM, BASIC, disk. $1 9.95 

Release your aggressions! Inflict ABUSE 
on anyone who's got it coming! 



DON'T ASK 
0-O> the link between technical excellence 
and the fun of computing. Why do we give 
you so much? Don't Ask. 



D®nTASK 

COMPUTER SOFTWARE 



2265 Westwood Bl., Ste. B-1 50 

Los Angeles, CA 90064 
(213)477-4514 or 397-8811 CircleNo36 



CENTER 

2 encountered in a PRINT statement the cursor 
™ moves to the twelfth character position on the 
SE screen. 

IE The guess counter GN is incremented and the 
^ program loops back to 140 for another guess. 
Ill Generate Random Numbers (1000-1110): This 
■J routine is called at the beginning of each one- 
player game to generate the secret pattern. In the 
supplied version of the game NN is always 4, so 
four numbers are generated. Line 1020 returns in 
RN an integer between 1 and the number of letters 
allowed in the game (NJ . If RP is non-zero, then 
repeats are allowed in the pattern. Lines 1040-1080 
are skipped and RN is copied into R(I), the current 
element of the pattern. If repeats are not allowed 
(RP = 0), then each RN must be checked against 
the previous elements in the pattern R( ) . In line 
1040 RQ is set to to indicate that no element 
has been found so far to match RN. If I = 1 then 
there aren't any numbers in the pattern and we 
can skip to 1090 and accept this RN. The 
FOR... NEXT loop on J (lines 1050-1070) goes from 
1 to the previous element (I - 1 J . If RN is found to 
match an existing element (RN = R(J)) then RQ is 
set to - 1 to indicate a match has been found and } 
is set to I- 1 to terminate the FOR... NEXT loop. If 
no match is found, then the loop continues 
through all the previously assigned elements. RQ 
is tested in line 1080: if it is non-zero, then 
another RN must be calculated (return to 1020); if 
it is still zero, then we can accept the RN and 
install it in the current element R(I) of the pattern. 
The outside FOR... NEXT loop (1010 to 1100) 
continues until all of the elements required in the 
pattern have been calculated. 

Process Guess (2000-2130): As .discussed above 
under the program mainline, this routine is 
usually called at 2020, but the first time the call is 
made to 2000 to print the heading 'SELECT 
LETTER ON OFF'. 

The routine consists of a big FOR... NEXT loop, 
where I starts with a value of 1 and ends with the 
value NN, the number of elements in the pattern. 
Within this loop, characters from the keyboard are 
accepted or rejected. The GET function returns 
with a character from the keyboard. If no key has 
been pressed, then the string T$ is assigned a null 
value. As long as T$ continues to be a null string, 
the program will keep looping on line 2060. As 
soon as a key is pressed, the program continues at 
line 2070. Normally, when the GET function is 
used, the cursor does not flash. POKEing a into 
CF (a constant set to 204 in the initialization) 
starts the cursor flashing; POKEing a 1 turns it off. 
It must be turned off between GETs to avoid 
depositing cursor characters in unwanted places. 
Two special characters '■*-' and '?' are tested. On 



'+- ', the loop is terminated by setting I to NN ani 
executing a NEXT statement. The GOTO 2030 
starts the loop over again. If we had failed to 
terminate the loop (by omitting the I = NN and 
NEXT statements) the user would be able to eras! 
the program by repeatedly hitting the ' *-' key. 
BASIC keeps track of each FOR... NEXT loop in ai 
area of memory called the stack. If we don't 
terminate a loop, that information continues to 
occupy space on the stack. Repeated calls to 2030 
with the ' *~ ' key will continue to build up new 
FOR... NEXT information on the stack until there 
is no room left. At this point the program crashes 
with an ?OUT OF MEMORY ERROR. The '?' 
character is dealt with similarly. The FOR... NEXT 
loop is terminated and a RETURN is made to the 
program mainline. 

Other characters are converted in line 2100 to 
their numeric codes with the ASC function. The 
code for the letter A is 65, so subtracting 64 
converts letters into numbers beginning with 1 . If 
T is less than 1 or greater than the number of 
letters allowed in the pattern, then BK$ (a 
constant defined as two [CL] characters) is printed 
and the program branches to 2050 to GET another 
character. If the character is accepted, then the 
appropriate colored letter block OB$(T) is printed 
and the number T is stored in the current elemenl 
of the guess pattern GU(I). RETURN takes the 
flow back to the mainline. 

Matching Routines (3000-3580): These routine: 
are described in more detail in the main text unde 
the section "The Matching Process." 

3010-3030 clear the flag arrays PG( ) and PF( ) 
by setting them to zero. 3050-3070 advance, 
position by position, through the secret pattern 
R( ) and guess pattern GU( ) arrays checking for 
matches. If a match is found, the position match 
counter PM is incremented and the corresponding 
flags are set to - 1 . 

Line 3500-3580 check all the other possibilities 
for matches. The flags are used to cross off 
elements as they are matched. Some economy is 
achieved by skipping over crossed-off elements 
(lines 3520 and 3540) and by terminating the 
inside loop as soon as a match is found (J = NN at 
the end of line 3550). 

Input Pattern with Two Players (4000-4160): 
After the instructions are displayed, this routine 
accepts letters one-by-one until the pattern is 
filled. It is similar to the guess-processing routine 
(2000-2130). Instead of filling the guess array, the 
secret pattern array R( ) is filled. See the 
description above for details. 

ANY KEY WHEN READY (5000-5020): The 
string CN$ is a constant defined in the 
initialization routine. The result is to print the 



76 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1! 



Now YOU can write professional quality 

interactive Computer- Assisted 
Instruction materials and simulations 

EnBASIC ™ can help YOU 





For the Apple II plus* and He*, with at least 48k of memory and 3.3 DOS. 



Authors Paul Tenczar, Stanley Smith, and Allen Avner 

have produced CAI and similar user-oriented software for 

more than 20 years. Here are routines and authoring aids 

critical to preparation of high-quality, user-friendly 

materials. 

EnBASIC adds to Applesoft* BASIC. All features of 

BASIC are still present. 

A flexible display design allows for: 

■ Proportional spacing, superscripts, subscripts, 
underlining, and automatically backspaced diacritic 
marks in text 

■ Double or standard size characters displayed 
anywhere on the High Res screen 

■ Lower-case characters on the Apple II plus* 

Advanced input handling affords you: 

■ State-of-the-art answer-judging 

■ Automatic indication of spelling and typing errors 

■ Character-by-character error feedback for missing, 
extra, or wrong letters, inverted letter order, errors in 
accenting, capitalization, sub- or superscripting 




■ Synonym lists allowed as part of expected responses 
You get all these features simply by specifying a correct 
response and including an EnBASIC command that 
implements spelling checks with feedback. 

The Package 

A 94-page manual containing a tutorial on use of 
EnBASIC with examples, implementation hints, and 
technical details (available separately for $20.00 which 
may be applied to the full purchase price of $1 50.00). 

A pocket guide to EnBASIC commands 

A master and back up diskettes containing: the EnBASIC 
augmentation program, six ready-made character sets, 
four sizes of English letters plus Cyrillic and Greek 
together with editors which allow you to design your own 
character sets and redefine key set functions. 

A sample program diskette 

'Registered trademark of the Apple Computer Company 
™ A trademark of Computing Teaching Corporation 

EnBASIC Package $150.00 



To order or receive 

our catalog, 

call or write today! 



COMPress 



DEPARTMENT E 

P.O. Box 102, Wentworth, NH 03282 
(603) 764-5831 / 5225 



For more information contact: Jane Wescott, 286 Congress Street, Boston, MA 02210 (617) 426-2224. 



Circle No. 39 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



77 



CENTER 



message 'ANY KEY WHEN READY' at the bottom 

■" of the screen. The one-line GET loop must receive 
Z a key before a RETURN. 

tC Congratulation Routine (6000-6190): 6010-6060 
^ use the number of guesses GN to determine the 
||| congratulation message. The array G( ) is set up 
^ for each version of the game in 7100, 7200, or 
7300. The messages MS$( ] are set up as constant 
strings during initialization. By comparing GN to 
each cutoff value G( ) with the < = (less than or 
equal to) operation, the subscript MS for the array 
MS$( ) is determined. 

Lines 6070-6180 display the congratulation 
screen, alternating the message and the number of 
guesses between reversed and normal characters. 
The use of I as a flag is discussed above under 
"Flags." If 1= - 1 then the [RVS] character is 
printed. Its value alternates between - 1 and 0. 

The string functions STR$ and MID$ applied to 
GN in line 6130 make the display of the number 
of guesses more attractive. The STR$ function 
converts the number GN to a string of characters. 
Positive numbers leave a space in front of the 
numeric characters that normally would be 
occupied by the ' - ' character. To get just the 
numeric part of the string the MID$ is used in a 
special way to get all the characters from the 
second position on. Normally the items included 
in the parentheses after MID$ are the name of the 
string, the character position to start, and the 
number of characters to extract. If just the first 
two items are included, then the remainder of the 
string is the result. Specifying 2 for the second 
parameter converts the string of the number of 
guesses to the same string without the leading 
space. 

Line 6140 is a FOR... NEXT loop that does 
nothing between the FOR and the NEXT! By 
adjusting the number after the TO, you can 
achieve a delay in the program of nearly any 
desired time. Here it controls the rate of the 
flashing. 

The GET function is used in line 6170 in a way 
opposite to its use in 2050, 4090, 5000, and 7060. 
As long as no key is pressed |T$ does not equal 
" "), the message continues to flash. When a key 
is pressed, the RETURN instruction is executed. 

Select Game and Display Instructions 
(7000-7440): 7010-7040 display a menu listing the 
different games available. Line 7060 awaits a key, 
which is converted to a number and tested against 
the range of the menu in line 7070. If the key is 
out of range, then the program branches back to 
7060 for another key. The ON...GOSUB 
instruction in line 7080 calls 7100 if T is 1, 7200 
if T is 2, or 7300 if T is 3. 

Each of these set-up-and-display routines 
establishes N (the number of letters allowed in the 



game), RP (the flag determining whether or not 
repeats are allowed), and G( ) (the array of guess 
number cutoff values for the congratulation 
messages). Then the name of the game is 
displayed. Next subroutine 7400, which displays 
parts of the instructions common to all games, is 
called. Finally, the rule regarding repeats is printed 
in the proper place. 

Subroutine 7400 first prints the colored letter 
blocks corresponding to the number of letters 
allowed (N). If the number allowed is four, the 
first four letter blocks are printed. Then the 
portion of the directions common to all versions of 
the game is printed. 

Get Number of Players (7500-7520): This 
subroutine is called once when the program is first 
run. It uses subroutine 5010 (5000 without the 
ANY KEY WHEN READY message) to GET a key. 
Only 1 or 2 is accepted and the value is returned 
inNP. 

Initialization (8000-8080): Sets up constants 
used in the program. See variable usage table for 
descriptions of the variables. 

Print Pattern on Give-up (9000-9040): The 
secret pattern is printed out in the appropriate 
colored letter blocks, using the secret pattern array 
R( ). Subroutine 5000 is used to wait for a key 
before starting a new game. 



Running MASTER on other Commodore Computers 

Tr<e program will run as it is on a Commodore 64. For 
PET Computers, change the value of CF from 204 to 167 
(<ine 8040;. Also, omit the coloi cont.ol codes. 



MASTER Lbtlng 

10 GOidB aO00:Wl=Hb"5O0:fr£M SET UP CONSTANTS, 

SELECT # OF PLOVERS 

10P GO^UB7O0G:r,/loiip5^0 l ,.|:E.»1 SELECT GAME LEVEL, 
lie OHNF HHITFORKEV 

: G6st»- 1008,4060 : 

REM RANDOM UR FL"VER-INPUT PATTERN 
120 UN=1 

IjU 6OSUB20O0:GUlUl'.fi:PEn HEADER, ENTER GUESS 
140 GO£Ue<2023:FEM EUTEf GUESS <NO HERDER > 
150 IF !»="'" 

fUEN GOSUB J0Q0: 
GOTO 100 
160 FM=0iOM-0 
170 GOSUB 30001 

REM ' PROCESS GUESS 
18© IF'pM-NNf 

THEN GOSUB 6(300 s 
' 'GOTO 100 
J 190 • PRINT TftB< 12 >"[ ELK 
!. 200 * GN=GNH : 
i GOTO 140 



RETURN PM,OM 



'PM.;OM 



1000 PEH GENEFhTF FAIHu<l1 NUMBERS 

1010 FOR 1=1 TO NN 

1020 RH-IHT'KNIii.1 -*M»l 



78 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



SOUTHWESTERN DATA SYSTEMS 

PROUDLY INTRODUCES ONE OF THE TASTIEST MACHINE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS AVAILABLE. 

"THE S«D*S COMBO!" 







^^m 






._ \ J^OSteMMIN<5 ^tjft APPLE II. - 

;'i .^jbegbinefS. ASSEMDLY UN&,THE OOOK 

'' • "jkbvlc)es.a.cieaf orid non-rechriicaf introduction 

• " tO'iTKrcWrw language programming on the 

•'" 'Appfe'Dfawo from me monthly column inSoftolk 

* Magazine and expanded ro provide even mere 
information. ASSEMBLY LINES THE BOOK has 

' ■ already received airicol ocdaim as the best 
Tutorial on machine language programming 



Example programs indude paddles, 
fifes and more; oil" presented wirh Eh 
programmer m mind. The book also 
excellent reference secoon. listing ea 
longuage command, and a sample 
iilusrrartna its mosr common uses- in c 




••'A^^#*pa'*66MliSr^^ , ,.. 

> ■''•' ' it -Z ■' ;> *^*.^»T'>.^"- ,-:! wiS^''.*JS!: i v v '?f-* ! 
,; Eof gso^<iem^^^fm\»^^fi^^^w^A. . '* 
s find *or MERLWfeJJie mc«.p*S^''iSB02i/v:..~'i;3 
; ossembTet avd^obfe for Jhe'Apcife; v»fiififcoirjtieV- : 
some time being rHe'eiisiesr rcidoe-' '">',;£'*'"".. 'i 

in fact. Were so cwnD^lwTOis.aAHit:-' 

THAT IF YOU CAN FIND A BETTER ASSEMBLER; -"■• '' 
WITHIM 30 DAYJOF PURCHASE, SIMPtV RETURN -^ 
THF: COMPLETE MERLIN PACKAGE FOR.A FUtt ' 

: refund) ■ -. :.;-.■• v . ■ ■ :,; •"•'-• .v^.vV/i^; 

A fulffecrfuredmgcroossemb^vyifh pprioodl" . ', 
.assembly to disk and* use of 'mcfode'filei.Mgrtth's -. 
edSrocnias Word processor-like power vftfh-sfjch 
options cs global search/replace; a powerful 
line editor,, and more. The package dlsolndrjdes ■ 
SOURCEROK. o uriliry ro generate' Iqbefed..,, '..". 
' pseudb source code ftdn^ tow bifwry files "god'. ■ 
also SOURCEROR IP. a fufey labeled and - : ; 
commented source feting of Applesoft BASfd . 



§86 £$l 




: .■prr^qits e^ .ste^ ovcrfite :.■$] 

I'educotiortbKtei the" beginner, antf an lnvcAjS$ble",h 
^ .6«-btigglng ; did.r6 the- &aVonaScf progtcimmef;^ 
"In:cfl4wbonrrhejsorhe money'-boat g&ranTee.-.'i-' 
i tjppf^roMUr^-A-C^asroMERLTNr - '.•;";! 

'..Mare:thbfto%rnple step and trace ufffify. MUKCRv ^ 
i A-OLHS Jndudes' its owi» minT-assembler. •Supports'- i 
]■■ lobefe, and even conditional rrace flags, iois :■£< 
means WLABL can be .'pur in o 'dc*mpnr' state, r\ 
v/hich wStlOfer 'pop-up' i/vrhe rrace mode, only *i 
■ whehaettain conditions ore met. Thus routines' . 
withlryfulfy operational programs con be rested 
. right dttun-tirtie: 



5UGGESTED RETAIL PRICE: S19.95 SUGGESTED RETA|L:PWCE: S64.95 .;. : X~ .%v .SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICE: W9.95 



GBNIA RESIDENTS- ADO 6% SALE5.TAX 



3ur loco) Apple decker foe more derails, ofwrtreSDS far Qrsarnple list of 
ads and o complete product guide of over 20 .other. oOtstohdfhg- progri 



MERLIN -i:-p 
. GEBEUi ' 



/ARE. INC 



ce of iti«e leading software companies: ARTSCk rHCBKOOEKBUNO SOFTWARE. INC 
PROMETHEUS PRODUCTS. WC-SIMUS SOFTWARE .INC. . SYNERGISTIC SOFWARE. 



oucnuuesceRn uses svscem! 

P.O. BOX 562-M • SANTEE, CALIFORNIA 92071 "TELEPHONE: 619/562-3221 



Circle No. 40 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



79 



MASTER Listing (continued) 




MASTER Listing (continued) 


1030 IF RP 




THEN 1090 


4070 PRINT FD*; 


1040 RQ=8: 


408O POKE CF,0 


IF 1 = 1 


4090 GET T* : 


THEN 1890 


IF T*="" 


105S FOR J=l TO 1-1 


THEN 409O 


1060 IF RN=R<J> 


4100 POKE CF,1 


THEN RQ=-1 : 


4110 IF T*«"<-" 


J=I-1 


THEN PRINT EK* : 


1070 NEXT J 


I=NN: 


1080 IF RQ 


NEXT : 


THEN 1020 


GOTO 4060 


1 030 R < I > =RN 


4 1 20 T=ASC < T* > -64 : 


1100 NEXT I 


IF TCI OR T>N 


1110 RETURN 


THEN 4830 


2000 REM PRINT HEADER 


4130 PRINT OB*';T:> ; 


2010 PRINT " CCLRDERVS3C PUR] SELECT LETTER 


4140 RCI>=T 


[OFF 1 ON OFFC CD 1" 


4150 NEXT 


2020 REM PROCESS GUESS 


4160 RETURN 


2030 FOR 1=1 TO NN 


5000 PRINT CM* 


2040 PRINT FD*; 


5010 GET T*: 


2050 POKE CF,0 


IF T*="" 


2060 GET T*« 


THEN 5610 


IF T*="" 


5020 RETURN 


THEN 2060 




2070 POKE CF,1 


6000 REM CONGRATULATIONS 


2086 IF T*="«-" 


6010 IF GN=1 


THEN PRINT CR'*"CCUD CCU]"i 


THEN MS=1 : 


I=NN: 


GOTO 6070 


NEXT : 


6020 I F GNOG < 1 .) 


GOTO 2038 


THEN MS=2i 


2B90 IF T*="?" 


GOTO 6070 


THEN I=NN: 


6030 IF UN'>G(.i!) 


NEXT : 


THEN MS-3: 


GOTO 2140 


GOTO 6070 


2100 T=fiSC;T*>-64: 


6040 IF GN<=G<.'3> 


IF TZl OR T>N 


THEN MS=4: 


THEN PRINT BK*; : 


GOTO 6079 


GOTO 2040 


6050 IF GN<=GC4:) 


2110 PRINT OB*<T>; 


THEN MS=5: 


2120 GU<n=T 


GOTO 6070 


2130 NEXT I 


6060 NS=6 


2140 RETURN 


6070 PRINT "CCLR3"; 




6080 FOR I = -l TO 


3000 REM CLEFlR FLAGS 


6090 IF I 


3010 FOR 1=1 TO NN 


THEN PRINT "CRVS]"; 


3020 PF<I>=0: 


6100 PRINT "[ HOME H RED] "MS* CMS) 


PG< I >=0 


6110 PRINT "CCD]CPUR]VOU TOOK CCVN]"; 


3630 NEXT I 


6120 IF I 


3040 REM CHECK FOR POSITION MATCHES 


THEN PRINT "CRVS]"; 


3050 FOR 1=1 TO NN 


6130 PRINT MID*<STR*CGN>,2>;"C0FF] 


3066 if r<;i:>=gu<;i:> 


CPUR] TRIES!" 


THEN PF<i:>=-l : 


6140 FOR J=l TO 206: 


PG<I>=-1 : 


NEXT J 


PM=PM+1 


6150 NEXT I 


3070 NEXT I 


6160 PRINT CH* 


3500 REM CHECK FOR OTHER MATCHES 


6170 GET T*i 

IF T*<>"" 


3510 FOR 1=1 TO NN 


THEN RETURN 


3520 IF PO<I> 


6180 GOTO 6BS0 


THEN 3578 




3530 FOR J=l TO NN 


7000 REM PROCESS INITIAL CONDITIONS 




7010 PRINT " CCLR] SELECT GAME:" 


3540 IF PF<J) 
THEN 3560 


7028 PRINT "CCD::CR]CCR]CRVS]1C0FF: EASY" 


3558 IF R '■. I > =GU C J > 


7030 print "ccd::cr:ccr]crvs]2Coff: mid" 


THEN OM=OM+l : 


7040 print ■■ ccddc crdccr: :rvs: scoff ] hard" 


pfcj:>=-i : 


7060 GET T* : 


PGCI>=-1 : 


IF T*="" 


J=NN 


THEN 7060 


3560 NEXT J 


7070 T=VALCT*:) : 


3570 NEXT I 


IF T<1 OR T>3 


3580 RETURN 


THEN 7060 


4000 REM INPUT PATTERN 


7080 ON T 


4010 PRINT " [CLR30NE PLAVER ENTERS" 


GOSUB 7100., 7200.. 7300 


4026 PRINT " PATTERN" 


7090 RETURN 


4030 PRINT "WHILE OTHER PLAVER" 


7 1 00 N=4 : RP=0 : G (.' 1 ) =3 : G < 2 > =5 : G C 3 "> = 7 : 


4040 PRINT " LOOKS AWAV" 


G<4>=18:Q<5>=15 


4050 PRINT "C CD] ENTER PATTERN!" 


7110 PR I NT " C CLR ] EASV GAME : " 


4060 FOR 1=1 TO NN 


7120 GOSUB 7460 



80 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 19c 



CMIPU SEIMSEH.' 1 



VIC-20® 

VIC-1515 

VIC-1530 

VIC-1541 

VIC-1010 

VIC-1311 

VIC-1312 

VIC-1600 

VIC-1210 



$169.95 

334.95 

67.50 

375.00 

139.95 

9.95 

19.95 

99.95 

34.95 

52.50 

99.95 

119.95 

39.95 



VIC-20® 
Personal Computer 
Printer 
Datasette 
Disk Drive 
Expansion Module 
Joystick 
Game Paddles 
Telephone Modem 
VIC 3K Memory Expander Cartridge 

Plugs directly Into the VIC'S expansion port. Expands to 8K RAM total. 

VIC- 1 1 1 VIC 8K Memory Expander Cartridge 

8K RAM expansion cartridge plugs directly into the VIC. 

CM101 VIC 16K Memory Expander Cartridge 

C M 1 02 24K Memory Expander Cartridge 

VIC-1011A RS232C Terminal Interface 

Provides interface between the VIC-20 and RS232 telecommunications modems. 
Connects to VIC'S user port. 

PETSPEED- Basic Compiler (or Commodore 130.00 

Compile any Pet Basic program The only optimizing compiler. Programs compiled 
wrth Petspeed run up to 40 times faster Petspeed code is unlistable and compiled 
programs cannot be tampered with. No security device required for compiled pro- 
grams. Available NOW for the Commodore 64. 

Star Gemini 10 Printer Call for price 

Star Gemini 15 Printer Call for price 

SMD Monitor Call for price 

CARDBOARD 6 $87.95 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20. Allows expansion to 40K or accepts up to six 

games. May be daisy chained for more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 $39.95 

Economy expansion interface for the VIC-20. 

CARD "?" CARD/PRINT $79.95 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. Use an 

Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE $39.95 

Use any standard cassette player/recorder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64. 
LIGHT PEN $29.95 

A light pen with six good programs to use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64. 



HOME & BUSINESS PROGRAMS For VIC-20 & C-64 

$48.95 
14.95 
30.95 



CW-107A Home Calculation Program Pack 

CPV-31 Data Files - your storage is unlimited 

C P V-96 Household Finance Package - to keep records of ail 

your household expenses 
CPV-208 Bar-Chart - display your numerical data 
CH Turtle Graphics - learn programming 
CH VIC Forth - is a powerful language for BASIC programming 
CH HES MON - is a 6502 machine language monitor with 

a mini-assembler 
CH HES Writer - time-saving word processing tool 
CH Encoder - keep your personal records away from prying eyes 
CT-21 Statistics SadlSticS - statistical analysis 
CT-121 Total Time Manager 2.0 - creates personal or 

business schedules 
CT-124 Totl Label - a mailing list and label program 
CT-125 Totl Text BASIC 
CT- 1 26 Research Assistant - keep track ol reference data 

CT-140 Totl Text Enhanced 

CM-152 Graflx Designer- design graphic characters 
CQ-5 Mlnimon - allows you to program, load. save, or execute 

machine language programs 
CT-3 Order Tracker 

CT-4 Business Inventory - to maintain record of inventory 
CS Home Inventory - lists your home belongings 

CS Check Minder - (V-20 & 64) 

keep your checkbook the right way 
General Ledger - a complete general ledger 
HES Writer - word processor 
Turtle Graphics II - utilizes the lull graphics of your 64 



8.95 
34.95 
49.95 
34.95 

34.95 
34.95 
14.95 
15.95 

13.95 
15.95 
17.50 
29.95 
12.95 
13.95 

15.95 
15.95 
17.95 
14.95 

CS General Ledger - a complete general ledger 1 9.95 

CHC-504 HES Writer - word processor 39.95 

CHC-503 Turtle Graphics II - utilizes the lull graphics of your 64 49.95 
CHC-502 HESMON - machine language monitor w/minj-assembler 34.95 

CHP-102 6502 Professional Development System 29.95 

CFC Data Files - a management program 27.95 

CPV-327 HESCOM - transfers data and programs bidirection- 40.95 

ally between viCs at three times the speed of a disk drive 

CPV-328 HESCOUNT - monitors program execution 19.95 

CHV HESPLOT- Hi-res graphics subroutines 12.95 

CPV-367 Conversions - figures, volume, length, weight, area. 7.95 

and velocity to all possible configurations 

CC The Mall - your complete mail program Cassette 24.95 

Disk 29.95 

CPV-220 Client Tickler 16.95 

CPV-221 Club Lister 13.95 

CPV-224 Depredator 9.95 

CPV-236 Investment Analyst - keep Irack of investments 12.95 

and investment opportunities 

CPV-251 Present Value 10.95 

CPV-269 Super Broker 12.95 

CPV-270 Syndicator - calculates whether lo buy or sell 13.95 

CPV-274 Ticker Tape - maintains investments prolile 14.95 

CPV-276 Un-Word Processor - screen editor 16.95 

CPV-286 Phone Directory - never lose a phone number again 9.95 

CS-111 Checkbook - home "utility " program 14.95 

CPV-294 Calendar My Appointments - print a calendar 14.95 

for every month in any year 
CPV-296 The Budgeter - place your personal finances in order 1 2.95 



CS1 



QUICK BROWN FOX 

The Word Processor of this decade! 



$60.50 



COMMODORE SOFTWARE 

VIC-1211A VIC-20 Super Expander $57.99 

Everything Commodore could pack into one cartridge - 3K RAM memory expansion, 
high resolution graphics plotting, color, paint and sound commands Graphic, text. 
multicolor and music modes 1024x1024 dot screen plotting. All commands may be 
typed as new BASIC commands or accessed by hitting one of the VIC'S special 
lunction keys. Includes tutorial instruction book. Excellent for all programming levels. 

VIC-1212 Programmer's Aid Cartridge $45.99 

More than 20 new BASIC commands help new and experienced programmers 
renumber, trace and edit BASIC programs. Trace any program line-by-line as it 
executes, pause to edit. Special KEY command lets programmers redefine function 
keys as BASIC commands, subroutines or new commands. 
VIC-1213 VICMON Machine Language Monitor $48 99 

Helps machine code programmers write fast, efficient 6502 assembly language 
programs. Includes one line assembler/disassembler. 



NEW GAMES FOR YOUR VIC-20® 

CC58 AstroblltZ - This game is challenging, even to a $39.95 

VIC-MASTER! Navigate your ship carefully to avoid being hit by enemy fire. 

CC60 Terraguard - Speed and careful skill will enable you to 39.95 

once again destroy the aliens. Too slow? You're destroyed by their beam. 

CC98 Serpentine - This game will test your patience & 39.95 

skill. Object - to survive long enough to lay eggs and raise your young. 

CC500 Intruder-Scrambler - In your bomber, invade the 19.95 

defending scramble system, dodging rockets, to blow up enemy posts, etc. 

CC101 Choplifter - Rescue the American hostages & return 39.95 

them safely to the U.S. You will encounter tanks, jets and killer satellites. 

CC102 Black Hole - Your mission is, simply, to survive! Your 39.95 

ship must not be hit by space objects or sucked into the Black Hole! 

CC104 Apple Panic - Speed is required! Destroy the 39.95 

apple monsters by digging holes in the brick floors for them to fall into 

CC65 Video Mania - Introducing your enemies: EVIL EYE. 39.95 

WALWOKER, KILLERBOX. Your only defense - throw your alien zapper! 

CS 1 Flags Of Nations - A game that challenges players 1 0.95 

to identify flags ofvarlous widely-known nations of the world. 

CS2 Flags of Nations - Second Edition - a field of 10.95 

34 flags of lesser known nations of the world. 

CS3 Cities and States - A game that draws a map of 10.95 

a state or states and asks players to name key cities in those states. 

CS4 Cities Of the World - Deals with important 10.95 

cities of nations throughout the world. 

CS5 Mountains and Rivers - Draws large geographical 10.95 

area maps. You identify major mountain ranges, rivers & bodies ot water 

NEW GAMES FOR YOUR C-64 

Tank Arcade (Also for VIC-20) - Pre-determine how many hits $13.95 
it will take to wipe out your opponent. Then, on with the battle! Battlefield changes. 
Road racer - Choose the type of track & a time or lap race. Use 13.95 

steady control at speeds of 50 to 200 miles per hour. Hit the wall & lose valuable time. 

Shootout at the OK Galaxy (Also for VIC-20) - 30 alien 19.95 

warships have entered your war zone. Shields up? Energy level OK? Defend yourself. 
Galaxy - Have you ever wanted to conquer the universe? Send 1 9.95 

yourgalactic fleets out to explore, solar system by solar system. From 1 to 20 players. 
Bomber Atlack - Ground to air warfare. You're in command 14.95 

of a supersonic bomber over enemy terrain. Drop all 25 bombs on key locations. 
Midway Campaign - Your computer controls a huge force of 1 9.95 

Japanese ships trying to conquer Midway Island. Your only advantage is surprise. 
Dnieper River Line - A fictionalized engagement between Russian 25.00 
& German forces in 1943. Soviet forces, controlled by the computer, seek to overrun 
your line and capture sufficient objectives to attain victory. Four levels of difficulty 
TanktiCS - Armored combat on the Eastern front of WWII. You 24.50 

start outnumbered 2 to 1 but you choose your tank types before the battle. 
Guns Of Fort Defiance - You are the commander or a 19th artillery 20.00 
piece in a besieged fort. ChooseJype of ammo. Set the cannon's elevation, deflection 
Computer Baseball Strategy - You. the manager of the 1 5.95 

home team, test you skill against a wily and unpredictable opponent, your computer. 
Lords of Karma - Like an intriguing puzzle! Decipher secrets 20.00 

while exploring a mythical, magical city & countryside Avoid the lurking monsters' 

North Atlantic Convoy Raider - it's the Bismarck convoy 1 9.95 

raid of 1941! The computer controls the British ships. Will you change history? 
Planet Miners - Compete against others and the computer to 1 9.95 

stake valuable mining claims throughout the solar system in the year 2050. 
Conflict 2500 - In 2500 AD. earth is threatened by attacking 1 9.95 

aliens with an infinite # of attack strategies with which to tease the defending player. 
Nuke War - Nuclear confrontation between two hypothetical 19.95 

countries. Defend your country with espionage, bombers, missiles, submarines, etc. 
Computer Acquire - New Second Edition! The object is to 20-00 

become the wealthiest person in this "business" game - hotel acquisitions & mergers. 
Andromeda Conquest - Vast scale space strategy game of 1 9.95 

galactic colonizing and conquest. Strange life forms & alien technologies - exciting! 
Telengard - Microcomputer Dungeon Adventure game. Time 25.00 

fantasy and role-playing. 50 levels of ever-more complex mazes to explore & survive! 

MORE -MORE- MORE 



TO ORDER: 
P. O. Box 18765 
Wichita, KS 67218 
(316)263-1095 



Prices subject to change. 



WRITE 

FOR 

FREE 

CATALOG 



ZZSTN 

IMOBfe^COPGl 



Personal checks accepted (Allow 3 weeks) 

or C.O.D. (Add $2) Handling charges $2.00 

VIC-20® is a registered trademark of Commodore 



Circle No. 42 



risssssssssssssssssssssss 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



81 



MASTER Listing (continued) 






MASTER Listing (continued) 


7130 PRINT "CCD]CCR]CCR]ONLV ONCE" 




8066 REM SET-UP OF CONSTANTS 


7140 RETURN 






S010 OB*';i:) = "[RVS][BLK]RCOFF]" : 


7200 N=4:RP=-1 :G< 1 >=4 :G<2>=6 :G<3>=8 : 




OB* < 2 :> = " [ RVS ] [ RED ] B [ OFF ] " : 


G<4>=12:G<5>=18 






0B*<3."> = " [RVS] [CVN]C[OFF] " 


7210 PRINT "CCLR3MID GAME:" 






8020 OB* < 4 :> = " [ RVS ] [ PUR ] D [ OFF ] " : 


7220 GOSUB 7400 






OB* < 5 > = " [ RVS ] [ GRN ] E [ OFF ] " : 


7230 PRINT "CCDDCCRDCCRDMORE THRU ONCE" 


OB* < S -J = " [ RVS ] [ BLLI ] F [ OFF ] " 


7240 RETURN 






8030 CN*="[HOME][20CD][CR][CR][RVS]ANV KEY 


7300 H=6sRP=-l :G<1>=5:G<2> = 7:G": 


3> = 10 




WHEN READY" 


G<4>=15:G<5>=2e 






8040 NN=4 : 


7310 PRINT "CCLRDHHRO GAME:" 






FD*=" CBLK] >" : 


7320 GOSUB 7400 






BK*="[CL][CL]" : 


7330 PRINT "CCDHCRDCCRDMORE THAN ONC 


■E" 


CR*=CHR*'.:i3> : 


7340 RETURN 






CF=204 : 
I=RND<-TI> 


7400 PRINT "CCDDCCRDCCRD"; : 






8060 MS*< 1 > = " A PSYCHIC ! " : 


FOR 1=1 TO Hi 






MS* < 2.1 = "EXCELLENT! " : 


PRINT OE*<I>" "; : 






MS* < 3 :> = " VERY GOOD ! " 


NEXT : 






8070 MS*<4>="G00D" : 


PRINT " ALLOWED" 






MS*.;5> = "FAIR" : 


7410 PRINT "CCDDCCR]CCR]EACH MAY BE 


USED " 


MS* < 6 :> = " TRY , TRY , TRY AGA IN!" 


7420 PRINT " C6 CD] CRVS]«-COFF] TO CLEAR GUESS" 


8080 RETURN 


7430 PRINT "CCD]CRVS]?[OFF] TO GIVE UPCHOME] 




C CD] [CD] [CD] [CO]" 






9000 REM PRINT PATTERN ON GIVE-UP 


7440 RETURN 






3010 PRINT CR*"[CLI][RVS]GIVE UP? 


7506 PRINT "[CLR][RVS]1[0FF] OR 


[RVS 32 


COFF] PATTERN IS:" 


[OFF] PLAYERS?" 






9020 FOR 1=1 TO NN: 


7510 GOSUB 5010: 






PRINT " >"OB*'::R<:i:))"COFF]" : : 


IF T*<:"1" OR T*>"2" 






NEXT 


THEN 7510 






9030 GOSUB 5000 


7520 NP=VAL<T*.> : 






9040 RETURN 


RETURN 








MASTER for the APPLE 








10 GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 7500 


3530 


FOR J = 1 TO NN: IF PF(J) THEN 


7100 N = 4:RP = 0:G(1) = 2:G(2) = 


100 GOSUB 7000: GOSUB 5000: ON N 




3560 


4:G(3) = 6:G(4) = 8:G(5) = 1 


P GOSUB 1000, 4000 :GN = 1: GOSUB 


3550 


IF R(I) = GU(J) THEN OM = 


1: HOME : PRINT "EASY GAME:" 


2000: GOTO 150 




M + 1:PF(J) = 1:PG(I) = 1:J = NN 


: GOSUB 7400: VTAB 5: HTAB 1 


140 GOSUB 2020 


3560 


NEXT 


8: PRINT "ONLY ONCE": RETURN 


150 IF T$ = "?" THEN GOSUB 9000 


3570 


NEXT : RETURN 


7200 N = 4:RP = 1:G(1) = 2:G(2) = 


: GOTO 100 


4000 


HOME : PRINT "ONE PLAYER EN 


5:G(3) = 7:G(4) = 9:G(5) = 1 


160 PM = 0:OM = 0: GOSUB 3000: IF 




TERS PATTERN": PRINT "WHILE 


3: HOME : PRINT "MIDDLE GAME 


PM = NN THEN GOSUB 6000: GOTO 100 




OTHER PLAYER LOOKS AWAY.": PRINT 


:": GOSUB 7400: VTAB 5: HTAB 


190 HTAB 22: PRINT PM" "OM" 




: PRINT "ENTER PATTERN:": FOR 


18: PRINT "MORE THAN ONCE": RETURN 


"NN - (PM + OM):GN = GN + 




I = 1 TO NN 


7300 N = 6:RP = 1:G(1) = 2:G(2) = 


1: GOTO 140 


4070 


PRINT ">"; 


6:G(3) = 8:G(4) -- 11:G(5) = 


1000 FOR I = 1 TO NN 


4090 


GET TJ: IF T$ = CHR$ (8) THEN 


16: HOME : PRINT "HARD GAME: 


1020 RN = INT ( RND (1) * N + 1) 




HTAB 1: CALL - 868:1 = 1: GOTO 4070 


": GOSUB 7400: VTAB 5: HTAB 


: IF RP THEN 1090 


4120 


T = ASC (T$) - 64: IF T < 1 


18: PRINT "MORE THAN ONCE": RETURN 


1040 RQ = 0: FOR J = 1 TO I: IF R 




OR T > N THEN 4090 


7400 PRINT : PRINT " ";: FOR I = 


N = R(J) THEN RQ = 1 


4130 


PRINT CHR? (95);:R(I) = T: 


1 TO N: INVERSE : PRINT CHR$ 


1070 NEXT : IF RQ THEN 1020 




NEXT : RETURN 


(64 +1);: NORMAL : PRINT " 


1090 R(I) = RN: NEXT : RETURN 


5000 


VTAB 23: HTAB 10: FLASH : PRINT 


";: NEXT : PRINT "ALLOWED": 


2000 HOME : PRINT "SELECT LETTER 




" ANY KEY WHEN READY"; : GET 


PRINT : PRINT "EACH MAY BE 


ON OFF WRONG" 




T$: NORMAL : RETURN 


USED": VTAB 15: PRINT " <- 


2020 PRINT : POKE 34,1: FOR I = 


6000 


TEXT : HOME : VTAB 5: FLASH 


TO CLEAR GUESS": PRINT : PRINT 


1 TO NN 




: FOR I = 1 TO 6: IF GN < G( 


" ? TO GIVE UP": RETURN 


2040 PRINT ">";: GET T?: IF T$ = 




I) THEN MS • 1:1 = 6 


7500 HOME : PRINT : PRINT " " ; : 


CKR? (8) THEN HTAB 1: CALL 


6030 


NEXT : PRINT MS$(MS)" ";: NORMAL 


INVERSE : PRINT "1";: NORMAL 


- 868:1 = 1: GOTO 2040 




: PRINT "YOU TOOK "GN" TRIES 


: PRINT " OR " ; : INVERSE : PRINT 


2080 IF T$ = "?" THEN I = NN: GOTO 




!": GOSUB 5000: RETURN 


"2";: NORMAL : PRINT " PLAYERS?" 


2120 


7000 


HOME : VTAB 5: PRINT "SELEC 


7510 PRINT " WHICH?";: GET T$:N 


2090 T = ASC (TJ) - 64: IF T < 1 




T GAME:": PRINT : PRINT : INVERSE 


P = VAL (T?) : IF NP < 1 OR 


OR T > N THEN PRINT CHR$ 




: PRINT "1";: NORMAL : PRINT 


NP > 2 THEN 7510 


(8);: GOTO 2040 




" EASY": PRINT : INVERSE : PRINT 


7530 RETURN 


2100 INVERSE : PRINT T$; : NORMAL 




"2"; : NORMAL : PRINT " MIDDL 


8000 NN = 4:MS?(1) = "A PSYCHIC": 


. PRINT ii n. : gu(I) - T 




E": PRINT : INVERSE : PRINT 


MS?(2) = "EXCELLENT !":MS$(3) 


2120 NEXT : RETURN 




"3";: NORMAL : PRINT " HARD" 


= "VERY G00D!":MS$(4) = "GO 


3000 FOR I = 1 TO NN:PF(I) = 0:P 




: PRINT :G(6) = 50000 


0D":MS$(5) = "FAIR":MS$(6) = 


G(I) = 0: NEXT : FOR I = 1 TO 


7060 


PRINT "WHICH?";: GET T?:T = 


"TRY, TRY, TRY AGAIN": RETURN 


NN: IF R(I) - GU(I) THEN PF( 




VAL (T$) : IF T < 1 OR T > 3 


9000 TEXT : HOME : PRINT "GIVE U 


I) = 1:PG(I) = 1:PM = PM + 1 




THEN 7060 


P?": PRINT "PATTERN IS:": FOR 


3060 NEXT : FOR I = 1 TO NN: IF 


7080 


ON T GOSUB 7100,7200,7300: RETURN 


I = 1 TO NN: PRINT ">";.■ INVERSE 


PG(I) THEN 3570 






: PRINT CHR$ (64 + R(I));: NORMAL : 
PRINT " ";: NEXT : GOSUB 5000: RETURN 



82 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 






TELECOMMUNICATIONS on the VIC and '64! 

"A versatile and exceedingly well-done package." David Malmberg. MICRO 
"Simply the best & nicest VIC terminal software I have seen." 

Greg Yob. CREATIVE COMPUTING 

We created quite a flurry and earned rave reviews with s 

Terminal-40, the unique software that transforms the S . . _ 

VIC screen into a 40-column smooth-scrolling display. .■'.-, : *iMB&BBKb».l 

And with features like a Receive Buffer and VIC ^ 

printer dump, Terminal-40 sets a new standard for per- " ** 

sonal modem communications with networks such as 

CompuServe and Source. Our '64 Terminal does the 

same quality job for the '64. 

And now there's even MORE! ! ! SuperTerm-40 and 

SuperTerm '64 support text storage to disk or tape 

and program UPLOAD/DOWNLOAD. SuperTerms, 

used with our Smart ASCII, also support popular * 

parallel printers. „^ 

Choose the one right for you. Call or write 
today for the "best", then ... 




For the VIC: 
: Terminal-40 (mq »k e*p). $29.35. 
SuperTerm-40 (re? UK exm. .Calf • 
For the Commodore 64: 

'64 Terminal S29LM3 

SuperTerm '64. ....... . Cstii' 



REACH OUT 

and BYTE SOMEONE! 



MIDWEST 1 

MICRO associates! 



PO BOX 6142, KANSAS CITY, MQ-««i! 






£jiAflgelW$l piog and handling 

^W^c^^^^mt^ai&W^iM'm&s'yA (card* 
;f||oJp^l^^^§ailri'resNfentS;rricfude 4-6% 
-jfa^^g^^^^teaTpajable U.S.S, U.S. Bank 
^K^tW'MiHtMwUB^Dnfar inquiries invited. 



Circle No. 46 



NEW FROM MACMILLAN! 



BASIC 80© and CP/M* 

Jack J. Purdum, Butler 
University 220 pp. 
Paperback 1983 



JACKJW 



pDRDUNf 




ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY! 



A complete discussion of BASIC 80© and the 
CP/fvf operating system. This new book relates the 
key features of BASIC 80®to the most popular 
microprocessor operating system. Topics include: 
sequential, random and skip-sequential file 
structures. Also included are: Coverage of many 
useful subroutines for applied programs including: 
binary searches, Shell and Bubble sort, as well as 
range checks, direct cursor control for many 
popular CRT's, and error messages under direct 
cursor control. 

* For more info about Macmillan books circle Reader Response 
Number 66 



Please send me copies of BASIC 80© and CP/M S 

(397020) at $1 6.95 each. Enclosed is my check for $ 



NAME: 



ADDRESS: 



□ Mastercard 

□ Visa 



Place in envelope and send to: Q ard # 

Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 

Order Department Expires 

Front and Brown St. 

Riverside, New Jersey 08370 Sig — 



No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



83 



O CENTER 



| Conservation of 

S5 Momentum for ATARI 

"'and COMMODORE 



by Jerry Faughn 



Conservation laws, such as the conservation of 
momentum, are among the most important 
concepts covered in an introductory level physics 
course. This program examines the conservation of 
momentum as applied to collision problems. Two 
cars are sent toward each other to collide under a 
variety of conditions selected by the viewer. 
Programs such as this can be a valuable 
instructional tool used in a physics class, either 
as a demonstration or as an interactive tutorial 
program for a student. But, you don't have to be 
a physics student to have fun playing around 
with it. 

One of the parameters that the viewer must 
choose is a value for the coefficient of restitution. 
This number can range between the extremes of 
zero and one. If the coefficient of restitution is 
selected to be one, the collision is said to be 
perfectly elastic. That is, when the objects collide 
there is no distortion or bending of the objects. 
Such conditions obviously do not prevail in the 
real world of collisions between cars, but they can 
and do occur in collisions between atoms and 
subatomic atomic particles. 

In the real world, collisions between very rigid 
objects, such as billiard balls, are highly elastic. At 
the other extreme are collisions for which the 
coefficient of restitution is zero; these are called 
perfectly inelastic collisions. Such collisions are 
characterized by the two objects sticking together 
and moving as a unit after the collision. This 
program can handle elastic and perfectly inelastic 
collisions as well as the broad spectrum between 
these two extremes. 

Two typical trial situations that you might 
want to examine use the following parameters. 
Trial one: coefficient of restitution = 1, mass of 
blue car =20, mass of orange car =4. Trial 
two: coefficient of restitution =0, mass of blue 
car =10. 

This program used player-missile graphics and 
is explained via remarks within the program. 
Editor's note: The Commodore 64 version uses the 
C64 Sprite graphics. The two movable-object-block 
graphics systems have a number of similarities, as 
well as differences. 



9 REM PRINT TITLE 

10 GRAPHICS 18:SETC0t_0R 4,2,2 

20 POBITION 4,4:PRINT «6| "CONSERVATION" 
30 POSITION 9,3:? #6| "OF" 

33 POBITION 6,6:? 1161 "MOMENTUM" 

40 FOR N-l TO 1300:NEXT N 

49 REM SET UP EXAMPLE COLLISION 

30 6RAPHICS 0:SETCOLDR 4, 14, 4: SETCOLOR 2,9,4 

60 POKE 732, U? ">■' 

I "HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A COLLISION" 

I "LIKE YOU WILL SEE" 

r"THE BLUE CAR AND THE ORANGE CAR" 

("HAVE EQUAL MASSES. SLUE HAS A SPEED" 

I "OF 2 M/S. ORANGE 4 M/S. " 

I "COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION IS ONE. ":FOR N-l TO 1500:NEXT N 
9? REM PARAMETERS FOR INITIAL COLLISION 

loo cor-i:mi-3o:m2-30:vii-2:V2I«4 

110 GO TO 300 

200 GRAPHICS 16:SETC0L0R 4, 14, 4.* SETCOLOR 2,S,4:REM INPUT PARAMETERS FOR NEXT COL 

LISION 

204 POKE 732, 1:? ">" 

207 TRAP 213 

210 ? "WHAT COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION":? 'DO YOU WANT?": INPUT COR 

21 1 IF COR<0 THEN 00 TO 1000 

212 IF C0R>1 THEN 30 TO 1000 

213 00 TO 216 

213 ? "INPUT A NUMBER THRU 1 " : 00 TO 210 

216 TRAP 1030 

217 ? "WHAT WILL BE THE MASS OF THE BLUE CAR? ": INPUT Ml 

218 IF MK-0 OR Ml>30 THEN 00 TO 1030 
223 TRAP 1060 

227 ? "WHAT WILL BE THE MASS OF":? "THE ORANOE CAR?": INPUT M2 

228 IF M2<-0 OR M2>30 THEN GO TO 1060 
240 TRAP 1073 

243 ? "INPUT VELOCITY OF BLUE CAR." 

246 ? "USE POSITIVE NUMBERS BETWEEN AND 10." 

247 INPUT VII 

248 IF VI KO THEN GO TO 1073 

249 IF V1I>10 THEN 00 TO 1075 
230 TRAP 1100 

232 ? "INPUT VELOCITY OF ORANBE CAR. " 

233 ? "USE POSITIVE NUMBERS BETWEEN O AND 10.": INPUT V2I 

234 IF V2K0 THEN GO TO 1100 
233 IF V2IM0 THEN 00 TO 1100 
260 HP01-133-<V1I/(VH+V2I> )»93 
263 HP02-133+IV2I/ (V2I+V1I) J»83 
270 GO TO 301 

300 HP01-30:HP02-220*.REM INITIAL HOR POS OF CARS 

301 POKE 33248, HPOi: POKE 33249.HP02 

309 REM CHOOSE REGULAR PLAYFIELD AND COLOR OF CARS 

310 GRAPHICS 23:SETC0LOR 4,10,4:P0KE 539,4>2:P0KE 704,116:POKE 705,40 

313 SETCOLOR 0,0,4:COLOR 1:FGR Z-42 TO 501PL0T 0,Z:DRAWTO 159,Z:NEXT Z:REM DRAW 

HIGHWAY 

320 I-PEEK(106>-32:REM RESERVE SPACE FOR P/M GRAPHICS 

330 POKE 34279, I:REM PLACE ADR IN P/M BASE ADDRESS REGISTER 

340 POKE 33278, 0:REM SET COLLISION REGISTER TO ZERO 

330 POKE 33277, 3:REM ENABLE P/M GRAPHICS 

339 REM IF CAR 1 IS MUCH MORE MASSIVE THAN CAR 2, CAR 1 IS TWICE NORMAL SIZE 

360 IF Ml/N2>3 THEN POKE 33236, 1 : POKE 33237, 0:G0 TO 600 

370 IF M2/M1>3 THEN POKE 33236, 0:POKE 53237,1 J GO TO 600:REM SEE NOTE ON STATEMEN 

T 360 

380 POKE 33236, O:P0KE 33237,0 

600 J-I»236+1024:REM LOCATION OF PLAYER 

610 FOR Y-J+120 TO J+127IREM READ IN SHAPE OF CAR1 

620 READ ZIPOKE Y.ZtNEXT Y 

630 DATA 0,255, 123,223,223,223, 123,233,0,235,125,251,251,231, 125,255,0 

640 J-I*236+12BO:REM MEM LOCATION OF PLAYER 1 

630 FOR Y-J+120 TO J+127:READ Z:REM READ IN SHAPE OF CAR 2 

631 POKE Y.ZJNEXT Y 

632 RESTORE 

660 FOR X-l TO 220: REM MOVE CARS TOWARD EACH OTHER 

670 P01-HP01+VlI*X/5 

680 P02-HP02-V2I#X/3 

690 POKE 53248, POi: POKE 33249, P02 

700 IF PEEK (33260) <>0 THEN GO TO 720:REM CHECK FOR COLLISION 

710 NEXT X 

720 V2F-M1»(C0R+V1I-C0R»(-V2I)+V1 I>+M2*(-V2I> :REM FIND VELOCITY OF EACH CAR AFTE 

R COLLISION 

730 M-M1+M2IP0KE (33260), 

740 V2F-V2F/M 

730 V1F-V2F-C0R*V1I-CQR*V2I 

760 FOR X-l TO 300t REM MOVE CARS AFTER COLLISION 

770 POKE 33249, P02+V2F*X/3 

790 POKE 33248, P01+VlF*X/3 

790 IF PO2+V2F*X<20 THEN GO TO 900:REM STOP MOVEMENT 

BOO IF PD2+V2F*X>243 THEN BO TO 900 

H10 IF P01+V1F*X<20 THEN SO TO 900 

820 IF P01+V1F*X>270 THEN GO TO 900 

830 NEXT X 

900 POKE 33277, i:REM TURN OFF P/M GRAPHICS 

910 BRAPHICS 16:SETC0L0R 4, 14, 4:SETC0L0R 2,S,4:REM SET UP SCREEN FOR DISPLAY OF 

VELOCITIES 

920 POKE 732, 1: ? ">" 

930 ? "FINAL VELOCITY OF BLUE CAR 1 

940 ? "FINAL VELOCITY OF ORANGE CAR 

930 ? "IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO TRY":? ' 

960 IF PEEK < 764)033 THEN GO TO 960 

970 GO TO 200 

1000 ? "COEFFICIENT MUST BE BETHEEN ZERO AND ONE.":FOR N-l TO 50:NEXT N:SO TO 21 

O 

1030 ? "MASS MUST BE A POSITIVE NUMBER" 

1031 ? "BETWEEN 1 AND 30":FOR N-l TO 30INEXT N:GO TO 217 

1060 ? "MASS MUST BE A POSITIVE NUMBER" 

1061 ? "BETWEEN 1 AND 30":F0R N-l TO 30:NEXT N:GO TO 227 
1073 ? "VELOCITY MUST BE A POSITIVE NUMBER.'" 

1076 ? "BETWEEN AND I0":F0R N-l TO SOrNEXT N:GO TQ 245 

1100 ? "VELOCITY MUST BE A POSITIVE NUMBER " 

1101 ? "BETWEEN O AND 10":F0R N-l TO 30;NEXT N:GO TO 252 



S "; (INT(VIFMOO) ) /100 

IS " J <INT(V2F*100) > /100 
ANOTHER COLLISION PRESS SPQCE BAS" 



84 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



1 REM CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 

2 REM BV JERRY FAUGHN 

3 REM C64 VERSION BV LOREN WRIGHT 
10 OOSUB400O 

15 PR I NT " 7MMMMMMMM " TAB'^ 1 4 :> "nCOHSERVAT ION" 

20 PRINT"3T*TAB'. 13>"S)0F" 

25 PRINT"ffl"TAB', 1 6 ' "B10MENTUM" 

30 FORI = 1TO£90O:NE;<T 

35 PR INT "SPHERE IS A SRMPLE COLLISION." 

40 PRINT"STTHE MASSES OF THE TWO CARS" 

45 PRINT" ARE EQUAL." 

50 PRINT"MTHE SPEED OF THE RED CAR IS" 

55 PRINT" TWICE THRT OF THE BLUE CAR" 

60 FORI=1TO2000:NEXT 

65 CR=l :M1=50 :M2=50:V1=2:V2=4 

70 GOT 02 10 

100 PEM PROGRAM MRIH LINE 

lie PRINT"3*JHAT COEFFICIENT OF REST I TUTIOH?" i INPUT " (VALUE TO 1 V ;CR 

l£0 IF'CCR<:0.'OP(CR>r)THENlie. 

130 PR.INT"UHRT IS THE MASS OF THE BLUE CAR?": INPUT" (VALUE i TO 30:>";M1 

140 IF'.MKl )OR'CI1i:>50"»THENl3e 

150 PRINT"MHAT IS THE MASS OF THE RED CAR-'" i INPUT" (VALUE 1 TO 5e>">M2 

160 iF<M2<:i.)0Rai2>se:>THENisa 

176 IHPUT"VELOCITV OF BLUE CAR <0 TO 10V,-Vi 
ISO IF',Vl<0iOR<Vl>10:>THEN17e 

190 INPUT "VELOCITY OF RED CAR (0 TO 10>">V2 
200 IF'.V£<0'LiR';V2>ie.'THEN13e 

205 REM SET STARTING POSITIONS SO THAT 

206 REM COLLISION OCCURS AT SCREEN CENTER 
210 H 1 = 1 74 - < V 1 ,- '. V 1 + V 2 V» * 1 30 

220 H2 = 174+':V2/<Vi+V2:) 1*150 

230 GQSU63000:GOSUB10l30 

235 GGSUB2600 sPOKEV+21 ,0 

240 PR I NT " 3^ I HAL VELOCITY OF BLUE CAR IS " i< INT< VA*10«+. 5> J/100 

250 PRINT"B r INAL VELOCITY OF REO CAR 13 " ; < INT< VB*100+. 5> >/188 

260 GUSUB2000 

270 GO TO 100 

1000 REM PERFORM COLLISION 

1010 REM EXPAND EITHER CAR IF 5X HEAVIER 

1020 Z1=0:IFM1/M2>5THEMZ1=1 

1030 Z2=0;IFM2,-'M1>5THEH22=2 

1G40 POKEV+23,21+22 

1050 POKEV+30..0 

1100 REM ADVANCE CARS UNTIL C0LLI3I0H 

1110 S=0 

1120 P1=H1+V1*X,'5 

1130 P2=»H2-V2*K,r'5 

1140 Q1=0!IFP1>255THENP1=P1-255:Q1=1 

1 1 50 Q'2=0 : 1 FP2>233THENP2=P2-235 :G2-2 

1160 P0KEV.P1 :P0KEV+2,.P2iP0KEV+16.,Ql+Q2 

1179 I FPEEK <V->- 30 jTHEHPOKEV+30.,0sOOTO 1210 

1180 X=X+1 
1190 G0T01 120 

1200 REM FIND FINAL VELOCITIES 

1210 VB=rH*-:CR*Vl-CR*«:-V2.'>+Vl ■>+M2WC-V2> 

1220 VB=VB/<M1+M2> 

1230 VA-VB-CR*V1-CR*V2 

1300 REM MOVE CARS UHTIL OHr. REACHES EDGE 

1310 x=e 

1320 PB-P2+VBWX/5 

1330 Pfi=Pl+VP-*X/5 

1 340 PD=PB H52=0 i IFPB>255THENPD=P0-255 :Q2-2 

1350 PC=PA:Ql=0:IFPA>255THEHPC='PC-255iQl-l 

1 360 POKEV . PC : POKE V+2: , PD : POK EV+ 1 6 , Q 1 +G2 

1370 IF':PfK24"-OR'-;PA>32;-OTHEN45e0 

1380 IF^PB<24 7uRCPe>323>THEN4500 

1390 GETT*:IFT*O""THEH1500 

140G X=X+1 

1410 G0T0132G 

1500 RETURN 

2000 pp r ut " 4fl ff [niffflflnfl ffnmtnimiirmiiiinn " Tan .iav 1 g»n^ key to Continue" 

2010 GETT* tIFT*=""THEH2B10 

2020 RETURN 

3000 REM SET UP SCREEN 

3O10 PRINT" J" sPOKEV+33,0 

3030 POKEV, HI sP0KEV+2.H2AND255;P0KEV+16,-C(H2>255>*2+<Hl>255>> 

3O40 PQKEV+21 .3 

3050 RETURN 

400O REM SET UP CONSTANTS & SPRITES 

4013 V=53248:BL*=" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I " 

402O B= 132*64 

4030 REM CLEAR SPACE FOR TN0 SPPITES 

4040 FORI=0TO127iPOKEB+I .0JNEXT 

4050 REM READ PATTERNS FROM DATA 

4060 REM AND STORE IN MEMORY 

4070 FORI=0TO26 :REAOH :POKEB+ I ,A iNEXT 

40BO B=* 193*64 

4090 F0PI=eT026iREA0fl:P0KEB+I , A -.NEXT 

4100 REM SET UP POINTERS, COLORS, * Y PCS 

4110 POKEV+39,6iPOKEV+40,2 

4123 POKE2040, 192:POKE2041 ,1*3 

4130 POKEV+1, l45sP0KEV+3,143 

4140 POKEV+21 .0 

4150 POKEV+33,0:POKEV+32,1 

4166 RETURN 

5000 DRTA62.31 ,0,28.14,0,127,255.128,255,231,240,235,249,240,255 

5010 DATA231, 240, 127, 255, 128, 28, 14, 0,62, 31,0 

5020 DRTA15- 135,192,7,3,128,31 ,255,224,254,127,240,249,233,240,254 

3930 0ATA127, 240, 31, 233, 224. 7, 3, 128, 15, 135, 192 



Alcoa- 




Let Unique Data Systems help you raise your sights on AIM 65 
applications with our versatile family of AIM support products. 

•Go for high quality with our ACE-100 Enclosure. It accom- 
modates the AIM 65 perfectly, without modification, and features 
easy access two board add-on space, plus a 3" x 5" x 1 7" and a 
4" x 5" x 15.5" area for power supplies and other com- 
ponents. $186.00. 

• Get high capability with Unique Data System's add-on boards. 
The UDS-100 Series Memory-I/O boards add up to 1 6K bytes of 
RAM memory or up to 48K bytes ROM/PROM/EPROM to your 
Rockwell AIM 65. You also get 20 independently programmable 
parallel I/O lines with an additional user-dedicated 6522 VIA, two 
independent RS-232 channels with 16 switch-selectable baud 
rates (50 to 1 9.2K baud), and a large on-board prototyping area. 
Prices start at $259.00. 

• If you need to protect against RAM data loss, the UDS-100B of- 
fers an on-board battery and charger/switchover circuit. $296.00. 

• Heighten your AIM 65's communications range by adding the 
UDS-200 Modem board. It features full compatibility with Bell 
System 103 type modems and can be plugged directly into a 
home telephone jack via a permissive mode DAA. No need for a 
data jack or acoustic coupler. The UDS-200 also has software- 
selectable Autoanswer and Autodial capability with dial tone 
detector. The modem interfaces via the AIM 65 expansion bus, 
with the on-board UARTand baud rate generator eliminating the 
need for an RS-232 channel. $278.00. 

• The UDS-300 Wire Wrap board accepts all .300/.600/.900 IC 
sockets from 8 to 64 pins. Its features include an intermeshed 
power distribution system and dual 44-pin card edge connectors 
for bus and I/O signal connections. $45.00. 

• Get high performance with the ACE-1 00-07 compact 4" x 5" x 
1 .7" switching power supply, delivering + 5V @ 6A, + 1 2V @ 1 A, 
and + 24V for the AIM printer. $1 1 8.00. 

Installation kits and other related accessories are also avail- 
able to implement your AIM expansion plans. Custom hard- 
ware design, programming, and assembled systems are also 
available. High quality, high capability, high performance, with 
high reliability. . . all from Unique Data Systems. Call or write 
for additional information. 

Unique Data Systems Inc. 
1600 Miraloma Avenue, Placentia, CA 92670 



-T 



(714)630-1430 



Circle No. 44 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



85 



O CENTER 



3 Is a Number a Number? 



by Phil Daley 



On your toes now. Here is a quick quiz: How 
much is 7 + 5? a) 12, b) 14, c) C, d| all of the 
above, e) I don't know. If you answered d, then 
you may skip the rest of this article, unless you 
made a lucky guess. 

The answer depends upon the base of the 
number system you are working in. Normally, 
when you are working with everyday decimal 
numbers, you are using the base of 10. That 
means that each place to the left [or right) of the 
decimal point represents a power of ten. The first 
place to the left of the decimal point represents 
how many 10°'s there are in that number. For 
instance, a '7' indicates 7 * (10°). Since 10° =1,7 
* 1 = 7. The number 7 = 7! When working with 
base 10 numbers things seem pretty easy, but 
humor me and follow along; it will get tougher. 

What about 17? The 1 represents 1 * 10 1 , or 10. 
Add the 7 and you get 17. Each place farther to the 
left of the decimal point increases the power of 10 
— 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4 ... etc. This gives you the one's 
place, ten's place, hundred's place, and so on. 

What happens when you use a base that is 
different than 10 — for instance 16? I choose 16 as 
an example since it is the basis of the hexadecimal 
system, which computer people use all the time as 
it is a more convenient system with which to 
work. Now the first place to the left of the point 
represents 16°, or ones. Sounds familiar, right? 
However, how many numbers can be counted 
until you have to carry over to the next place? In 
decimal you count to 9 and then carry one to the 
ten's column. In hexadecimal you count to 15 
before the carry to the next column. This is going 
to cause trouble. What happens after 9? You use 
letters! The first six letters of the alphabet repre- 
sent the numbers 10-15. Counting in hexadecimal 
goes 1, 2, ... 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, 10, 11 etc. 

The second place to the left counts as 16 1 , or 
16's, the third place (16 2 ), 256's, and the fourth 
place (16 3 ), 4096's. This is normally as high as you 
need to go on microcomputers. 

How much is 7 + 5 (in base 16)? Now you see 
how answer C derives. Standard convention uses 
the $ sign to indicate hexadecimal numbers. What 



does $5CE equal? The answer is 5 * 256 + 12 * 16 
+ 14 * 1. 1486 in base 10. 

A computer doesn't really understand 
hexadecimal. A hardware circuit in the computer 
has only two states — on and off or high and low. 
These are represented by l's and 0's. Since you 
can count only to one before you have to carry to 
the next place, this is working with base 2 
numbers. Binary numbers are the code that 
microcomputers understand; unfortunately they 
are not recognized easily by humans and are, 
therefore, prone to error in reading and typing. It 
is simple to transpose two digits in a number like 
%1110010101100110. The % sign is standard to 
indicate a binary number. So that number is 
equivalent to 58726 in base 10. (1 * 32768 + 1 * 
16384 + 1 * 8192 + * 4096 + * 2048 + 1 * 
1024 + ♦ 512 + 1 * 256 + * 128 + 1 * 64 + 
1* 32 + 0* 16 + 0*8 + 1*4+ 1*2 + 0* 
1). Not the easiest conversion. 

A number like % 1000000000000000 is 
equivalent to 32768 in base 10, which is not too 
memorable. In hexadecimal, it's equivalent to 
$8000. Now perhaps you can see why computer 
people use hexadecimal. When talking about a 
microcomputer's memory map, pages of memory 
are used as a convenient way to locate various 
usages. For instance, in 6502 computers page is 
used by the system for pointer storage (due to zero 
page addressing), page 1 is used for the system 
stack, and page 2 is sometimes used for the input 
buffer. In decimal, that would convert to page = 
to 255, page 1 = 256 to 511, and page 2 = 512 
to 767. Hexadecimal notation is much easier to 
remember — page = $0 to $FF, page 1 = $100 
to $1FF, and pige 2 = $200 to $2FF. 

Even if you can't see much use for the different 
numbering systems now, when you start to work 
with machine language you may wonder why 
anyone works with base 10. This program converts 
any base (2, 8, 10, 16) into all the others. The 
routines do the conversions the same way you 
would do them by hand; you can learn the conver- 
sion method as you type in the program. 

This program should run on any computer with 



86 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Circle No. 43 




The 68000 

DREAM MACHINE 



WE (SORT OF) LIED: 

Motorola has been promoting its advanced microprocessor 
chip as a vehicle for large, complex systems exclusively. 
Now, the 68000 does work well as the heart of big, complex 
systems. But their promotional literature implies that one 
can only build big, complex systems with the 68000, and that 
is dead wrong (in our opinion). Nevertheless, the public 
(that's you!) perception of the 68000 follows Motorola's line: 
Big systems. Complex systems. 

Our boards are not complex and not necessarily big (starting 
at 4K). Our newsletter is subtitled "The Journal of Simple 
68000 Systems.'' But since the public has become condi- 
tioned to the 68000 as a vehicle for FORTRAN, UNIX, LISP, 
PASCAL and SMALLTALK people naturally expect all these 
with our $595 (starting price) simple attached processor. 
Wrong! 

We wrote our last ad to understate the software we have 
available because we wanted to get rid of all those guys who 
want to run (multi-user, multi-tasking) UNIX on their Apple II 
and two floppy disks. Running UNIX using two 143K floppies 
is, well, absurd. The utilities alone require more than 5 
megabytes of hard disk. 

HERE'S THE TRUTH: 

We do have some very useful 68000 utility programs. One of 
these will provide, In conjunction with a suitable BASIC com- 
piler such as PETSPEED (Pet/CBM) or TASC (Apple II), a five 
to twelve times speedup of your BASIC program. If you have 
read a serious compiler review, you will have learned that 
compilers cannot speed up floating point operations 
(especially transcendentals). Our board, and the utility soft- 
ware we provide, does speed up those operations. 

Add this line in front of an Applesoft program: 

5 PRINT CHR$(4);"BLOADUTIL4,A$8600":CALL38383 

That's all it takes to link our board into Applesoft (assuming 
you have Applesoft loaded into a 16K RAM card). Now run 
your program as is for faster number-crunching or compile it 
to add the benefit of faster "interpretation". Operation with 
the Pet/CBM is similar. 

68000 SOURCE CODE: 

For Apple II users only, we provide a nearly full disk of un- 
protected 68000 source code. To use it you will have to have 
DOS toolkit ($75) and ASSEM68K ($95), both available from 
third parties. Here's what you get: 

1) 68000 source code for our Microsoft compatible floating 
point package, including LOG, EXP, SQR, SIN, COS, TAN, 
ATN along with the basic four functions. The code is set up to 
work either linked into BASIC or with our developmental 
HALGOL language. 85 sectors. 




2) 68000 source code for the PROM monitor. 35 sectors. 

3) 68000 source code for a very high speed interactive 3-D 
graphics demo. 115 sectors. 

4) 68000 source code for the HALGOL threaded interpreter. 
Works with the 68000 floating point package. 56 sectors. 

5) 6502 source code for the utilities to link into the BASIC 
floating point routines and utility and debug code to link into 
the 68000 PROM monitor. 113 sectors. 

The above routines almost fill a standard Apple DOS 3.3 flop- 
py. We provide a second disk (very nearly filled) with various 
utility and demonstration programs. 



SWIFTUS MAXIMUS: 

Our last advertisement implied that we sold 8MHz boards to 
hackers and 12.5MHz boards to businesses. That was sort of 
true because when that ad was written the 12.5MHz 68000 
was a very expensive part (list $332 ea). Motorola has now 
dropped the price to $1 1 1 and we have adjusted our prices ac- 
cordingly. So now even hackers can afford a 12.5MHz 68000 
loard. With, we remind you, absolutely zero wait states. 



'Swiftus maximus'? Do you know of any other 
microprocessor based product that can do a 32 bit add in 0.48 
microseconds? 

AN EDUCATIONAL BOARD? 

If you want to learn how to program the 68000 at the 
assembly language level there is no better way than to have 
one disk full of demonstration programs and another disk full 
of machine readable (and user-modifiable) 68000 source 
code. 

Those other 'educational boards' have 4MHz clock signals 
(even the one promoted as having a 6MHz CPU, honest!) so 
we'll call them slow learners. They do not come with any 
significant amount of demo or utility software. And they com- 
municate with the host computer via RS 232, 9600 baud max. 
That's 1K byte/sec. Our board communicates over a parallel 
port with hardware AND software handshake, at 71 K 
bytes/sec! We'll call those other boards handicapped 
learners. 

Our board is definitely not for everyone. But some people find 
it very, very useful. Which group do you fit into? 

DIGITAL ACOUSTICS 

1415 E. McFadden, Ste. F 

Santa Ana, CA 92705 

(714) 835-4884 



Apple, Applesoft and Apple II are trademarks of Apple Computer Company. Pet is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines. ■ 



No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



87 



O CENTER 

2 Microsoft BASIC. It was written on an Apple and 
™ has two machine-dependent lines. Line 40 clears 
J™ the screen and vertically tabs down the screen 10 
K lines. Line 340 clears the screen and homes the 
^ cursor. You should substitute the clear screen 
III command for your computer in those two lines. 
m The lower case is purely for cosmetic reasons and, 
if you have only upper case, then that's what you 
will get. The REMarks may be ommitted. 

Octal numbers are halfway between 
hexadecimal numbers and binary numbers. They 
are easier to use than decimal numbers for binary 
thinking, but they are not commonly used. The 
standard notation for octal numbers is 6 (with two 
dots above], not always found on computer 
terminal keyboards. I assigned them the # sign so 
that the program can tell the numbers apart. 

When entering numbers into the program to be 
converted, the program assumes all numbers to be 
decimal, unless you prefix the number with a 
special sign — $ for hexadecimal, % for binary, 
and # for octal. The program does no checking for 
proper input; you will get some very strange 
results if you input illegal numbers. 

Hopefully, the next time you see a binary or 
hexadecimal number, you will understand what 
they are all about. 



Program Description 

[10] DIMensions the arrays to store the 
individual digits of the numbers. 

[20-30] Set up the functions to get integer 
divisions and remainders. 

[40-90] Present the introductory screen 
information and prompt for the number to be 
converted. A < return > quits the program. 

[110, 170, and 230] check to see what type of 
number you entered. 

[120] Converts octal to decimal. 

[180] Converts binary to decimal. 

[240] Converts hexadecimal to decimal. 

[350] Converts negative decimal to positive 
decimal. 

[370] Converts decimal to hexadecimal. 

[440] Converts decimal to octal. 

[530] Converts decimal to binary. 

[710-790] Prints the results and waits for a 
return to start over. 

[800] A subroutine to convert numbers larger 
than 9 into the A-F hexadecimal letters. 

[840] A subroutine to divide A by N, assign 
Q(I) the integer division result, and return with A 
equal to the remainder. 

[860] A subroutine to assign Q$() and Q() 
arrays each digit of the input number. 



Number Conversion Listing 






re) DIM Q(20),Q$(20) 


230 IF LEFT$ (A»,l) <> "$" THEN 340 


590 N = 1024:1 = 6: GOSUB 840 


20 DEF FN A(X) = INT (X / N): REM 


240 REM Convert Hex to Decimal 


600 N = 512:1 = 7: GOSUB 840 


Int function 


250 A» = RIGHT? (A$, LEN (A$) - 1) 


610 N = 256:1 = 8: GOSUB 840 


30 DEF FN B(X) = X - FN A(X) » 


260 IF LEN (A») < 4 THEN A$ = " 


620 N = 128:1 = 9: GOSUB 840 


N: REM Mod function 


0" + A|: GOTO 260 


630 N = 64:1 = 10: GOSUB 840 


40 HOME : VTAB 10 


270 N = 4: GOSUB 860 


640 N = 32:1 = 11: GOSUB 840 


50 PRINT "This program converts 


280 FOR I = 1 TO 4 


650 N = 16:1 = 12: GOSUB 840 


numbers Into other bases . fl 


290 IF Q»(I) < "A" THEN 310 


660 N = 8:1 = 13: GOSUB 840 


60 PRINT "Input your number in t 


300 Q(I) = ASC (Q»(I)) - 55: GOTO 320 


670 N = 4:1 = 14: GOSUB 840 


he following form:" 


310 Q(I) = VAL (Q$(I)) 


680 N = 2:1 = 15: GOSUB 840 


70 PRINT "<DECIMAL> or <-DECIMAL 


320 NEXT 


690 Q(l6) = A 


> , <$HEXIDECIMAL>," 


330 A = Q(l) » 4096 + Q(2) » 256 + 


700 N = 16: GOSUB 800:B$ = A$ 


80 PRINT "<#O0TAL> and <*BINARY>. 


Q(3) * 16 + Q(4) 


710 PRINT "Decimal=" 


90 PRINT : INPUT A$: IF LEN (A$ 


340 HOME 


720 PRINT ASAAVE" ("ASAAVE - 65536")" 


) = THEN END 


350 IF A < THEN A = 65536 + A 


730 PRINT : PRINT "Hexadeclmal=" 


100 A = VAL (A$) 


360 ASAAVE = A 


740 PRINT H$ 


110 IF LEFT? (A$,l) < > "#" THEN 170 


370 REM Convert Decimal to Hex 


750 PRINT : PRINT "Octal*" 


120 REM Convert Octal to Decimal 


380 N = 4096:1 = 1: GOSUB 840 


760 PRINT 0$ 


130 A$ = RIGHT? (A$, LEN (A?) - 1) 


390 N = 256:1 = 2: GOSUB 840 


770 PRINT : PRINT "Blnary=" 


140 IF LEN (A?) < 6 THEN A$ = " 


400 N = 16:1 = 3: GOSUB 840 


780 PRINT B$ 


0" + A$: GOTO 140 


410 Q(4) = A 


790 PRINT : PRINT : INPUT "Press 


150 N = 6: GOSUB 860 


420 N = 4: GOSUB 800:HJ = A» 


< return > ";A$: GOTO 40 


160 A = Q(l) » 32768 + Q(2) * 409 


430 A = ASAAVE 


800 A$ = "": FOR I = 1 TO N 


6 + Q(3) * 512 + Q(4) » 64 + 


440 REM Convert Decimal to Octal 


810 IF Q(I) > 9 THEN C$ = CHR$ 


(1(5) * 8 + Q(6): GOTO 340 


450 N = 32768:1 = 1: GOSUB 840 


(Q(I) + 55): GOTO 830 


170 IF LEFT? (A$,l) <> "*" THEN 230 


460 N = 4096:1 = 2: GOSUB 840 


820 C$ = STR? (Q(I)) 


180 REM Convert Binary to Decimal 


470 N = 512:1 = 3: GOSUB 840 


830 A$ = A$ + C$: NEXT : RETURN 


190 A$ = RIGHT? (AJ, LEN (A$) - 1) 


480 N = 64:1 = 4: GOSUB 840 


840 Q(I) = FN A(A):A = FN B(A) 


200 IF LEN (A?) < 16 THEN A$ = 


490 N = 8:1 = 5: GOSUB 840 


850 RETURN 


"0" + A$: GOTO 200 


500 Q(6) = A:0$ = "" 


860 FOR I = 1 TO N 


210 N = 16: G0SUB 860 


510 N = 6: GOSUB 800:01 = k% 


870 Q*(I) = MID$ (A|,I,1) 


220 A = Q(l) * 32768 + Q(2) * 163 


520 A = ASAAVE 


880 Q(I) = VAL (Q$(I)) 


84 + Q(3) * 8192 + Q(4) » 40 


530 REM Convert Decimal to Binary 


890 NEXT : RETURN 


96 + Q(5) * 2048 + Q(6) * 10 


540 N = 32768:1 - 1: GOSUB 840 




24 + Q(7) * 512 + Q(8) * 256 


550 N = 16384:1 = 2: GOSUB 840 




+ Q(9) * 128 + Q(10) * 64 + 


560 N = 8192:1 = 3: GOSUB 840 




Q(ll) * 32 + Q(12) * 16 + Q( 


570 N = 4096:1 = 4: GOSUB 840 




13) * 8 + Q(l4) * 4 + Q(15) * 


580 N = 2048:1 = 5; GOSUB 840 




2 + Q(16) : GOTO 340 







JMCftO 



88 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Circle No. 32 



Circle No. 33 



W«QMtMm<m§ 



Ver. 2 For your APPLE II/II+ 

The complete professional software system, that meets 
ALL provisions of the FORTH-79 Standard (adopted Oct. 
1980). Compare the many advanced features of FORTH- 
79 with the FORTH you are now using, or plan to buy! 

FEATURES OURS OTHERS 



79-Standard system gives source portability. YES 
Professionally written tutorial & user manual 200 PG. 

Screen editor with user-definable controls. YES 

Macro-assembler with local labels. YES 

Virtual memory. YES 

Both 13 & 16-sector format. YES 

Multiple disk drives. YES 

Double-number Standard & String extensions. YES 

Upper/lower case keyboard input. YES 

LO-Res graphics. YES 

80 column display capability YES 

Z-80 CP/M Ver. 2.x & Northstar also available YES 

Affordable! $99.95 
Low cost enhancement option: 

Hi-Res turtle-graphics. YES 

Floating-point mathematics. YES 

Powerful package with own manual , 

50 functions in all, 

AM951 1 compatible. 

FORTH-79 V.2 (requires 48K & 1 disk drive) 
ENHANCEMENT PACKAGE FOR V.2 

Floating point & Hi-Res turtle-graphics 
COMBINATION PACKAGE 
(CA res. add 6% tax: COD accepted) 



$ 99.95 

$ 49.95 
$139.95 



MicroMotion 

12077 Wilshire Blvd. #.506 
L.A..CA 90025 (213)821^1340 
Specify APPLE. CP/M or Northstar 
Dealer inquiries invited. 




O Dysan 

^/corporation 



better from inside out 




at the lowest price! 



Call our Modem Hotline (anytime) - 619-268-448o 
for exclusive monthly specials. Our free catalog 
contains more than 600 lantastic values. 

ABC Data Products 



8868 CLAIREMONT MESA BLVD. 
SAN DIEGO. CALIFORNIA 92123 



ORDERSONLY 
800-850-1555 



ITTTELEX INFORMATION 
4992217 619-268-3537 



fm H 



MMMMWMMM 



THE TACKLER ™ - dual . mode parallel 

INTERFACE FOR THE APPLE" 2 BOARDS IN ONE FOR NO MORE 
COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS! 

An intelligent board to provide easy control of your printer's lull potential. 
Plus a standard parallel board at the flip of a switch - your assurance of 
compatibility with essentially all software for the APPLE*. Hires printing 
with simple keyboard commands that replace hard to use software 
routines. No disks to load. Special features include inverse, doubled, and 
rotated graphics and many text control features, available through easy 
keyboard or software commands. Uses Industry standard graphics 
commands. This is the first truly universal intelligent parallel interface! 
Change printers - no need to buy another board. Just plug in one of our 
ROM'S and you're all set. ROM'S available for Epson, C. Itoh, NEC, and 
Okidata - others avai lable soon. Specify printer when ordering. Call for 
Price. 





THE UPGRADEABLE PPC-100 
PARALLEL PRINTER CARD 

A Universal Centronics type parallel printer board complete with cable 
and connector. This unique board allowsyou to turn on andoffthehigh 
bit so that you can access additional features in many printers. Easily 
upgradeable to a fully intelligent printer board with graphics and text 
dumps. Use with EPSON, C. ITOH, ANADEX, STAR-WRITER, NEC, OKI 
and others with standard Centronics configuration. $139.00 



IF YOU WANT GRAPHICS AND FORMATTING THEN 
CHOOSE THE PERFORMER 

for Epson, OKI. NEC 8023, C. ITOH 8510 provides resident HIRES screen 
dump and print formatting in firmware. Plugs into Apple slot and easy 
access to all printer fonts through menu with PR* command. Use with 
standard printer cards to add intelligence. $49.00 specify printer. 




THE MIRROR FIRMWARE FOR NOVATION APPLE CAT II s 

The Data Communication Handler ROM Emulates syntax of an other popular Apple Modem product 
with improvements. Plugs directly on Apple CAT II Board. Supports Videx and Smarterm 80 column 
cards, touch tone and rotary dial, remote terminal, voice toggle, easy printer access and much more. 
List $39.00 Introductory Price $29.00 



Super Pix 

Hires screendump software for the Epson, OKI, C. Itoh and Nee 8023. Use with Tymac PPC-100. 
Special $19.95 (Specify Printer) 



Mr. Lister - Customer Contact Profiler & Mailer 

A Super Mail List Plus more — up to 1000 Entries on single 3.3 Disk (only 1 Drive required) — 2 
second access time to any name — full sort capabilities — Dual Index Modes — supports new 9 
digit Zip. Easy to follow manual — Not Copy Protected — 4 user defined tables with 26 sort 
selections per table — Beta tested for 6 months — user defined label generation. 
Introductory Price $135. $99.00 Dealer &; Dist. Inquiries Invited. 



APPLE LINK 

A communications system lor the Apple* (Requires Hayes Micro Modem). Transmit and receive any 
type of file between APPLES', Automatic multi-file transfer, real time clock indicating tile transfer 
time. Complete error check. Plus conversation mode. Only one package needed for full transfers. 
Compatable with all DOS file types, (requires Hayes Micro Modem) $59.00 



THE APPLE CARD/ATARI CARD 

Two sided 100% plastic reference card Loaded with information of interest to all Apple and Atari 
owners. $3.98 



NIBBLES AWAY II 

AGAIN! Ahead of all others. 

• AUTO-LOAD PARAMETERS . . . Frees the user from having to Manually Key in 
Param values used with the more popular software packages available for the Apple II. 

• EXPANDED USER MANUAL . . . incorporates new Tutorials for all levels ol 
expertice; Beginners Flowchart for 'where do I begin' to 'Advanced Disk Analysis' is included. 

• TRACK/SECTOR EDITOR ... An all new Track/Sector Editor, including the 
following features: Read, Write, Insert, Delete Search, and impressive Print capabilities! 

• DISK DIAGNOSTICS . . Checks such things as: Drive Speed, Diskette Media 
Reliability, and Erasing Diskettes. 

• HIGHEST RATED . . . Best back up Program in Softalk Poll (Rated 8.25 out of 10). 

• CONTINUAL UPDATES . . . Available from Computer Applications and new listings 
on the source. $69.95 



MINI ROM BOARDS 

Place your 2K program on our Mini Rom 
Board. Room for one2716 EPROM. Use in any 
slot but zero. Only $34.95 

Circle No. 48 



DOUBLE DOS Plus 

A piggy-back board that plugs into the disk- 
controller card so that you can switch select 
between DOS 3.2 and DOS 3.3 DOUBLE DOS 
Plus requires APPLE DOS ROMS. $39.00 




Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited. 



M\CRO-WARE DIST. INC. 

P.O. BOX 113 POMPTON PLAINS, N.J. 07444 

201-838-9027 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



89 



Circle No. 36 



ACORN 68880 



ATTACHED 

PROCESSOR 

FOR THE 

APPLE II™ 




$1495 

HARDWARE V 

• 68000 Microcomputer with 1 6 MHZ clock 

• 131.072 Bytes of RAM Memory 

• 32,768 Bytes of ROM Memory 

• Two RS 232c serial ports up to 9.600 bps 

• One million bps interface with APPLE'" 

• Seven levels of vectored interrupts 

• Real time clock and timer 

• Separate case and power supply 
SOFTWARE 

• Uses only one peripheral slot in the APPLE™ 

• Invisible operation with APPLESOFT or PASCAL 

• Compatible with Compilers and 6502 Assemblies 

• 68000 Assembly Language Development System 
Write or call for a free brochure or send $1 for 1 00 page 

users manual (refunded with order for ACORN) 

ACORN SYSTEMS INC. 

4455 TORRANCE BLVD., #108 • TORRANCE, CA 90503 
Telephone (213) 371-6307 

'Apple, Apple II and Applesoft are the trademarks of Apple Computer Co. 



OSI Disk Users 



Double your disk storage capacity 
Without adding disk drives 

Now you can more than double your usable floppy disk 
storage capacity — for a fraction of the cost of additional 
disk drives. Modular Systems' DiskDoubler ™ is adouble- 
density adapter that doubles the storage capacity of 
each disk track. The DiskDoubler plugs directly into an 
OSI disk interface board. No changes to hardware or 
software are required. 

The DiskDoubler increases total disk space under OS- 
65U to 550K; under OS-65D to 473K for 8-inch floppies, 
to 163K for mini-floppies. With the DiskDoubler, each 
drive does the work of two. You can have more and 
larger programs, related files, and disk utilities on 
the same disk — for easier operation without constant 
disk changes. 

Your OSI system is an investment in computing power. 
Get the full value from the disk hardware and software 
that you already own. Just write to us, and we'll send you 
the full story on the DiskDoubler, along with the rest 
of our growing family of products for OSI disk systems. 

™DiskDoubler is a trademark of Modular Systems. 

Post Off ice Box 16 C 
Oradell, NJ 07649.0016 
Telephone 201 262.0093 



Modular Systems 



LEARNING CENTER 

A Beginner's 
Computer Glossary 

Mnemonic — A technique intended to assist human 
memory; an abbreviation or acronym that is easy 
to remember. A symbolic representation (e.g., 
ADD or SUB). 

Modem — Acronym for MOdulator/DEModulator 
A chip or device that converts data from a font 
that is compatible with data processing equip 
ment to a form compatible with transmissior 
facilities and vice veisa. It is often used to inter 
face a digital device to a telephone line. 

Module — A device or piece of equipment that is in 
terchangeable with other components. 

Monitor — 1. To control operation of several un 
related routines. 2. A black and white or colo: 
CRT display. 

Mother Board — A circuit board used to connect othe; 
processor boards, such as CPU cards, cassette in 
terfaces, and memory cards, to name a few. 

Nanosecond — A billionth of a second. 

Nesting — Placing a routine or program segmen 
within a larger routine or program segment. 

No Operation (NOP) — Tells computer t< 
deliberately leave a blank to allow insertion o 
data or information at a later time withou 
rewriting. 

On Line — A system or device in a system that i 
controlled by the central processing unit. (Off 
line means the equipment is not under control o 
the CPU.) 

Operation Code (Op Code) — A command, usuall; 
given in machine language. 

Optimize — Arranging instructions or data in th 
storage area so that a minimum amount c 
machine time is spent accessing the instruction 
or data. 

Port — The entry channel to which a data set i 
attached. It is in the central computer, and ead 
user is assigned one port. 



Circle No. 25 



90 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 198 



Part 2 



PROM — Programmable Read-Only Memory. Gen- 
erally, any type of memory not recorded during 
packaging, but can be programmed in later. 

Queue — A line or group of items waiting to be 
processed.. 

RAM — Random Access Memory. Provides im- 
mediate access to any storage location in 
memory. Information may be written in or read 
out quickly. 

Register — 1 . A device for the temporary storage of 
one or more words to facilitate arithmetical, 
logical, or transferral operations. 2. The hardware 
for storing one or more computer words. 3. A 
term used to designate a specific computer unit 
for storing a group of bits or characters. 

ROM — Read-Only Memory. A memory that is pro- 
grammed in during packaging. There are many 
types of ROMs. Information is stored permanently 
(or semi-permanently] and is read out, but not 
altered, in operation. 

Routine — 1. A sequence of machine instructions. 
2. A set of coded instructions in proper sequence 
that tells the computer to perform an operation 
or series of operations. 

"Smart" terminal — A rudimentary smart terminal 
consists of a CRT, keyboard, serial communica- 
tion I/O device, and a microcomputer. It may 
use peripheral memory devices such as a tape 
cassette. A "smart" terminal provides built-in 
capability not alterable by the user; an "in- 
telligent" terminal is user programmable. 

Subroutine — A program that defines operations and 
which may be included in the main routine. 

Text Editor — Facilities designed into a computer 
program to allow keyboarding of text without a 
format. Once placed in storage, it can be edited 
and justified to the required specifications. 

Variable — A symbol whose numeric value changes 
from one repetition of a program to the next, or 
changes within each repetition of a program. 

JMCftO 



Ws eating 



your Apple? 



Find out with Apple-Cillin II 



TM 



If you use your Apple for your business or 
profession, you probably rely on it to save you 
time and money. You can't afford to guess 
whether it is working properly or not. Now you 
don't have to guess. Now you can find out 
with Apple-Cillin II. 

Apple-Cillin II is the comprehensive diagnostic 
system developed by XPS to check the 
performance of your Apple II computer system. 
Apple-Cillin II contains 21 menu driven utilities 
including tests for RAM memory, ROM 
memory, Language Cards, Memory Cards, 
DISK system, Drive Speed, Keyboard, Printer, 
CPU, Peripherals, Tape Ports, Monitors and 
more. These tests will thoroughly test the 
operation of your Apple, and either identify a 
specific problem area or give your system a 
clean bill of health. You can even log the test 
results to your printer for a permanent record. 

Apple-Cillin II works with any 48K Apple system 
equipped with one or more disk drives. 

To order Apple-Cillin II - and to receive 
information about our other products - Call 
XPS Toil-Free: 1-800-233-7512. In Pennsylania: 
1-717-243-5373. 

Apple-Cillin II: $49.95. PA residents add 6% 
State Sales Tax. 



XPS 



XPS, Inc. 

323 York Road 

Carlisle, Pennsylvania 1/013 

800-233-7512 

717-243-5373 



Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



Circle No. 51 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



91 



Analysis of Bond Quotations 
on the APPLE 



by David C. Lewis 



A program to compute information regarding the 

performance of bonds. Data for computations is 

available in financial sections of many newspapers. 



The bond-analysis program presented 
here grew out of the realization that I 
was spending a lot of time with my 
calculator and a sheet of paper, punch- 
ing buttons and making notes. It occur- 
red to me that it should be possible to 
develop a program that prompts the in- 
puts required, does the calculations 
quickly without any superfluous in- 
tervention on my part, and presents the 
data intelligently. This program meets 
my requirements. 

Three things are necessary to 
understand this program: you should 
know a little about the bond market 
and bond market quotations, you 
should understand some (by no means 
all) of the basic criteria that are used to 
analyze bonds, and you should know 
quite a lot about string-handling opera- 
tions. This last item may surprise 
many microcomputerists. However, 
for reasons I will explain later, analyses 
of bond market quotations rapidly 
become a case study in string-handling 
procedures. 

Financial Background 

Before getting into a program to 
analyze bonds you should understand 
what bonds are, and what the quoted 
numbers relating to bonds are. These 
basic concepts and data are used to 
develop an approach to the analysis of 
any particular bond and the bond- 
analysis program. Basically bonds are a 
type of promissory note or IOU that 
many corporations, municipalities, and 
state and local governments use to 
finance their projects. To get a feel for 



the numbers and diversity of bonds 
simply turn to the financial page of 
your local newspaper; generally you 
will see only the corporate bonds that 
traded recently (i.e., yesterday in a daily 
paper). Municipal, state, and federal 
government bonds often are not re- 
ported, and corporate bonds that are 
not bought or sold on any day are not 
reported that day. 

Typically, bonds are issued in units 
of $1,000. The issuer promises to pay 
the buyer a fixed percentage of the face 
value of the bond each year until some 
date in the future, at which time the 
issuer will redeem the face value of the 
bond. Thus, a 10% bond of 1983 would 
yield its buyer $100 in 1982 and he 
would get back the full amount 
($1,000) in 1983. 

Although a bond may have a 
nominal value of $1,000, its actual 
price may fluctuate substantially. 
While no one should pretend to under- 
stand all the factors that make the bond 
market go up or down, many people 
think that prevailing interest rates have 
a pronounced effect on the market. 
Thus, to induce a prospective bond 
buyer to actually buy a bond, that bond 
must offer the investor a return on his 
investment comparable to what he 
could realize by putting his money else- 
where. If someone purchased a 30-year 
bond in 1960 that yielded 7%, he 

Bond Quotations 

requires: 

Microcomputer with 
Microsoft BASIC 



would receive $70 per year from the 
bond. If it were necessary to sell that 
bond in a market where investors could 
routinely get 14% on their in- 
vestments, the original buyer would 
have to reduce the sales price to $500 so 
the buyer would realize 14% on his 
purchase. If the buyer couldn't get 14% 
then he wouldn't buy the bond. Of 
course, this line of reasoning would not 
apply if the bond came due in the next 
few years, since the buyer could an- 
ticipate getting $1,000 in return for 
whatever he paid for the bond. For ex- 
ample, if someone paid $800 today for a 
bond that came due in 1983, then the 
buyer would realize a profit of $200 in 
1983, or a return of 25% on his invest- 
ment. Thus, it is possible to make (or 
lose) money on bonds in two ways — 
from the interest payments and from 
capital appreciation or depreciation. 

Often I have heard my broker speak 
of the "yield-to-maturity" of a bond. 
This is the sum of the yield on a bond 
due to its interest and the capital ap- 
preciation portion of the bond. If a 10% 
bond came due in 1990 and was cur- 
rently selling for $500, then the yield 
related to the interest income is 
|$l,000*10%/$500 = 20% and the 
pro-rated capital appreciation on the 
bond is ($l,000-$500)/((1990 - 
1982] '$500) = 5.5%, so the yield-to- 
maturity is 20% +5.5% = 25.5%. 

Yields-to-maturity can be mis- 
leading since they include two different 
types of yields. The interest income is 
available at least yearly and can be 
reinvested and compounded. The yield 
due to capital appreciation, however, is 
prorated straight line from now to 
maturity — there is no compounding. 
For example, if a bond were bought for 
$100 and matured 20 years later for 
$1,000, the prorated yield due to 



92 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



capital appreciation is (($1,000- 
$100)/($100*20 years)) = 45% per 
year. However, if the bond were to pay 
roughly 12% interest each year, and if 
that interest could be compounded 
without taxes, the investor would 
realize the same capital appreciation. 
This subtlety is particularly important 
in analyzing zero-coupon bonds. These 
bonds generally are sold at much less 
than face value and pay no annual in- 
terest. All of the yield on coupon bonds 
is a result of capital appreciation. When 
comparing zero-coupon bonds and 
other types of investments, it is impor- 
tant to consider the yield on a zero- 
coupon bond [or any capital accumula- 
tion yield) and some type of "deflated" 
basis in which the lack of opportunity 
to compound your earnings is factored. 

Financial Calculations 

The program here prompts user in- 
puts and accepts inputs as they are 
typically published in the literature 
(i.e., fractional numbers are accepted 
for price and interest, and the true price 
is computed based on the price quoted 
in the newspaper. The program com- 
putes the following indices: 

1. Interest paid per year in dollars. 

2. Number of years from the current 
year to the year of the bond's maturity. 

3. Simple yield based on interest. 

4. Yield due to straight-line capital ap- 
preciation (i.e., no compounding). 

5. Straight-line yield to maturity (i.e., 
the sum of items 3 and 4 above) . 

6. The equivalent yield if the capital 
appreciation could be compounded. 

7. Compounded yield to maturity (i.e., 
the sum of items 3 and 6 above). 

Finally, the program presents an an- 
notated listing of each of the seven 
items listed above and offers the option 
of providing a hard copy of the program 
output. 

Getting the Data 

A principal resource for data regard- 
ing bonds is your newspaper. If you 
look in the financial section of your 
paper, generally you will see a state- 
ment such as: 

XYZ INC 9 5/8 02 61 1/2 

This means the particular bond issue 
put out by XYZ Inc. has a yield of 9 
5/8% on the face value of the bond 
($1,000), will be redeemed in the year 
2002 ("02"), and was bought for $615. 
Note that the quoted price is a factor 10 



times smaller than the price shown in 
the newspaper (i.e., 61 1/2), and in- 
terest and price quotations are typically 
(although not always) given in fractions 
of 1/8, and only the last two digits of 
the year of redemption of this or any 
other bond is quoted. Clearly, some 
massaging of the input data is neces- 
sary before the computer can compute 
the various yields, dates, returns, etc. 

Programming Considerations 

The main problem associated with 
developing the program was creating 
some mechanism to allow the user to 
input data as it is typically quoted. 
Microcomputerists familiar with 
DATA and INPUT statements know 
they accept either strings or decimal 
numbers; Apple will not immediately 
understand numbers like 9 5/8. To get 
a microcomputer to accept and manip- 
ulate what might be referred to as 
"fractional numbers" it is necessary to 
input the data as a string and develop a 
way to evaluate that string. 

The subroutine developed to evalu- 
ate the string inputs is shown in figure 
1. The routine is structured to interpret 
a string by first evaluating the denom- 
inator of the fractional number, then 
the numerator, then the integer, and 
using that information to compute the 
type of decimal number with which the 
computer can deal. If no fraction is 
sensed for a number (i.e., if no "/" is 
sensed) then the string is evaluated as a 
number. This option is necessary since 
bond data is sometimes quoted in in- 
teger and even decimal form. 



amined is a "/", it is compared to the 
ASCII representation of "/" (i.e., 
CHR$(47) J.Ifa"/" is sensed, then the 
program knows it is examining a frac- 
tion, and that the MID$(I$,N,1) state- 
ment has stepped its way from right to 
left across the denominator. To sense 
the value of the denominator, the pro- 
gram simply backs the MID$(I$,N,x) 
up one character and defines a new 
string from that character to the right 
end of the string using the RIGHT$ 
(I$,N- 1) statement. Then it takes the 
VAL( ] of that substring to get a real 
number for the denominator. 

To get a real number for the 
numerator the MID$(I$, 1,N) statement 
is used to search the string for a 
"space." Thus, you expect a space be- 
tween the integer portion of the frac- 
tional number and its fractional por- 
tion. As with the search for the "/", 
the ASCII representation of each char- 
acter in the string is compared with 
CHR$(32), the ASCII representation for 
a space. When CHR$(32) is sensed, the 
MID$(I$,N,2) statement has stepped to 
the beginning of the numerator of the 
fractional input. To get the value of the 
numerator, a new substring of 1$ is 
defined that includes the entire frac- 
tional portion of 1$ and then takes the 
VAL( J of the substring. Since the VAL 
statement evaluates the string up to the 
first non-numerical character (in this 
case the "/"), what is returned is the 
numerator of the fraction in the string. 
The fractional part of the input string is 
evaluated by dividing the numerator of 
the denominator. It's that simple. 



One problem was getting the computer to 
accept and manipulate fractions. 



The subroutine uses virtually all 
the string-handling operations avail- 
able in Microsoft BASIC. Apart from 
some variable setting operations, the 
first step in the routine is to determine 
the number of characters (called N) in 
the string using the LEN( ] statement. 
Subsequently, each character in the 
string is examined, starting with the 
rightmost character, to see if it is a 
"/" . To break out each character in the 
string the MID$( ) statement is used 
where N, the number of characters in 
1$, is obtained by counting from the 
right of the string, and 1 indicates that 
PI$ is only 1 character. To determine 
whether or not the character being ex- 



Evaluating the integer portion of the 
input string is straightforward when 
you know which character constitutes 
the start of the numerator. Simply 
establish a new string, starting from 
the left, and use the LEFT$( ) state- 
ment, whose length is the difference 
between the length of the input string 
and the string position of the first digit 
in the numerator. Then take the value, 
using the VAL( ) statement, of the new 
sub-string. If you simply take the 
VAL( ) of the input string you will get 
some strange number that includes the 
integer and numerator characters. For 
example, if the VAL statement were 
used on the string 57 3/8, the computer 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



93 



would read 573 (i.e., all numbers up to 
the first non-numeric character, skip- 
ping over spaces). 

Once the integer and fractional por- 
tions of the input string have been 
evaluated, it is easy to develop a 
number the computer can use — just 
add the two numbers. 

The subroutine described above 
will evaluate fractional data inputs. To 
complicate life, bond interest and price 
data is sometimes given in integer or 
decimal form. The subroutine deals 
with this contingency by determining 
whether or not it finds a "/"; if none is 
found after stepping across the input 
string, the program evaluates the" 
number using VAL( | on the entire in- 
put string. 

Another programming problem, 
which also involves strings, relates to 
the formatting of the output display. 
The quantities that are calculated by 
the program are routinely calculated 
and displayed to nine significant 
figures. However, there is generally no 
reason to evaluate a bond's perfor- 
mance to more than three or four sig- 
nificant figures. Displaying all the sig- 
nificant digits adds little to the utility 
of the program and can make the 
results harder to read and understand. 
For example, if the number of signifi- 
cant digits displayed can be limited, it 
is possible to get the results of the cal- 
culations all on the same line as the 
captions, thus improving the readabil- 
ity of the display. 



I limited the number of significant 
digits displayed by converting the 
numerical results of the calculations to 
strings, using the STR$( ) statement, 
and then using the LEFT$( ) statement 
to take the four most significant 
figures. This simple approach is not a 
rounding operation; rather, it is a 
truncation. 

The Bond Program 

The program is designed to accept 
data in the sequence data generally ap- 
pears in financial periodicals, and also 
in the formats that are commonly used 
(i.e., fractional numbers). 

The interest is computed in dollars, 
paid per year, and assumes the bond has 
a face value of $1,000. Thus, the in- 
terest is $1,000 times the interest rate. 

The total capital yield is simply the 
difference between the value of the 
bond at maturity and its purchase price 
divided by the purchase price. To get a 
prorated portion of this yield simply 
divide the total capital yield by the 
number of years to maturity. This 
calculation assumes that the price of a 
bond will steadily approach its mature 
value on a straight-line basis; it makes 
no allowance for market conditions. 

The program computes a "net" 
yield by summing the yields due to in- 
terest payments and the yield at- 
tributed to the prorated capital ap- 
preciation of the face value of the bond. 
As noted previously, these are two 
rather different yields since "yield-to- 



maturity,' while often quoted, is of 
questionable significance. 

There is a fundamental difference 
between annual interest payments and 
the prorated straight-line yield that 
might be attributed to capital apprecia- 
tion. In particular, the capital apprecia- 
tion cannot be compounded. To get a 
better estimate of the yield that can be 
attributed to capital appreciation, com- 
pute the equivalent annual yield that, if 
compounded, would offer the same net 
capital appreciation as the simple un- 
compounded capital yield discussed 
above. This yield is always less than 
the uncompounded capital yield. 

Next sum the equivalent com- 
pounded capital yield and the interest 
payments to give a more realistic yield- 
to-maturity. 

After completing the calculations 
outlined above, you may want to make 
a hard copy of the results, complete 
another analysis, or quit. The program 
is set up for an MX-80 operating with a 
GRAPPLER. The printer portion of the 
program may have to be adapted for dif- 
ferent printers. 



Dave Lewis is a scientific project officer in 
the Department of Navy's Office of Naval 
Research. He manages a variety of 
electronic warfare and surveillance 
programs, when he is not trying to beat 
the bond market. You may contact Mr. 
Lewis at 7417 Westwood Park Lane, Falls 
Church, VA 22046. 



10 GOTO 390 : 


560 


REM 


30 REM 


580 


VTAE 5: PRINT NAME OF BOND 


40 PRINT ****B0NDS****B0NDS**** 




;: INPUT Tl?: PRINT ENT 


BONDS****:' RETURN 




ER INTEREST ;: INPUT BI»:I* 


60 REM 




* BI$: GOSUB 60:BI = I / 10 


80.1'. 0:N . LEN (I$): IF N * < '., 




0: PRINT ENTER YEAR OF MATU 


1 GOTO 350 




RITY(2 DIGITS) ; : INPUT YM? 


110 FOR Q = 1 TO N - 1:V = N - Q 




:YM = VAL (YM?) : PRINT ENT 


:PI? = MID? (I?,V,1): IF PI 




ER BOND PRICE ;: INPUT PR$: 


$ = CHR$ (47) GOTO 220 




1$ - PR}: GOSUB 60:PR * I: ROME 


150 IF PI? = CHR? (32) GOTO 270 




: GOSUB 1660: GOSUB 30: VTAB 
5: PRINT Tl?;: PRINT ;: 


160 REM 




PRINT BI»;: PRINT ;: PRINT 


170 : NEXT : IF I = GOTO 350 




YM?;: PRINT j: PRINT 


190 REM 




PR* 


200 RETURN 


95fl 


PRINT :D = 1000 » BI: PRINT 


220 REM 




DOLLARS PAID/YEAR = ?; : FRINT 


230 Z? * RIGHT? (I?,Q) :A = VAL 




D:DY = YM - rD: IF DY =■ > 


(2$>: GOTO 160 




GOTO 1060 


270 REM 


1050 DY = 100 + DY 


280. B'- VAL ( RIGHT? (I?»Q)}:FI » 


10« 


PRINT YRS TO MATURITY* j: PRINT 


B / A:DI = N - Q:D$ = IEFT? 




DY:Y = (BI / PR) * 10000:Y? « 


(I?,DI):I = VAL (D?):I - I + 




STR? (Y):Y1$ => LEFT* (Y$,4 


FI: GOTO 160 




):Y1 - VAL (Yl?): PRINT YI 


350 REM 




ELD=;: PRINT Yl; : PaiNT * 


360 I = VAL (I?): GOTO 190 




:YTM = ((100 - PR) / (PR * D 


390 REM 




Y)) * 100:T? = STR$ (YTH):T 


400 HOME: GOSUB 30: VTAB 5: PRINT 




AS = LEFT* (T?,4):T1 > VAL 


ENTER DAY DATE ; : INPUT D 




(TAJ) : PRINT CAP YLD PER YR 


D: PRINT ENTER M0NTH(1 OR 2 




= ;: PRINT Tl;: PRINT *:TY 


DIGITS) j: INPUT MD: PRINT 




- Y + YTM:T? = STR$ (TY):T 


ENTER YEAR( LAST 2 DIGITS); 




1* = LEFT? (T?,4J:T1 = VAL 


: INPUT ID: HOME : GOSUB 166 . 




(Tl?) 


0: GOSUB 30 







. 1320 PRINT YIELD TO MATURITY=; 
.• PRINT Tl;:- PRINT %:ZZ = 
100 / PR:Z1 = ( LOG (Z2)) / 
DY:Z2 =. (( EXP (Zl)) - 1) * 
100:Z2? = STR? (Z2):Z3? = LEFT* 
(Z2?,4):Z3 « VAL (Z3J): PRINT 
COMPOUND CAPTL YID=; : PRINT 
iy*: PRINT Sf:CY = Y + Z2:Y 
$ =■ STRJ (CY):Y1?.* LEFT? 
(Y&ihYl* VAL (Yl?): PRINT 
COMPOUNDED YIELD TO MATURIT 
Y*; : PRINT Yl; : PRINT %: VTAB 
20 

1570 HEM 

1580 PRINT WANT TO CONTINUE? Y 
, ES/NO/PRINT; 

1590: INPUT C?:Z? = LEFT? (C?,l) 
•_ IF Z? = CHR? (89) GOTO 17 
70 

1620 IF Z? = CHR? (80) GOTO 183 


1630 IF Z? = CHR? (78) GOTO 189 


1640 PRINT ?;: GOTO 1590 

1660 REM 

1680 HTAB 30: PRINT DD; : PRINT 

/;: PRINT KD;: PRINT /; : PRINT : 
YD: RETURN 

1770 HOME : GOSUB 30: GOSUB 1660 
: GOTO 560 

1830 PRINT PR#1: PRINT S: PRINT 
FR#0: GOTO 1570 

1890 HOME : VTAB 12: HTAB 14: PRINT ' ' 
FINIS: END ...iiii 

' JUCRO 



94 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



Announcing *. 
The best 6502 



V/-:ito!.:f5,"S- : :';?;;-.'.-:>;.-.i 










i.TW-j 



Now. The kind of hi( 
Support you'd only exp 
to f ind%n a main frame.? 

ORCA/M (Hayden%Q$jfe§J£ t ^ 

Relocatable Co(te'J^^^^^^^m^^^ JS ^^K^f^-.^w.r V -fy-,.; <;i F&Bt£&fWHti 

for Micros) lets ^J^^^^g^W^^^m^gjM 



with the speed and 
high-level language- 
the control 
only assembly 



ana entciencymai:,. .#^«Sk^^^^«5j^^*^^ 



fere^e^areicfocurriented -; 

el^aftdieSctensivety Source; 

^■^3t^0gs|grl|ie subrpotipei '"*•■• \ 

^^gff^i^Jj^3,«eslas; vveif ••■4 ' ' i 

^^^l^rife^^atlpo *?stern;' are*. 

mmm^4 •■■■■-■ 



113! 



M 



|6^^'serj6us.'ibdBt .' 
^502«fewifeyit'^^ 




« 















^t^fifeatiWe 



Condit onal assembly 

source and macro files 

Separ 

files 

' Nestable 
■ Parameter 

string 
i Symbo*c parameter 

ass'gnment 
i Numeric 

type parameters 
: Parameter subscripting 
i Global jpmmunication 

between macros 

> Macro expansion iobp^corttrfit 

> Count, length and type , ; \--j ^jtilMoM 
parameter-attribute 'iun'cti^'^j^^^^^^SjRffile^ 

.;,'•• -^U;^^\^f]r^^riej^^^t$J^er.:: 
i math. '£ "'}$'• * 

-'^r:Sv^)3:t.nputahd:!ai^£^^<i»as; 



BE3e*&ii/S 






:tiv^R^^wed^|^^«<^:''-;'- '•' y 

.• •».. •■•A>W^i>r<«wSSxlK^K«'i'Ai'.'<'»- ■ ■ 'i 

♦;^h&toqO&ajirafera^bKfte^;^V' ■■*# i 



t and4uDCt*a'r*S-'sL-., 




Circle No. 47 






imM^siBM 






t-^^^ 






ull^iiii 4l^^fej ^^Mli^^^^^l^K^I 



ill 



ill 5 . 



Jits 




Call on Eagle 8 Bit & 16 Bit 
Computers and Software 












n 






Ill* 












NEC 



COMPUTERS 

6000 CALL 

8001A $719.00 

8031 $719.00 

80 12 $549.00 

PRINTERS 

8023 $469.00 

7710/7730 $2299.00 

35 10/3530 $ 1549.00 

MONITORS 

JB-1260 $119.00 

JB-1201 $149.00 

JC-1212 $299.00 

JC-12-202 $299.00 

JC- 1 203 $599.00 



PRINTERS 

SMITH CORONA 

TP 1 $599.00 

Tractor Feed $129.00 

C. ITOH CTEC) 

Surwriter(F10-t0CPS) $ 1299.00 

Prinrmaster(F10-55CPS) $1649.00 

Prowriter 8510 P $399.00 

Proerriter 8510 S $599.00 

Prowriler 1550 P $769.00 

Prowrtter 1550 S $799.00 

OKI OAT A 

82A $429.00 

83A $659.00 

84 (Parallel) $1049.00 

'14 (Serial) $1 149.00 

92 $599.00 

93 $999.00 

IDB 

MkroPrism $649.00 

132 (Fully Configured) $1599.00 

M0 (Folly Configured) $ 1399.00 

Call for other configurations. 

STAR 

Gemini 10 $379.00 

Gemini 15 $489.00 

DAI8YWHITER 
Letter Quality $ 1049.00 

DIABLO 

620 $999.00 

630 $1769.00 



ft Tel^ideo 

TERMINALS 

910 $579.00 

912C $699.00 

920C $749.00 

925C $749.00 

950 $950.00 

WYSf WY100 $749.00 

COMPUTERS 

800A $1299.00 

802 $2649.00 

802H $4695.00 

806 $4999.00 

816 $8999.00 

803 CALL 

1602/ 1603 CALL 

PANASONIC 

JR200U 32K Pers. Computer . . . $309.00 
MONITORS 

TR-120. 12" Hires Green $159.00 

CT-160.10"DualModeColor ...$299.00 

DT-D1000. 10" RGB $349.00 

DT-D1300. 13" RGB/Composite. . . $429.00 

SANYO 

MB 1000 Computer $1599.00 

MB 160 Add on Drive $539.00 

5500 Letter Quality Printer $699.00 



Qz. commodore 




SHARP 



^_^_ PC-1SOO 

POCKET COMPUTER 
951 B9. 

PC 1 250 . . . S89.00 

CE 150 Printer, Plotter and 

Cass. Interface Unit $172.00 

CE 152 Cass. Recorder $62.00 

CE 155 8K Ram Expansion Module... $94.00 
CE125 Printer/Micro Cassette. . . $129.00 



MONITORS 

AMOEK 

300G $159.00 

300A $169.00 

310G $179.00 

310A $169.00 

Color I $299.00 

Color II $599.00 

Color II A $799.00 

Color 111 $349.00 

BMC 

12AU 12" Green $79.99 

140i 13- Color (Mid Res.) $369.00 

9191U 13" Composite $329.00 

TAXAN 

Color Composite CALL 

RGB 1 $329.00 

ZENITH 

ZVM 121 $99.00 

ZT-1 Terminal $3*9.00 

SHARP 

13" Color TV $269.00 

19" Color TV $339.00 



VIC so 
$149 



VIC 64 




Motor Mouse $23.00 

Centipede $23.00 

Frogge (VIC) J23.0O 

Frogge (64) $23.00 

VIC 20 Dust Cover $9.99 

VIC 1530 Datassetle $69.00 

VIC 1541 (64K Disk Drive) $339.00 

VIC 1525 Graphic Printer $339.00 

VIC 1210 3K Mem. Exp $32.00 

VIC 1 1 10 8K Mem. Exp $53.00 

VIC 1111 16KMem.Exp $94.00 

VIC 101 1 RS232C Term. Interface ... $43.00 
VIC 1 1 1 2 IEEE-488 Interface .... $86.00 

VIC 1211 Super Expander $53.00 

VIC Mother Board $99.00 

HES. UMI. EPYX & Creative Software 

br VIC. Now In Stock!! 

PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 

Word Processing for VIC 64 $79.95 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 

41 CV 




HP7S S7SS. 

HP 41C(free memory module). . . $149.00 

HP 10C $59.00 

HP 11C $72.00 

HP 12C ..$99.00 

HP 15C $99.00 

HP 16C $99.00 



MOOEMS 

HAYES 

Smart $219.00 

Smart 1200 (1200 Baud) $549.00 

Chronograph $199.00 

Micromodem 100 $309.00 

Micromodem II $279.00 

Micromodem II (with Term) $299.00 

NOVATION 

J-Cat $119.00 

Cat $144.00 

D-Cat $159.00 

103 Smart Cat $189.00 

Apple Cat II $279.00 

103/212 Smart Cat $439.00 

212 Apple Cat II $609.00 

Apple Cat II 212 Upgrade $309.00 

ANCHDR 

Mark I (RS-232) $79.00 

Mark II (Atari) $79.00 

Mark III (TI-99) $109.00 

Mark IV (CBM/PET) $ 125.00 

Mark V (OSBORNE) $95.00 

Mark VI (IBM-PC) $179.00 

Mark VII (Auto Answer Call) .... $1 19.00 

TRS -80 Color Computer $99.00 

9 Volt Power Supply $9.00 



8032 $1039.00 

4032 $749.00 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369.00 

Super Pet $1499.00 

2031 $469.00 

8250 Dbl.Sided Disk Drive ... $1699.00 

D9060 5 Meg. Hard Disk $2399.00 

D9060 7.5 Meg. Hard Disk ... $2699.00 

8050 $1299.00 

4040 $969.00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $ 1 549.00 

8023 $599.00 

4022 $399.00 

New Z-Ram. Adds CP/M' & 64K ... $549.00 

The Manager $209.00 

Magis CALL 

Word Pro 5 Plus $319.00 

Word Pro 4 Plus $299.00 

Word Pro 3 Plus $199.00 

The Administrator $379.00 

Info Pro Plus $219.00 

Power $79.00 



TIM EX SINCLAIR 

1000 $85. 

16K Memory Module $44.95 

Vu-Calc $17.95 

Check Book Manager $13.95 

The Organizer $14.95 

The Budgeter $13.95 

Stock Option $14.95 

Loan & Mortgage Atnortizer $12.95 

Mindware Printer $109.00 

Orbit Software CALL 



NEC 

35BO PRINTER... $1999 

PERCOM/TANOOM 

ORIVES 

5V<" 160K Disk Drive $249.00 

5V<" 320K Disk Drive $299.00 

AMOEK 

310A Amber Monitor $169.00 

310G $179.00 

Amdisk (3V." Drive) $679.00 

XY Plotter $649.00 

Color II $599.00 

SOFTWARE 

I.U.S. Easywriter II $249.00 

I.U.S. Easyspeller $129.00 

Peach Package (GL/AP/AR) ... $419.00 

PROFESSIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

IBM/PC Word Processing $319.00 

CONTINENTAL 
SOFTWARE 

The Home Accountant Plus $ 1 19.00 

1st Class Mall/Form Letter $99 00 

SYNAPSE 

File Manager $1 19.00 



□ apt. 
415 



computer mail order east 

S^SatSaeeSSBfe. .-mVB^SaaakV ammmiaams3>feev •afiBBaaffSuk aC£S9B§I3eV *S^^SSBfo ,«gP3P«P£ G£P>&aj&!^£j *#^3^£*@&l 

IN PA. CALL T71 7]327-9B75, 477 E. THIRD ST., WILLIAtVISPORT. PA. 1 7701 
No risk, no deposit onC.O.D. or den. Pre-paid order* itctivt frcesMpplng within lite UPS Continental United States Delivery Zone with 

3% (minimum $3.00) shipping and handling on all C.O.D. and credit card orders. Larger shipments may require additional charges. NV and PA residents add sales tax. All Items subject to availability 
and price change. NOTKi We stock manufacturer's and third party software Cor most all computers on the market. Call today for our new catalog. Circ 



mm 




FRANKLIN 




Call on FRANKLIN Computers, 
Disk Drives, Software and 
System Specials. 



MICRO-SCI 

DISK DRIVES FOR 
APPLE & FRANKLIN 

A2 $299.00 

A40 $349.00 

A70 $459.00 

C2 Controller $79.00 

C47 Controller $89.00- 



VISICORP 

for Apple, IBM & Franklin 

Visidex $ 189.00 

Visifile $189.00 

Vlsiplot $159.00 

Visiterm $89.00 

Vlsitrend/Plol $229.00 

VisiSchedule $229.00 

Desktop Plan $189.00 

Visicalc(Applell»,CBMJBM) $179.00 

Visicorp prices for IBM may vary slightly. 

CONTINENTAL 

Home Accnt. (Apple/Atari) $59.00 

The Tax Advantage(Apple.Atari) . . . $45.00 
1st Class Mail/Form Letter(Apple). . . $79.00 

The Book of Apple $14.95 

The Book of Atari $14.95 

The Book of Apple Graphics $14.95 

SIRIUS 

Free Fall $24.00 

Beer Run $24.00 

Snake Byte $24.00 

Space Eggs $24.00 

Sneakers $24.00 

Bandits $28.00 

BROOERBUNO 

Apple Panic $23.00 

David's Magic $27.00 

Star Blazer $25.00 

Arcade Machine $34.00 

Choplifter $27.00 

Serpentine $27.00 

INFOCOM 

Deadline(Atari.Apple.IBM) $35.00 

Star Cross $29.00 

Zork I. II. or 111 $29.00 

MPC 

Bubdlsk (128K Ram) $719.00 

AXLON 

Apple/Franklin 128K Ram $399.00 

Apple/Franklin Ram Disk $999.00 

KRAFT 
Apple Joystick $44.00 



A ATARI 



1010 Recorder $74.00 

1020 Printer $269.00 

1025 Printer $589.00 

830 Modem $ 159.00 

820 Printer $259.00 

850 Interface $169.00 

CX40 Joy Sticks (pair) $18.00 

CX414 Bookkeeper Program ...$119.00 

CX419 Bookkeeper Kit $195.00 

CX48 1 Entertainer Package $69.00 

CX482 Educator Package $130.00 

CX483 Programmer Package $54.00 

CX484 Communicator Package. . . $344.00 
Full Stroke Replacement Keyboard... 
for Atari 400 $ 1 19.00 



ALIEN 

Atari Voice Box $1 19.00 

Apple Voice Box $149.00 

MEMORY 

Axlon 32K Ram $89.00 

Axlon 48K Ram $139.00 

Axlon 128K Ram $399.00 

Inlec 32K Board. $74.00 

Intec 48K Board $99.00 

Inlec 64K Board(400 Only) $149.00 

WICO 

Joystick $24.95 

Famous Red Ball $26.95 

Apple Trackball $59.00 

Atari/VIC Trackball $55.00 

Apple Adapter $16.00 




OIBK DRIVES FOR ATARI 

AT88-S1 $399.00 

AT 88-A1 $299.00 

RFD 40-S1 $549.00 

RFD 40-A1 $349.00 

RFD 40-S2 $889.00 

RFD 44-S1 $679.00 

RFD 44-S2 $1029.00 



RANA DISK DRIVES 

Call for price and availability on the 

new Rana Disk Drives for The Apple 

and Franklin Computer Systems. 



FLOPPY DISKS 

MAXELL 

MD I (Box of 10) $32.00 

MD II (Box of 10) $44.00 

FD 1(8") $40.00 

FD II (8" DD) $50.00 

VERBATUM 

5M- SS SD $26.00 

5V." DS bD $36.00 

ELEPHANT 

5Vi- SS SD $19.99 



4BK 



ATARI 400 

16K S199 

32K 8874* 

4BK SB99 : 

64K S359 : 

"Non-Atari Ram 

One Year Extended Warranty $70.00 

ATARI 

Pac-Man $33.00 

Centipede $33.00 

Cavems of Mars $32.00 

Asteroids $29.00 

Missile Command $29.00 

Star Raiders $35.00 

Galaxian $33.00 

Defender $33.00 

Atari Vlslcalc $159.00 

ON-LINE 

Jawbreaker $27.00 

Softpom $27.00 

Wizard and the Princess $29.00 

The Next Step $34.00 

Mission Asteroid $22.00 

Mouskartack $31.00 

Frogger $31.00 

Cross Fire (ROM) $36.00 

SYNAPSE 

File Manager 800* $69.00 

Chicken(Rom) $34.00 

Picnic Paranoia(Rom) $34.00 

Claim Jumper (Rom) $34.00 

Slime (Rom) $34.00 

Shamus(Rom) $34.00 

Protector (Rom) $34.00 

Dodge Racer (C/D) $26.00 

Nautilus (C/D) $26.00 

Shadow World (C/D) $26.00 

Survivor (C/D) $26.00 

Drelbs (C/D) $26.00 

Necromancer (C/D) $26.00 

Pharohs Curse (C/D) $26.00 

Fort Apocolypse (C/D) $26.00 

Page6 $19.00 

Assembler $30.00 

Disk Manager $24.00 

DATASDFT 

Pacific Coast Highway $25.00 

Canyon Climber $25.00 

Tumble Bugs $25.00 

Shooting Arcade $25.00 

Clowns and Balloons $25.00 

Graphic Master $30.00 

Graphic Generator $13.00 

Micro Painter $25.00 

Text Wizard $79.00 

Spell Wizard $64.00 

Bishop's Square $25.00 

Sands of Egypt $25.00 

Moon Shuttle $25.00 

Zaxon $29.00 




810 Disk Drive $429.00 

Call for Price and 
Availability of the NEW 

B4K ATARI 1 SOO 

APX 

Text Formatter $18.50 

Family Budgeter $18.50 

Eastern Front $24.00 

Family Cash $18.50 

Jukebox $13.50 

Downhill $ 18.50 

Outlaw $ 18.50 

Holy Grail $24.00 

Player Piano $18.50 

Keyboard Organ $ 18.50 

Number Blast $13.50 

Frogmaster $18.50 

747 Land Simulator $18.50 

Bumper Pool $13.50 

CBB 

K-razy Shoot Out $32.00 

K-razy Krlrters $32.00 

K-razy Antics $32.00 

K-star Patrol $32.00 

Stick Stand $5.99 

EPYX 

Crush. Crumble & Chomp $24.00 

Crypt of the Undead $24.00 

Curse of Ra $16.00 

Datestones& Ryn $16.00 

Invasion Orion $19.00 

King Arthur's Heir $24.00 

Morloc's Tower $16.00 

Rescue at Rigel $24.00 

Ricochet $16.00 

Star Warrior $29.00 

Temple of Asphai $29.00 

Upper Reaches of Apshal $16.00 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops * 1 $34.00 

Snooper Troops *2 $34.00 

Face Maker $24.00 

Story Machine $24.00 

Delta Drawing $45.00 

Rhymes and Riddles $2 1.00 

Kinder Comp $21.00 

ROKLAN 

Wizard of War (Rom) $34.00 

Deluxe Invader (Rom) $29.00 

Gorf (Rom) $34.00 

FIRST STAR 

Astro Chase $25.00 

BIO 8 
Miner 49er $35.00 

OAMEBTAR 

Ba|a Buggies $24.95 

Football $24.95 



computer mail order west 



«■$ 1 1 



□apt;. 
•415 



IN NV. CALL (70e)8SS-8SB4, P.O. BOX 6689, STATELINE, NV. BS448 

ERnational onoERs: All shipments outside continental United States must be pre-paid by certified check only! Include 3%(minimum $3.00) shipping and handling. 

°ucational discounts: Additional discounts are available from both Computer Mail Order locations to qualified Educational Institutions. 

?Q a FPOi Add minimum $500 shipping on all orders. Cp/M ' s a registered trademark of Digital Research, inc. 



Mutual Fund Charting 



Two programs to make, update, and print mutual 
fund files on both OSI and Apple Computers 



Buy low, sell high! Sound advice for 
any investor but not easy to achieve. 
The microcomputer has opened a new 
avenue for the small investor to quickly 
store and then easily display collected 
data in a manner that can assist 
materially in decision making — a vital 
requisite to successful investing. 

Mutual funds and money market 
funds are investment vehicles tried by 
many, including this author. Inspira- 
tion for the program described here 
came from an article in Creative Com- 
puting (May 1981) that presented a 
computer-assisted method of invest- 
ment analysis developed in part by 
Richard J. Fabian, a registered financial 
advisor in the state of California. 
Authors Browning and Clemmens en- 
larged upon this procedure using a 
SWTPC 6800 computer system. 

A mutual fund tends to follow the 
rise and fall of stock market averages. A 
money market fund, on the other hand, 
remains more stable. Exchanging the 
stock fund for the money market fund 
and vice versa minimizes the effects of 
falling prices but takes advantage of 
rising prices. The investor must follow 
stock market trends by charting 
selected mutual funds and stock 
market averages over a 3 9- week period. 
When the current price moves through 
the 39-week average an exchange signal 



Mutual Funds 

requires: 

OSI with 065D or 
Apple II with one drive 
Dot-matrix printer needed for 
hardcopy printouts 



is generated. That is, when the trend is 
downward, change to the money 
market fund; when the trend is up- 
ward, change to the mutual stock fund. 

The program generated for this arti- 
cle attempts to duplicate the approach 
used by Browning and Clemmens, but 
is adapted to the OSI-065D operating 
system on a C4P-MF and an Epson 
MX-80 printer. One part of the pro- 
gram, "FILCHG," enables you to up- 
date data files for each Friday's closing 
price or when the fund makes a 
distribution (dividend and/or capital 
gains]. The other part of the program 
arranges data from the data files for the 
printer to display in chart form. 

Data files must be established first, 
then changed later. "FILCHG" pro- 
vides this option in lines 80-120. The 
funds and averages I selected are defined 
as string variables (line 40) to be re- 
called by either part of the program. To 
initially set up the data files the latest 
39 consecutive weeks of prices are 
gathered from financial pages of major 
newspapers. Option A is selected (line 
120) and the program loops to line 490 
where separate files are identified in a 
printout to the screen (lines 150-180). 
The file to be initialized is selected in 
line 200. The value of X (line 210) 
assigns the file to be worked to the 
variable, N$. 

Next, control passes to a subroutine 
at line 690. Thirty -nine numerical 
items are entered in an array, the file is 
written (line 440), and program control 
returns to line 80. A new file to be in- 
itialized can be selected again until all 
files are filled. 

Previous and current distributions 
of the fund must be considered to ac- 



curately reflect current price trends. If a 
distribution occurs during these 39 
weeks it must be subtracted from all 
earlier entries. Note that when a data 
item is a distribution (see line 730), 
program control goes to line 840. This 
subroutine subtracts the entered 
amount from each previous price, ad- 
justs the loop counters, and returns to 
the data-gathering loop at line 760. 
When all data is entered, the file is 
written (lines 440-470). A new file now 
can be opened and this process repeated 
or the program terminated, depending 
on the choice selected in line 120. 

Once files are established, you can 
update the files each week or at regular 
intervals by selecting option B (line 
120). The program then moves to line 
140 for a screen clear and printout of 
the mutual fund data-file choices (lines 
150-200). When a choice is made (line 
200), the next statement defines N$ for 
the subroutine at line 310. Here the 
disk file is opened and data is taken off 
the disk and placed into array A. 

If the data is a price change, it is 
entered at lines 390-400 as a string (to 
accommodate the '/' symbol used for 
exiting the loop). This string is changed 
to a number and multiplied by 100 for 
storing on disk which eliminates trail- 
ing zeros. Line 430 discards the oldest 
data and enters the new data in the 
39-item array. The program now loops 
back to line 400 for a new entry or the 
exit ('/') symbol. When no new item is 
to be entered, the 39 data items are 
returned to disk (line 450). Line 470 
prompts the user that the file is closed 
and waits for any key press, after which 
the program returns to line 80 where 
the file choices are displayed again on 
the CRT. Another file may be updated 
or the program exited. 

A final note on program ' 'FILCHG' ' 
concerns entering a distribution. Line 
350 asks if data is a distribution. If so, 
the amount is entered (line 370), sub- 
tracted from all entries in the current 



Ui 



98 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



for APPLE and OSI 



by Ralph H. Green 



Table 1: Sample Printout 


The following charts are plots of selected Mutual Funds 


and selected Stock Market indices -for the past 39 weeks. 


All points are corrected -for distributions made by the 


■funds during the 39 weeks. All prices are . the Friday 


closing price. 


No investment strategy is indicated from this data. 


Dow Jones Industrial Aver-age 


1049 




1044 


''■,'"„*' 


1033 


■ 


1015 


■ 


1007 


■ 


1004 


■ 


999 


■ 


989 


'."• V;. ■ '.ft 


984 


■:■' -ft : 


935 


v»' : 


930 


':■■/.■.:» -'■::' 


915 


"-.ft .. 


909 


'.■'■--.■■'.--■.-■---■ -ft" - 


903 


. '-.-■»--' 


887 


.'-■ ! .- ! ---.ft 


: 874 


■-- .ft 7 - 


870 


■ 'ft-'.. 


865 


'.-:■'■ 


B&0 


•■'",. 


850 


■ ■ 


845 


, ■ 


840 


■ ; . ■ 


833 


■ 


829 


« 


828 


... ft: 


820 


ft 


812 


• ■ ' 


811 


.■.':■ 


809 


'..'■". 


B05 


' m- ■ 


804 




792 


■ 


791 


■ ■■ 


787 


.... ■: 


78A 


■ . ' 


39 Week Average =883.08 


Percentage change since last high = 4. 17% 


Percentage change since last low = 28. 12% 


Most recent entry is 11/ 19/82 



the 



to 



39 updated items are 
disk storage (lines 



file, and 
returned 
440-470). 

The PRINT program plots the data 
by providing the necessary commands 
to the printer. The program uses the 
CRT as much as possible; the printer is 



used only to plot the charts. The 
available choices are printed to the 
screen (line 1200). One subroutine ac- 
complishes the printing task for all the 
charts. At line 200, the user inputs a 
number corresponding to his choice, 
after which the serial port is activated 



(line 1410], the corresponding data file 
is opened (line 310), and the chart 
heading printed double-size. Line 320 
transfers data from the disk and divides 
by 100 (line 1350), as mentioned 
earlier. At the same time the data is 
established in an array (A) and a com- 
panion array (B), which has an ascen- 
ding number that corresponds to the 
order in which the data appears in the 
original file. 

Since the printer can only advance, 
not reverse, you must arrange the data 
in descending order, highest to lowest. 
A "bubble sort" routine is used for 
this. Lines 1370-1400 sort the data in 
descending order with the (B) array 
number tagging along with its original 
data item. More on this later. 

Line 1410 is a required printer com- 
mand that sets the proper paper ad- 
vance. Line 1420 begins the printing of 
the 39 data items. Lines 1420-1450 en- 
sures that the digits printed at the left 
of the chart (the share price) have all 
necessary trailing zeros. CHR$(124] is 
the vertical line and CHR$(160) is the 
small square denoting a point on the 
chart. Lines 1450-1470 plot all points 
corresponding to a particular price by 
preventing a line feed until necessary. 
Also, the numbers in the (B) array are 
tabs for the print head to place the 
point at the proper week when the price 
originally occurred. 

After all points are printed, the 
amount of paper advance is reset to a 
new value (line 1480) and the chart is 
underlined (line 1490). Some useful 
data is then calculated and printed in 
lines 1500-1570. Since the Dow Jones 
Industrial averages and the Standard 
and Poor's 500 stock averages are not 
computed in dollars, lines 1490-1520 
route program control where desired. 

With the exception of certain com- 
mands peculiar to OSI machines, the 
programs are written in BASIC easily 
transportable to other microcomputers. 

(Continued on next page) 



No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



99 



The commands are: 

1. DISK!"IO ,03" and DISK!"IO ,02" 

to activate and deactivate the serial 

port. 

2 .DISK OPEN,6,"file" and DISK 

CLOSE, 6 to open or close a data file. 

3 DISK GET,X and PRINT#6 and LN- 
PUT#6 and DISK PUT, which are 
used with both sequential and ran- 
dom file access to and from the disk. 

4 .The screen clear routine. 

Most other computer systems support- 
ing data files and a serial port have ap- 
propriate commands to accomplish 
these tasks. 

As Browning and Clemmens stress 
in their article, the investor should 
spend at least an hour or more each 
week updating the files and perusing 
financial columns in daily newspapers. 
Especially critical are times when 
exchange signals might be generated. 
Using this program does not ensure 
success, but it does serve as an 
additional tool for making investment 
decisions. 



You may contact the author at 2130 16th 
Street, Greeley, CO 80631. 



Listing 1: Mutual Fund Charting 

10 REM Pgm called FILCHG to upd 

ate Mutual Fund Data Files 
20 REM By Ralph Green for OSI 
30 REM Translated for Apple ] [ 

by Philip Daley 
40 FOR I = TO 9: READBJ(I): NEXT 
70 DIM A(40), 3(40) :DJ = CHRJ (4) 
80 HC = 0: HOME : VTAB 5: PRINT " 

This program enters:": PRINT 
90 PRINT "(A) All 39 new values 

in a specified": PRINT " 

Mutual Fund data file, or 
100 PRINT "(B) Updates with the 

newest data" : PRINT " and 

discards old items in the file." 
110 PRINT "(C) Print out graph o 

f data " : PRINT " on sere 

en or printer." 
115 D RINT "(D) Exit 
120 PRINT : PRINT "Which do you 

prefer? "; : GET A$: PRINT AJ 

: IF AJ = "A" THEN GOSUB 49 

0: GOTO 80 
123 IF AJ = "B" THEN GOSUB 140: 

GOTO 80 
125 IF A$ = "C" THEN GOSUB 1000 

: GOTO 80 
130 HOME : END 
140 CJ = "update": GOSUB 150: GOSUB 

310: GOSUB 340: GOTO 80 
150 HOME : VTAB 5: PRINT "You are 

going to "C$" your data file." 
170 PRINT : PRINT "Choice for th 

e data file is as follows:" 
180 PRINT : FOR I = TO 9: PRINT 

I"-"B$(I): NEXT 
200 PRINT : PRINT "What is your 

choice? "; : GET AJ:X = VAL 

(AS) : IF X = THEN HOME : END 



210 NJ = BJ(X): RETURN 

310 PRINT DJ"0PEN"NJ: HOME : VTAB 
5: PRINT "You are to "C$" the" 

»0SI REM DISK 0PEN,6,NJ: POKE 12076,3: 
POKE 12042, 255 

311 PRINT N$" file." 

320 PRINT DJ"READ"NJ: FOR I = 1 TO 

39: INPUT A(I): NEXT 
»0SI REM INPUT#6,A(I) 
330 PRINT DJ"CLOSE": RETURN 
340 IF X > 6 THEN 390 
350 PRINT : PRINT "Do you have d 

istribution information? "; : 

GET A$ : PRINT AJ 
360 IF AJ = "N" THEN 3981 
370 INPUT "Distribution amount? 

";AJ:Z = VAL (AJ) : FORI = 

1T0 39:A(I) » A(I) - Z « 100 
380 NEXT : GOTO 440 
390 PRINT : PRINT "Enter new dat 

altem(s), use '/' to end." 
400 INPUT "Data ltem= ";YJ: IF Y 

t = "/" THEN GOSUB 440: RETURN 
410 Y = VAL (Y$) : IF X > 6 THEN 430 
420 Y = 100 » Y 
430 FOR I = 1 TO 38:A(I) = A(I + 

1) : NEXT :A(39) = Y: GOTO 400 
440 HOME : VTAB 5: PRINT "Now sa 

vlng data. Please wait for ' 

DONE' prompt." 
450 PRINT DJ"0PEN"NJ: PRINT DJ"W 

PJTE"N$: FOR I = 1 TO 39: PRINT 

A(I) : NEXT : PRINT DJ"CLOSE" 
»0SI REM DISKGET,J-1:PRINT#6,A(I):DISKPUT: 

NEXT:DISK CLOSE, 6 
470 PRINT : PRINT "DONE-Press an 

y key to continue.": GET AJ: 
PRINT : RETURN 
♦OSI REM DISK! "GO 252B" 
490 HOME : VTAB 5: PRINT "This s 

ection enters all 39 new 
500 PRINT "data entries in a spe 

clfled file 
510 CJ = "enter": GOSUB 150 
690 PRINT : PRINT "Enter data fo 

r each of the 39 entries . " 
700 PRINT "If you have dlstrlbut 

ions to enter, 
710 PRINT "when the 'Value? 1 pro 

mpt appears, 
720 PRINT "enter 'D' ." 
730 PRINT :K = 0: FOR J = 1 TO 3 

9: PRINT J" Value "; : INPUT 

ZJ: IF ZJ = "D" THEN GOSUB 

840: GOTO 760 
740 A(J) = VAL (ZJ) : IF X > 6 THEN 

760 
750 A(J) = A(J) * 100 
760 K = K + 1: NEXT : PRINT : GOSUB 

440: RETURN 
840 PRINT : INPUT "Distribution 

amount? ";Z$:Z = VAL (Z$): FOR 

J = 1T0K 
850 A(J) = A(J) - Z » 100: NEXT : 

J = J-1:K = K-l: PRINT 
860 PRINT "Continue with your en 

tries.": PRINT : RETURN 
399 DATA EXIT 

900 DATA Fidelity Destiny Fund, 
Oppenheiner Special Fund.Ame 
rican Harbor Fund 

901 DATA Sigma Investment Share 
s , Investment Company of Amer 
lea, Income Fund of America 

902 DATA Dow Jones Industrial A 
verage.NYSE Common Stock Ind 
ex 

903 DATA Standard i Poor's 500 
Stock Average 

1000 REM Pgm called PLOTF 
1010 REM Pgm to plot 39 week av 

erage of 
1015 REM selected mutual funds 
1020 HOME : VTAB 5: INPUT "Lates 

t date of entries? ";ZJ 



1030 PRINT : PRINT "Hardcopy? "; 

: GET AJ: PRINT AJ: IF AJ = 

"Y" THEN PRINT DJ"PR#1":HC = 1 
•OSI REM DISK! "10 ,03" 
1060 PRINT CHRJ (27) "A" CHRJ (1 

33); CHRJ (27)"2" 
1070 PRINT "The following charts 
are plots of selected Mutua 

1 Funds 
1080 PRINT "and selected Stock M 

arket indices for the past 3 

9 weeks. 
1090 PRINT "All points are corre 

cted for distributions made 

by the 
1100 PRINT "funds during the 39 

weeks . All prices are the Fr 

lday 
1105 PRINT "closing price.": PRINT 
1110 PRINT "No Investment strate 

gy is indicated from this da 

ta. 
1180 PRINT DJ"PR|W" : IF HC = THEN 

GET AJ : PRINT 
•OSI REM DISK! "10 ,02" 
1200 CJ = "print": GOSUB 150: GOSUB 

310 
1350 Tl = 0: FOR J = 1 TO 39: IF 

X < 7THENA(J) = A(J) / 100 
1360 Tl - Tl + A(J) :B(J) = J: NEXT 

:A1 = A(39) 
1370 R = 0: FOR J = 2 TO 39 : IF A 

(J) < = A(J - 1) THEN 1400 
1390 R = 1:S- A(J-1):A(J-1) = 

A(J):A(J) = S:S = B(J - 1):B 

(J-l) =B(J):B(J) =S 
1400 NEXT : IF R - 1 THEN 1370 
1410 IF HC = 1 THEN PRINT DJ"PR 

#1": PRINT : PRINT : PRINT CHR$ 

(14) iW: PRINT CHRJ (27) "A" 
CHRJ (129); CHRJ (27) "2" 
1420 A2 = A(l) :A3 = A(39) : FOR J = 

1T0 39:AJ = STRJ (A(J)J: IF 

X > 6 THEN 1450 
1430 IF INT (A(J)) = A(J) THEN 

AJ = AJ + ".00": GOTO 450 
1440 IF INT (10 » A(J) + .05) / 

10 = A(J) THEN AJ = A$ + "0" 

1450 PRINT AJ;: POKE 36,8: PRINT 

CHRJ (124); 
1460 POKE 36,B(J) +9: PRINT CHRJ 

(27)" >" CHRJ (160); 
1465 PRINT CHRJ (27)"="; 
1470 IF A(J) = A(J + 1) THEN J = 

J + 1: GOTO 1460 
1480 PRINT : NEXT : PRINT CHRJ 

(27) "A" CHRJ (133); CHRJ (27 

) "2" 
1490 FOR J = 1 TO 39: POKE 36,9 + 

J: PRINT "-";: NEXT : PRINT 

: IF X = 8 THEN 1510 
1500 IF X > 6 THEN 1520 
1510 POKE 36,15: PRINT "39 Week 

Average = J" INT (100 » (Tl / 

39) + .5) / 100: GOTO 1530 
1520 POKE 36,15: PRINT "39 Meek 

Average - " INT (100 * (Tl / 

39) + .5) /100 
1530 A4 = 100 » (A2 - Al) / A1:A5 

= 100 » (A1-A3) /A3 
1540 POKE 36,15: PRINT "Percenta 

ge change since last high = "; 
1550 PRINT INT (100 » A4 + .5) / 

100"J" 
1560 POKE 36,15: PRINT "Percenta 

ge change since last low = "; 
1565 PRINT INT (100 » A5 + .5) / 

100" 
1570 POKE 36,15: PRINT "Most rec 

ent entry Is "ZJ: PRINT D$"P 

R#0" 
1580 PRINT : PRINT "To continue, 
press any key.": GET AJ: PRINT 
: RETURN 



JMCftO 



100 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 



EVERYONE NEEDS A . . . 











ttECtRONICSpINC^ 



COPYRIGHT i? 1981 ■ PATENTS PENDING 

566 IRELAN, BUELLTON, CA 93427 
(805)688-2047 



^■^'■■■^^0toni&ers dealer ; - v-^ ■.* •;. •,- 

* ~ ___.._ _. __ _ _ ___. 



'J"?JT££fi 



? FOB YOUR APPLE «-. 
SUPER fa»u- ■:. :...'". 

' SUPER FAN tl^ZENER RAY" 

; ^iajpERRAM;tt~V:i.^v:. . 

N'BrfXZVDCfTRANSVERTER 

FDR MICRO COMPUTERS: 

GUARtHAN ANGEL" .:. -:-f."-. . 



Circle No. 67 



* 74J95. -.- 
S10900 ' ■ 

$125.00 

suasn 






LETTERMASK: A Check 
Protecting Algorithm 



by Barton M. Bauers, Jr. 



In the August 1980 issue of MICRO 
(27:65), I discussed the tendency of 
binary computers to introduce small 
rounding errors when adding decimal 
numbers, and proposed a solution that 
programmers could implement to pre- 
vent these errors. In summary, decimal 
numbers between and 1 cannot be 
represented exactly in binary mathe- 
matics, due to the limitation of preci- 
sion (the number of places to the right 
of the decimal point] available to most 
computers. The solution involved stor- 
ing all numbers within the program as 
integer numbers, and 'masking' them 
on output so they resumed their 
decimal form when printed. The func- 
tion that converted the decimal values 
to integer for internal storage was: 

DEF FN VL(X) = INT((X + .0001) * 100) 

where X was any real number with two 
decimal places, and VL(X) was its in- 
teger equivalent for internal purposes. 

The intent of the article was to 
preclude this rounding error in han- 
dling money calculations, and I in- 
cluded an example of utilizing the sub- 
routine MASK to create check-protec- 
tion with leading and trailing asterisks 
(•), as you see so often in computer- 
generated checks. 

Subsequent programming require- 
ments have led me to write a different 
kind of mask algorithm for check pro- 
tection — one that spells out the 
amount when printed, much as you do 
when you write checks manually. This 
method is excellent for protecting 
checks from alteration because the 
spelled-out values are of varying 
lengths and are much more difficult to 
fraudulently change. I consider the 
word method of check protection pre- 
ferable to the simple number mask and 
have created the subroutine 'LETTER- 
MASK' for this purpose. Although 



In addition to number masking, 
this routine creates checks with 
the amounts spelled out, for 
additional security. 



LETTERMASK 

requires: 

BASIC 

most computer-generated checks con- 
tinue to use some version of the 
number-masking system (my own still 
do, in addition to the word masking), I 
hope the simplicity of the LETTER- 
MASK subroutine will prompt pro- 
grammers to add this extra protection 
to check-printing routines. 

Almost all numbers can be 
represented with two sets of words. 
These are the words 'one, two, three, 
..., eight, nine' and the words 'ten, 
twenty, thirty, ..., eighty, ninety.' I say 
almost all, because there are the 
numbers from 11 to 19, which, unfor- 
tunately, require a separate set of 
words. This oddity creates some minor 
programming complications, but it 
does not make the problem unsolvable. 

For purposes of clarity, I refer to the 
first list (the words one through nine) 
as Word List A, the second list (the 
words ten through ninety) as Word List 
B, and the 'teens' list (11 through 19) as 
Word List C. In the program, these lists 
are referred to separately. 

Subroutine LETTERMASK properly 
encodes any value from $.00 to 
$9,999.99, and returns a word string for 
that amount. The upper limit is ar- 
bitrary and could be changed without 
too much difficulty. Values below 
$1.00, and the cents portion of any 
value, are returned as numbers. In addi- 
tion, the routine replaces the standard 
ASCII with the letter O to make the 
printout of the cents more readable. I 



recommend that in all check-writing 
programs, 0's be replaced with O's to 
spare the bank and the recipient of the 
check having to decipher the value and, 
perhaps, from making an error. Many 
people confuse the number with the 
number 8 if they are not familiar with 
the ASCII convention. 

The format for the output of the 
subroutine is: 

• ** [ONE.. NINE THOUSAND] [ONE.. 
NINE HUNDRED] [ONE.. NINETY 
NINE] DOLLARS AND [00.. 99] 
CENTS*** 

The input to the subroutine is the 
variable AMT, which is created in your 
main program with the value you wish 
to have printed out as a lettermask. 
This value must be an integer number 
— no decimal places are to be shown. 
The subroutine will return with your 
masked number as variable T$. 

Subroutine LETTERMASK works 
quite simply. First it determines how 
many digits are in the integer number 
AMT that you present to the sub- 
routine. Based on that value, one of six 
branches is taken (lines 20000 through 
20040). The program then 'cascades' 
down from the most significant digit 
toward the cents part of the value, until 
the entire number has been converted. 
Note that REM statements have been 
used to separate the thousands, hun- 
dreds, tens, ones, and teens conversion 
routines. Using the thousands section 
(lines 20100 to 20130) as an example, 
follow the steps the program takes. 

The computer evaluates the Ath 
element of the variable AMT (in this 
case A = 1, so it looks at the first, or 
leftmost, digit) . The variable K is set to 
this value and a branch to line 20700 is 
taken to get the proper word list from 
Word List A. The string variable T$, 
previously loaded with "»*•", is now 

(Continued on page 104) 



102 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 










i ADVENTURE. 

THE KEY 

IS 

YOUR COMPUTER 



.$19.96- 




<**££ flavor ..... mustft nd 



ivetV 



, a P w r® »me <*>* c l, e a spv 



t «o 95 



3SKS&! 









Sis 



7VO***** 5) *6-37»7 , dM clW_ ««« 



Circle No. 68 










At Last! Two new ways to expand the usefulness 

of your Rockwell AIM or Cubit CPU computer are 

available for immediate, off-the-shelf delivery. 



To discover how two new, state- 
of-the-art circuit cards from De- 
sign Dynamics can expand the use 
you get from your AIM or Cubit 
computer by providing bus com- 
patible Analog to Digital Interface 
and Full Color Graphics, please 
read on. 

Until now, if you needed a com- 
plete Analog to Digital Interface 
or Full Color Graphics display for 
your AIM or Cubit computer, you 
had to design and build it yourself. 

But today, Design Dynamics 
fills each need on 4'/ 2 "x 6'/i"cards. 
Just look at the features packed 
into each card: 

A total control interface 

The AIM/CPU-compatible in- 
terface has been designed to pro- 
vide you with a flexible, total con- 
trol interface which includes A to 
D functions, D to A functions, a 
clock with user ports section and a 
User Prototyping Area. 

Analog to digital input is han- 
dled on 16 channels with 12 bit re- 
solution. Maximum conversion 
time is 35 usee, per channel. 

Digital to analog output pro- 
vides control of to 10 Volts. 8 
^isec. conversion is provided by 
double-buffered, 4 channel, 12 bit 
D/A converters. 

A 24-hour time of day clock, 
with independent crystal time- 
base, includes an alarm mode for 
scheduling events. Two 16 bit 
timers, each with 16 bit prescaler 
and start/ stop control can count 
multiple source pulses. 

And, a User Prototyping Area 
provides power, ground bus and 
grid area for custom signal condi- 
tioning. 

The software, written in 
machine language and designed to 
interface with BASIC, includes 
routines for: A to D acquisition; D 
to A output; initialize board chips; 
and Set & Read time functions. X- 
Y Plotter Driver and Data Logger 
routines are available as options. 



Full Color Graphics 

Now you can expand your sys- 
tem display from limited alpha- 
numerics to a full color CRT dis- 
play which includes two graphic 
modes, multicolor mode and text 
mode, viewed on your own color 
CRT. 

Design Dynamics Full Color 
Graphics uses no system RAM, 
and includes it's own 16K 
dynamic RAM memory. It pro- 
vides 35 planes of vertically stack- 
ed display, 32 sprites in front of 
graphic plane and internal anti- 
collisicn management. 

Graphics I provides pattern 
graphics in 15 colors, 256 x 192 
pixels; while Graphics II offers 
more complex colors and pat- 
terns. The Multicolor mode dis- 
plays in positions of 64 x 48, with 
four colors per 8x8 pattern. The 
Text mode pattern plane is broken 
into 40 x 24 positions for text-only 
display. 

Startup software included as- 
sists the user in becoming familiar 
with the extensive capacities of 
this board. 
Full documentation included 

A Data Pack which includes 
full documentation for each board 
makes it simple to put the A to D 
Interface and Full-Color 
Graphics to immediate use. Or, if 
you need to be sure these board 
will fit your applications, you may 
order the Data Pack separately 
for only $15 per card. 
Motherboard available 

A fully buffered Motherboard 
for system expansion of eight 
cards allows convenient place- 
ment of boards for prototyping. 

Save time, money; call today 

Why spend time and money ex- 
panding your AIM or Cubit func- 
tions when these useful, flexible 
boards are available right now? 

Call Jack Schnabel for 
complete information on these 
_slalfizQ|^the-art products. 



-" mmm dynamics 

1830 Soscol Avenue • Napa, California 94559 • (707) 257-6000 

Rockwell AIM is a trademark of Rockwell, International • Cubit CPU is a trademark of Cubit, Incorporated 



lengthened with the proper word and 
the word "THOUSAND". 

Hundreds and tens are created 
similarly, except if the tens digit hap- 
pens to be a '1'. This means that the 
value for the tens and ones digits 
together could be any number from 10 
to 19 and, unless the value of the ones 
digit were 0, the word "TEN" is not 
appropriate and the 'teens' list is 
required. A branch is therefore taken 
to line 20450 to determine whether or 
not a special word from Word List C 
is needed. 

In the cents section, lines 20500 to 
20610, the two rightmost digits are 
scanned to find any ASCII 0's so they 
can be converted to the letter O for 
clarity on printout. Note that at line 
20520, if the number of cents is less 
than 10, then the leading zero is re- 
quired and the letter is put into 
variable QQ$. At lines 20540 to 20580, 
the cents digits are scanned and then 
added to QQ$. Line 20600 covers the 



Circle No. 54 



-404. 



LETTERMASK 

10 REM ************************* 

261 REM* 

30 REM* LETTERMASK 

40 REM * BARTON M. BAUERS JR. 

50 REM* 

60 REM ************************* 

70 REM* 

80 REM * RESERVED VARIABLES 

90 REM* 

100 REM * REAL 

110 REM * A, AMT, K, J 

120 REM* 

130 REM * STRING 

140 REM * AMT?, K?, Q?, QQ?, T? 

150 REM* 

160 REM ************************ 

170 REM* 

180 REM * READ IN VALUE 

190 REM* 

200 REM ************************ 

500 HOME 

510 INPUT "ENTER NUMBER ";AMT 

520 GOSUB 20000 

530 PRINT T? 

540 GOTO 510 

20000 A = 0:K = 

20014 AMT? = STRJ (AMT) 

20020 J = LEN (AMT?) 

20030 T? = "***" 

20040 ON J GOTO 20500,20500,2040 

0,20300,20200,20100 
20050 PRINT "NUMBER TOO LARGE " : 

TJ = "***V0ID***" : RETURN 

20095 REM ********************** 

20096 REM* 

20097 REM * THOUSANDS 

20098 REM * 

20099 REM ********************** 

20100 A = A + 1 

20110 K = VAL ( MID? (AMT?,A,1)) 

20120 GOSUB 20700 

20130 T? = T$ + KJ + " THOUSAND" 

20195 REM ********************** 

20196 REM* 

20197 REM* HUNDREDS 

20198 REM * 

20199 REM ********************** 

20200 A = A + 1 

20210 K = VAL ( MID? (AMT?,A,1)) 
20220 GOSUB 20700 
20230 IF K? - "" THEN 20300 
20240 T? = T? + K? + " HUNDRED" 



MICRO 



No. 59 ■ AprH 1983 



instance when an amount being con- 
verted has cents only and no dollars. 
Finally, at line 20610, the entire string 
T$ is completed with the addition of 
the proper cents mask. 

To try subroutine LETTERMASK, 
type in the following lines of code after 
saving LETTERMASK to disk. (These 
lines are not part of the actual 
subroutine, so they should not be saved 
to disk.) 

500 HOME 

510 INPUT "ENTER NUMBER" ; AMT 

520 GOSUB 20000 

530 PRINT T$ 

540 GOTO 510 

Type "RUN" and enter some numbers. 
The computer will print out a properly 
masked value that provides more safety 
than the numeric masks commonly 
used. Remember, all numbers read in 
must be integers. 

When you print T$ on a check, you 
have to be careful to either omit any 



other information from that print line, 
because of the varying length of T$, or 
you have to set up a method of spacing 
to allow for the unknown length. One 
method of doing the latter, if your 
checks will not permit the balance of 
the line to be blank, is to use the 
following convention: 
xxx PRINT T$; SPC(yy - LEN(T$) ); 
[Balance of line] 

xxx refers to your line number, and yy 
to the distance from the leftmost char- 
acter of T$ to the leftmost character of 
the next item you wish to print on the 
same line. By my calculations 
LETTERMASK's longest word string is 
71 characters. 

A final note: Other than checking 
for a number that exceeds six digits, 
LETTERMASK does no error checking. 



You may contact the author at 30 Hillock 
Drive, Wallingford, CT 06492. 



LETTERMASK (continued) 

26)295 REM it********************* 

221296 REM * 

20297 REM * TENS 

20298 REM * 

20299 REM ********************** 

20300 A = A + 1 

20310 K = VAL ( MID$ (AMT$,A,1)) 
20320 GOSUB 20900 
20330 IF K = 1 THEN GOTO 20400 
20340 T$ = T$ + K$ 

20395 REM *******»»*******»***»» 

20396 REM * 

20397 REM * ONES 

20398 REM * 

20399 REM ********************** 

20400 A = A + 1 

20410 IF K = 1 THEN 20450 
20420 K = VAL ( MID$ <AMT$,A,1)) 
20430 GOSUB 20700 
20440 GOTO 20480 

20445 REM ********************** 

20446 REM * 

20447 REM * TEENS 

20448 REM » 

20449 REM ********************** 

20450 K = VAL ( MID$ (AMT$,A,1)) 
20460 IF K = THEN 20480 
20470 GOSUB 21100 

20480 T$ = T$ + K$ + " DOLLARS AND " 

20495 REM ********************** 

20496 REM * 

20497 REM * CENTS 

20498 REM * 

20499 REM ********************** 

20500 K = VAL ( RIGHT* (AMT$,2)) 
20510 QQ$ = "" 

20520 IF K < 10 THEN QQ$ = "O" 

20530 K$ = STR$ (K) 

20540 FOR A = 1 TO 2 

20550 Q$ = MID? (K$,A,1) 

20560 IF Q? = "0" THEN Q$ = "0" 

20570 QQ$ = QQS + QJ 

20580 NEXT 

20590 K$ = "" 

20600 IF J < 3 THEN K$ = " ZERO 

DOLLARS AND " 
20610 T$ = T$ + K$ + QQ$ + " CENT 

S**»" 

20620 RETURN 

20621 REM ********************** 

20622 REM * END 



LETTERMASK (continued 

20695 REM ********************** 

20696 REM * 

20697 REM * WORD LIST A 

20698 REM * 

20699 REM ********************** 

20700 ON K GOTO 20720,20730,2074 
0,20750,20760,20770,20780,20 
790,20800 

20710 KJ = "": RETURN 
20720 K$ = " ONE" : RETURN 
20730 K? = " TWO" : RETURN 
20740 K$ = " THREE": RETURN 
20750 K$ = " FOUR" : RETURN 
20760 K$ = " FIVE" : RETURN 
20770 K$ = " SIX" : RETURN 
20780 K$ = " SEVEN": RETURN 
20790 K$ = " EIGHT" : RETURN 
20800 K$ = " NINE" : RETURN 

20895 REM ********************** 

20896 REM * 

20897 REM * WORD LIST B 

20898 REM * 

20899 REM ********************** 

20900 ON K GOTO 20920, 20930, 2094 
, 20950 , 20960 , 20970 , 20980 , 20 
990,21000 

20913 K$ = "": RETURN 
20920 K$ = " TEN" : RETURN 
20930 K$ = " TWENTY" : RETURN 
20940 K$ = " THIRTY" : RETURN 
20950 K$ = " FORTY" : RETURN 
20960 K$ = " FIFTY" : RETURN 
20970 K$ = " SIXTY" : RETURN 
20980 YL% = " SEVENTY" : RETURN 
20990 K$ = " EIGHTY" : RETURN 
21000 K* = " NINETY" : RETURN 

21095 REM ********************** 

21096 REM * 

21097 REM * WORD LIST C 

21098 REM * 

21099 REM ********************** 

21100 ON K GOTO 21110,21120,2113 
0,21140,21150,21160,21170,21 
180,21190 

21110 K$ = " ELEVEN" : RETURN 

21120 K$ - " TWELVE" : RETURN 

21130 K$ = " THIRTEEN" : RETURN 

21140 K$ = " FOURTEEN" : RETURN 

21150 K$ = " FIFTEEN": RETURN 

21160 K$ = " SIXTEEN" : RETURN 

21170 K$ = " SEVENTEEN" : RETURN 

21180 K$ = " EIGHTEEN" : RETURN ,-__,„ 

21190 K$ = " NINETEEN" : RETURN JMCRO* 



CARDBOARD 3 

An Economy Expansion Interface 
(Motherboard) 

For the VIC-20® Personal 
Computer 

The "CARDBOARD/3" is an expansion inter- 
face designed to allow the user to access more ' 
than one of the plug-in-type memory or utility ] 
cartridges now available It will accept up to 3 , 
RAM or ROM cartridges at once. For example. 

• 16k RAM + 16k RAM + 3k RAM 

• 16k RAM + 8k RAM + Super Expander 

• 16k RAM + 8k RAM + Vic-Mon 

• 16k RAM + 3k RAM + Programmer's Aid 

• High quality T.R.W. gold plated connectors 

• This board is fused 

• 90 day free replacement warranty covering ' 
everything except the fuse 

$39.95 

CARDBOARD 6 

An Expansion Interface for VIC-20® 

• Allows memory expansion up to 40K 

• Accepts up to six games 

• Includes a system reset button 

• All slots are switch selectable 

• Daisy chain several units for even more 
versatility 

$87.95 

TO ORDER: 
P. O. BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted ("""TP 

(Allow 3 weeks) or L^=i= 

C.O.D. (Add $2) 

Handling charge $2.00 

VIC-20'" is a registered trademark of Commodore 



Circle No. 55 



SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR 



INTRODUCING: 

ZYTREX 

ZT14411 

CMOS BAUD RATE 

GENERATOR 

REPLACES MOTOROLA MC14411 



• PIN/FUNCTION COMPATIBLE 

• IMPROVED FREQ OUTPUT 
DRIVE (4 LSTTL LOADS) 

• FULLY STATIC OPERATION 

• TTL-COMPATIBLE INPUTS 

• WIDE OPERATING VOLTAGE 



FREE EVALUATION SAMPLES 
FOR VOLUME USERS 

$6.20 EACH AT 1000 PCS. 



ZYTREX CORPORATION 

224 NORTH WOLFE ROAD 

SUNNYVALE, CA 94086 

(408) 733-3973 



Circle No. 11 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



105 



AMOK) 

Interface Clinic 



by Ralph Tenny 



In my first article (MICRO 58:108] I 
presented various hardware and inter- 
facing terms, one of which was 
"decoder." Functionally, a decoder can 
be made with a variety of techniques, 
but the usual approach is to use one or 
more ICs. The purpose of a decoder is 
to produce a unique signal that relates 
to (usually) a memory address appear- 
ing on the bus of a microcomputer. 

Figure 1 shows a graphic representa- 
tion of several 16-bit binary addresses 
like those produced by every instruc- 
tion cycle of the typical 8-bit micro- 
computer (such as the 6502 or 6809). 



blocks of 4096 addresses as you have 
EPROMs. If you do not divide the 
memory this way, more than one 
EPROM will "anwer" each time you 
try to read memory. Of course, if each 
EPROM has exactly the same contents, 
each one will return the same data and 
there is no problem. Since that is 
unlikely, you might find that one 
EPROM is trying to output 10011100 
and another 00011111. The output cir- 
cuit in each EPROM is fighting with 
the others, and the processor is trying 
to read digital trash! This situation is 
known as bus contention, and you can 
have contention at different times dur- 
ing the microprocessor operating 
cycles. A requisite of computer inter- 
facing is to eliminate any possibility of 





015 


A14 


A13 


A12 


All 


AlO 


A9 


AS 


A7 


M, 


AS 


A4 


A3 


A2 


Al 


AO 


OFFF 





O 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


lOOO 


O 


O 


O 


1 





O 








O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


O 





1FFF 


O 





O 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2000 








1 


O 














O 














O 








3FFF 





r> 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4OO0 





1 


O 


O 





O 








O 


O 




















AOOO 


1 


O 


1 








O 








O 


O 


O 


















Figure 1. A bit map of memory address lines showing which bits are on (logic one) when the 
microprocessor is running. Note that when an address field fills up (for example, address $FFF), a 
higher-order address bit must be available to designate a larger address. In this case, the next 
address after $FFF is $1000, which turns on address line A12 for the first time. 



The 16 address lines are arranged along 
the top in descending order of mathe- 
matical significance. That is, A15 
represents 2**15, A14 represents 
2**14, etc. Beneath these address lines 
are the binary representations of each 
of six hexadecimal addresses. That is, if 
the processor is pointing to address 
$0FFF, the various address lines are at a 
logic 1 or logic level, as shown in the 
figure. Similarly, the binary representa- 
tions of the other addresses are shown. 
Note that if All were the highest-order 
address line available, the processr 
could reach only from $000 to $FFF, or 
a total of $1000 (4096 decimal) unique 
locations. To completely address 
4K-byte memory devices, such as 2732 
or 2532 EPROMs, those memory 
devices must have 12 address lines. 

If you want to read data from more 
than one 4K-byte EPROM, you must 
have additional address lines to divide 
the memory area into as many different 



bus contention so you can predict what 
will happen at any time during com- 
puter operation. 

To eliminate bus contention you 
need to enable only one block of 
memory at a time, and a decoder is 
designed to do just that. Figure 2 shows 
the pinout for one popular decoder — 
the 74LS138. For those of you un- 
familiar with part numbers, the series 
of IC part numbers beginning with 74 is 
a logic family called TTL (Transistor- 
Transistor Logic). This logic is about 
ten times faster than most micro- 
processors. TTL parts with LS in the 
number are lower power parts and are 
typically used as support devices for 
microprocessor systems. 

The 74LS138 is a moderately com- 
plex IC and its operation is defined by 
the truth table shown in figure 3. A 
truth table defines what outputs result 
from certain input conditions, and this 
information allows logic designers to 



understand how to use the device. Re- 
fer back to figure 2, noting certain in- 
put and output pin signatures (names), 
which also appear in the chart of figure 
3. Gl, G2, A, B, and C are all inputs, 
and all "Y" -named lines are outputs. 
Note also that the IC has two inputs 
prefixed with G2 — G2A and G2B. 
Both these lines are active low (denoted 
by the circle at the input in figure 2], 
which means that the lines have to be 
low for the device to operate. So, in 
figure 3, if either G2A or G2B are high 
(logic one), the input is disabled. Input 
Gl is active high (no circle), and so the 
decoder is disabled when Gl is low. 
One other common convention is used 
in figure 3: an "x" means "don't care." 
Now examine figure 3 and interpret 
how a 74LS138 decoder works. In the 
first line G2 is shown high (that means 
either G2 line), then the device is 
disabled, and so all four other inputs 
are "don't care" since they cannot af- 
fect a disabled device. When the de- 
coder is disabled, all outputs are high, 
or inactive. Similarly, in line 2 Gl is 
shown low, and so all other inputs are 
don't care and all outputs are high. In 
the remaining lines, Gl is high and 
both G2 lines are low, and so the 
decoder is enabled. In the enabled state, 
each of eight possible combinations of 
high and low on inputs A, B, and C 
results in a different single output line 
being low. In other words, changing in- 
put levels on inputs A, B, and C create 
eight unique signals that can be used to 
select different memory blocks and pre- 
vent memory bus contention. You 
might note one other item with regard 
to decoders: almost universally, 
memory devices are selected with ac- 

Flgure 2. The pin-out for one popular decoder, 
the 74LS138. See text for explanation of how the 
decoder operates. 



A13 


1 A 




16 


— 1-5 volts 


A14 


2 B 


YO 


15 


-OOOO-IFFF 


A15 


3 C 


Yl 


14 


— 2000-3FFF 




4 S2A 


Y2 


13 


— 4000-5FFF 




5 S2B 


Y3 


12 


— 6000-7FFF 




6 SI 


Y4 


11 


— 8000-9FFF 


EOOO-FFFF 


7 Y7 


Y5 


10 


— AOOO-BFFF 




8 end. 


Y6 


9 


-C0O0-DFFF 



106 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



tive low signals, and so almost all 
decoders have active low outputs. 

Since a decoder responds to 
memory bus signals and then controls 
access to memory devices, such opera- 
tion can be referred to as being 



Figure 3. A truth table 
explains how a complex 
logic IC works; this truth 
table is for the 74LS138 
decoder. 



"memory mapped;" i.e., part of the 
memory space. In my first article I 
referred to a class of I/O (input/output) 
devices known as a PIA (Programmable 
Interface Adapter). PIAs reside directly 
on the processor bus and are selected 
and controlled by memory bus signals: 
they are called "memory mapped I/O" 
devices. A typical PIA is the MC6821 
by Motorola. The Color Computer has 
two PIAs; one reads the keyboard, and 
one handles all other CoCo hardware — 
joysticks, cassette recorder interface, 
serial port, and the D/A [digital/ 
analog) converter that synthesizes the 
sound tones. Since some of the inter- 
facing experiments will be driven by 
these PIAs, you should examine the 
PIA and learn how to program it. 

Figure 4 shows the pinout of the 
6821 PIA. Note that there are 16 port 
lines (PA0-PA7; PB0-PB7), 8 data lines 
(D0-D7), plus RSO, RSI, CSO, CS1, 



CS2, and R/W*. The RESET* line in- 
itializes the PIA during system startup 
(other lines will be discussed later). 
Each of the 1 6 port lines can be set up 
under program control as either input 
or output lines by setting a bit in a 



Gl 


G2 


C 


B 


A 


YO 


Yl 


Y2 


Y3 


Y4 


Y5 


Y6 


Y7 


„ 


H 


X 


X 


y. 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


X 


:< 


M 


X 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


L 


L 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


L 


H 


L 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


L 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


L 



special register on the PIA. The three 
CS lines are chip select controls, which 
are usually driven by address decoders. 
The two RS (register select) lines are 
almost always driven by processor ad- 
dress lines, usually AO and Al. 

A 6821 PIA has six registers to con- 
trol the entire operation of the device. 
Normally six registers would require 
three address lines so that each register 
could have a unique memory address. 
However, a simple trick allows six 
registers to be addressed with only two 
address lines (RSO and RSI). The inter- 
nal registers are allocated this way: 
each of the two 8-bit ports has three 
registers to control it. The Peripheral 
Register stores output data that drive 
the eight package pins associated with 
the port when the port is acting as an 
output port; or, if the port is an input 
port, the Peripheral Register stores in- 
IContinued on next page) 



V5S 


1 


PAO 


2 


PA1 


3 


PA2 


4 


PA3 


5 


PA4 


6 


PAS 


7 


PA6 


B 


PA7 


9 


PBO 


10 


PB1 


11 


PB2 


12 


PB3 


13 


PB4 


14 


PBS 


15 


PE6 


16 


PB7 


17 


CB1 


18 


CB2 


19 


Vcc 


20 



40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 



31 
30 
29 
2S 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 



CA1 

CA2 

IRQA* 

IRQB* 

RSO 

RSI 

RESET* 

DO 

Dl 

D2 

D3 

D4 

D5 

D6 

D7 

e 
csi 

CS2* 

CSO 

R/W* 



Figure 4. Pinout and register addressing scheme for 
the Motorola MC6821 Programmable Interface 
Adapter. Note that each output port shares an 
address with Its Data Direction Register, and that 
Control Register Bit 2 controls which register Is 
addressed. See text for further explanation. 



RSI RSO 


CRA2 


Location Selected 




1 


1 


X 


Output Port A 

Data Direction Register A 

Control Register A 






RSI RSO 


CRB2 


Location Selected 


1 
1 
1 1 


1 



•A 


Output Port B 

Data Direction Register B 

Control Register B 



ssssssssssssssssssssssssss 

"■■"COiUPU SEAlSEi:/ 

"CARD/?" 
(CARD/PRINT) 

UNIVERSAL CENTRONICS 
PARALLEL PRINTER 
INTERFACE FOR THE VIC-20® 
N ow y ou can use yourVIC-20® with 
| an EPSON MX-80 printer, or an OKI- 
DATA printer, or a TANDY printer, or 
just about anybody's printer. And you 
i don't have to give up the use of your 
i user port (MODEM), or change to 
| special printer commands, or load any 
i special software driver programs to do 
it. 

• Outputs standard ASCII codes to ] 
the printer. 

• Plugs in the VIC-20® printer serial 
i/o port. 

• Understands all standard VIC-20® 
print commands. 

• No modification to your VIC-20®. 

• No special programs required. 

• Includes all necessary cables to 
hook up a standard printer using 
Centronics parallel input. 

• MADE IN THE U.S.A. 

The "CARD/''" is a product ol CARDCO Inc 

$79.95 

TO ORDER 
P O BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 

Personal checks accepted 
(Allow 3 weeks) or 
CO D (Add $2 00) 
Handling charges $2 00 
VIC-20" is a registered trademark of Commodore 



Circle No. 60 



INVESTMENT 
OPPORTUNITY 



Exclusive franchise in America's 
most profitable and dynamic 
industry is being offered for the first 
time in this area. International 
company will place qualified 
individual in "Turn Key" business, 
train key people, provide inventory, 
finance your customers and pay 
you thousands of dollars "up front" 
on orders where your customers 
pay only on future energy savings. 
Existing customers of our 
franchises reads like "Who's Who" 
of Fortune 500. 

If you qualify, you will be flown 
to Los Angeles for a tour of 
installations and personal interview. 
Minimum investment of $29,500 
cash required. Call president at 
1-800-323-6556, ext. R-37. 



THIS IS NOT AN OFFERING TO SELL 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



107 



from 

All prices 
Postpaid 

(Continental 
U.S. — 
otherwise 
$2 credit) 



RIM + POWER 
COMPUTECH 






Check the 

outstanding 

documentation 

supplied with 
AIM65 



Top quality power supply designed to Rockwell's specs for fully 
populated AIM 65 — includes overvoltage protection, transient 
suppression, metal case and power cable: 
PSSBC-A (5V 2A Reg; 24V .5A Avg, 2.5A Peak, Unreg) ...$64.95 
Same but an extra AMP at 5 volts to drive your extra boards: 
PSSBC-3 (5V 3A Reg; 24V .5A Avg, 2.5A Peak, unreg) ...$74.95 

The professional's choice in microcomputers: 

AIM65/1K RAM $429.95 BASIC (2 ROMS) $59.95 

AIM65/4KRAM $464.95 ASSEMBLER (1 ROM) . .$32.95 

FORTH (2 ROMS) $59.95. 

SAVE EVEN MORE ON COMBINATIONS 
AIM65/1 K + PSSBC-A . $479.95 AIM65/4K + PSSBC-3 . $524.95 

We gladly quote on all AIM65/40 and RM65 items as well. 
■■■pi ORDERS: (714) 369-1084 r_ 

■fi" P.O. Box 20054 • Riverside, CA 92516 9 

Circle No. 65 California residents add 6% sales tax 




C COMPILERS-COMMON FEATURES: 

• UNIX VER 7 compatibility • standard float, double, and lonj support • run time library with full I/O 
and source • fast compilation and execution • full languase. 

AZTEC C II CP/M (MP/M) $199 

■ produces relocatable 8080 source code • assembler and linker supplied • optional M80 interface • 

SID/ZSID debugger interface • library utility • APPLE requires Z80 and 16K card 

AZTEC C ] [ APPLE DOS $199 

• relocating assemoler supplied • APPLE SHELL • VED editor • library and other utilities 
• requires 16K card 

C86 IBM PC MSDOS CP/M-86 $249 
" directly produces 8088/8086 object code " linker supplied 

Manuals- S30 ORDER BY PHONE OR BY MAIL-Specify products and disk format 



MANX 

software systems 
Box 55, Shrewsbury, N.J. 07701 (201) 780-4004 



CP/M FORMATS: 8" STD HEATH, APPLE, OSBORNE, NORTHSTAR, OUTSIDE USA-Add S10 In N.J. add 5% sales tax 
Circle No. 57 
108 MICRO 



Interface Clinic (continued) 

put data to be read back into the pro- 
cessor. The Data Direction Register has 
one bit for each port bit. If any DDR bit 
contains a logic one, the corresponding 
port pin will be an output. Otherwise, 
with a logic zero in the DDR, the cor- 
responding pin will be an input. 

The addressing scheme that selects 
six registers with only two address bits 
works this way: the Control Register 
sets aside bit CR2 (corresponding to the 
processor D2 bit] as a flag. Under nor- 
mal operation this flag is set to logic 
one, and reading or writing the other 
memory address transfers data to and 
from the I/O port. If the flag bit is a 
logic zero, then the other address 
reaches the Data Direction Register. 

Under normal system startup, the 
RESET* line is connected to the com- 
puter's master reset line, and a reset 
enters a logic zero into each of the six 
PIA registers. Since the DDR has all 
zeros, all 16 port lines automatically 
are set up as inputs. The eight PA lines 
have internal pull-up resistors, and so 
these lines go to a logic one. The eight 
PB port lines switch to a high im- 
pedance state; they can drift to any 
level unless they have an external pull- 
up or pull-down resistor on them. If no 
external signal is pulling on the Port A 
lines, a READ of Port A gives $FF. 
Without external resistors, a READ of 
the B Port is indeterminate. If the DDR 
is written with all ones ($FF|, all the 
port lines immediately pull to logic 
zero, since the RESET left all zeros in 
the Peripheral Registers. 

To make a controlled startup on the 
ports of a PIA, the following procedure 
should be followed to avoid surprises. 
First, $04 (set bit 2 high] should be 
written to the Control Register to ad- 
dress the Peripheral Register, then the 
required initial output data should be 
written to the Peripheral Registers. 
Since the RESET left these lines set to 
input, nothing happens outside the 
device. Next, write $00 to the Control 
Register to address the DDR and set 
logic one for each output pin required. 
Immediately, the output pins go to the 
initial values. Finally, write $04 to the 
Control Register to restore normal con- 
figuration. I will deal with PIA pro- 
gramming in more detail later. 

JMCftO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



kte VG B B BA f BUSY * 

HAVSA/'T tf £AXA & ?6MUS /A/ A U/4/IS? 
WA/bSX W4AT 



Jfi/Mf BBS// 
_ P0W6 ? 



We have been upgrading our board level products— 
If you are expanding your existing AIM, SYM or KIM computer, 
or building a system from the ground up, 
check out these updated boards — 
DRAM PLUS now 16/32/64/80/128 K bytes 
plus up to 8K static RAM or 
EPROM Programmer, VIA's... 
VIDEO PLUS/MICRO Plus has been refined... 
FLEXI PLUS has gone to 64K dynamic RAM, 
DMA for the Floppy and IEEE 488, 2 MHz... 




We have developed a complete Typesetting 
System which expands the capabilities of an 
EditWriter to accept data from the phone 
lines, produce plain paper proofing copy, use 
improved word processing techniques, 
plus run a variety of printing/publishing 
oriented packages. 

We have given "SERVICE CALL" a new meaning. 
Using our Master/Slave programs, 
a system can be examined, tested and 
often fixed via the telephone!!! Blown 
data disks, strange malfunctions, and 
other 'quirks' can be cured immediately — 
over the telephone. Software updates can 
also be sent directly to your system 




"IRWm^WWHl"W!'S l !v 



We have been expanding the 
capabilities of the FOCUS™ System— 
and have added a lot of software: 
TypePlus — a complete word processing 

system 
SpellingPlus — interactive spelling checker 
Dynacalc™ — the latest in VisaCalc™ type 

Spread Sheets 
Accounts Receivable/Accounts Payable and 

other business packages 
Mailing List with Form Letters and more... 



r 



YES — we have been very busy. In addition to 
our development work in both hardware and 
software, we have been providing board level 
products to a variety of OEMs and end users.* 
We don't have time right now to tell you about 
all of the things we can provide, but, write or 
give us a call and we'll make time!!! 

Call us at 617/256-3649 or call our FOCUS 
System at 617/250-1460 (300 BAUD) 



'Significant OEM Discounts Start At Only Five (5) Units. 
FOCUS, DRAM PLUS, VIDEO PLUS, MICRO Plus, FLEXI 
PLUS, and TypePlus Trademark TCI 
Dynacalc TM Computer Systems Center 
VisaCalc TM VisaCorp 



Sew Me Moze Ihr>rmavoh 



Name_ 



Company . 

Address 

City 



.State. 



-Zip 



i pw mezBsr is:. 



THE COMPUTERIST 

34 Chelmsford St., Chelmsford, MA 01824 
617-256-3649 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



109 



Reviews in Brief 

Product Name: C64-Link 
Equip, req'd: Commodore 64 

Price: $185 (Canadian) 

Manufacturer: Richvale Telecommunications 
10610 Bayview Avenue #18 
Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 3N8 
Canada 
Description: C64-Link is a module containing circuitry 
that provides the C64 with IEEE-488 bus compatibility, 
BASIC 4 commands, a machine-language monitor, and 
communications routines. It plugs into the 64 's cartridge 
connector, and includes an edge-card connection (like the 
PET) for a PET-to-IEEE cable. Two programs are included 
on cassette. One moves the addresss of C64-Link' s ROM 
from $9000-$9FFF to $C000-$CFFF, freeing more RAM for 
BASIC. The other copies the C64's BASIC ROMs into 
RAM and replaces the standard serial I/O routines with 
IEEE ones. No extra RAM is used, but BASIC 4 and the 
monitor are not available in this configuration. 

Pluses: One package adds several desired C64 enhance- 
ments. Unit design is sturdy and clean. Software allows 
great flexibility. 

Minuses: Module hangs out from back of C64 without any 
support. An accident may result in damage to the C64 or 
C64-Link. A new design will include supporting rubber 
feet. 



Documentation: Manual includes summary of 
capabilities, description of provided software, detailed 
hook-up instructions for different equipment combina- 
tions, and documentation of BASIC 4 and monitor com- 
mands. 

Skill level required: Beginner 

Reviewer: Loren Wright 



Product Name: Star-DOS 

Equip, req'd: TRS-80C Color Computer with disk 

and 16K memory 
Price: $49.90 

Manufacturer: Star-Kits 

P.O. Box 209 

Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 
Description: Stai-DOS is a high-quality disk operating 
system for the Color Computer that is compatible with 
Radio Shack Disk BASIC. It features six memory- resident 
commands and three disk-resident commands. While this 
is a relatively slim menu, the most commonly needed 
commands are available. Also, the structure of Stai-DOS is 
such that special commands can be added easily by the ex- 
perienced programmer. Unlike the Radio Shack DOS, Stai- 
DOS has 18 user-accessible functions that do most of the 
I/O needed to support assembly-language programs. For 
example, the programmer has available routines to read 



Perry PerIp^eraIs Repajrs KIMs!! 

(SYMs ANd AIMs Too) 

• We will Diagnose, Repair, and Completely Test your Single Board Computer 

• We Socket all replaced Integrated Circuits 

• You receive a 30-day Parts and Labor Warranty 

• Your repaired S.B.C. returned via U.P.S. — C.O.D., Cash 

Don't delay! Send us your S.B.C. for repair today 
Ship To: (Preferably via U.P.S.) 

Perry PerjpIieraLs 

6 Brookhaven Drive 
Rocky Point, NY 11778 

KIM-1 RepLacement Modules 

» Exact replacement for MOS/Commodore KIM-1 S.B.C. 
• Original KIM-1 firmware — 1K and 4K RAM versions 

RepLacement KIM-1 KEyboARds 

• Identical to those on early KIMS — SST switch in top right corner 

• Easily installed in later model KIMs 

Perry Peripherals is an authorized HDE factory service center. 

Perry Peripherals carries a full line of the acclaimed HDE expansion components for you KIM, SYM, and AIM, 
including RAM boards, Disk Systems, and Software like HDE Disk BASIC V1.1. Yes, we also have diskettes. For 
more information write to: P.O Box 924, Miller Place, NY 11764, or Phone (516) 744-6462. circle n . 22 



110 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 



Reviews in Brief (continued) 



the keyboard, send characters to the screen, print strings 
to the screen, etc. The programmer need only develop the 
central core of his program, with a probable time saving of 
50% or more. Also, several routines support disk opera- 
tions, making it easy to build a custom system that does 
exactly what the owner requires. 

Pluses: Star-DOS is inexpensive for a disk program, and is 
comfortable to use. It is also the only DOS that will run on 
either the 16K or 32K Color Computer. R/S BASIC com- 
patibility means that a user need not buy a BASIC to have 
a higher-level language available, and he need not give up 
the refinements of R/S BASIC that support the special 
Color Computer hardware and its graphics. 

Minuses: Stai-DOS is new enough that it does not have a 
large stable of software that will run with it, but this is be- 
ing remedied. The chief lack is an assembler. An 
editor/text processor/ mailing list/mailing label package 
is available now. 

Skill level required: This product is ideal for the serious 
disk user who works mainly in assembly language (users 
who work only with BASIC have no need for any DOS). At 
the same time the diligent computer user will be able to 
learn disk system principles and techniques easily. 

Documentation: An extremely well-written 55-page 
manual is furnished. The instructions are thorough and 



understandable, and a liberal use of examples enhances the 
learning process. Instructions are included for modifying 
FLEX-based programs to run under Star-DOS when those 
programs can be made compatible with the stock Color 
Computer architecture. 

Reviewer: Ralph Tenny 



Product Name: VICMODEM - Model 1600 

Equip, req'd: VIC-20 (5K or more) 

Price: $109.95 

Manufacturer: Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

487 Devon Park Drive 

Wayne, PA 19087 
Description: The VICMODEM package lets the VIC owner 
join the telecommunications world. A small cartridge-like 
unit plugs into the VIC-20' s user port and enables the VIC 
to communicate with other computers over telephone 
lines. The VICMODEM connects directly to the telephone 
via the plug that attaches to the handset; no accoustic 
coupler is required. There is a carrier detect light. The 
modern has both answer and originate modes to com- 
municate with another VIC or to a time-sharing service 
like The Source or CompuServe. The package includes a 
tape with VICTERM, a comprehensive machine-language 
communications program. Using the menu-driven options 

(Continued on next page) 



EVER WONDER HOW YOUR APPLE II WORKS? 

QUICK TRACE will show you! And it can show you WHY when it doesn't! 

This relocatable program traces and displays the actual machine operations, while it is running and 
without Interfering with those operations. Look at these FEATURES: 



S/ng/a-Sfep mode displays the iast instruction, 

next instruction, registers, flags, stack contents, 
and six user-definable memory locations. 

Trace mode gives a running display of the Single- 
Step information and can be made to stop upon 
encountering any of nine user-definable 
conditions. 

Background mode permits tracing with no display 
until it is desired. Debugged routines run at near 
normal speed until one of the stopping cond- 
itions is met, which causes the program to return 
to Single-Step. 



QUICK TRACE allows changes (o the stack, 

registers, stopping conditions, addresses to be 
displayed, and output destinations for all this 
information. AH this can be done in Single-Step 
mode while running. 

Two optional diaplay formmta can show a sequence 
of operations at once. Usually, the information 
is given in tour lines at the bottom of the screen, 

QUICK TRACE is completely transparent to the 
program being traced. It will not interfere with 
the stack, program, or I/O. 



QUICKTRACE is relocatable to any free part of 

memory. Its output can be sent to any slot or to 
the screen. 

QUICKTRACE is completely compatible with 

programs using Applesoft and Integer BASICs, 
graphics, and DOS. (Time dependent DOS 
operations can be bypassed.) It will display the 
graphics on the screen while QUICKTRACE is 
alive. 

QUICKTRACE is a beautiful way to show the 

incredibly complex sequence of operations that 
a computer goes through in executing a program 



Price: $50 

QUICKTRACE was written by John Rogers. 
QUICKTRACE is a trademark of Anthro-Digital, Inc. 



QUICKTRACE requires 3548 ($E00) bytes (14 pages) of memory and some knowledge of machine language programming. 
It will run on any Apple II or Apple II Plus computer and can be loaded from disk or tape. Jt is supplied on disk with DOS 3.3. 



QUICKTRACE DEBUGGER 



Laat Instruction 



Stack 



Next Instruction 



Circle No. 20 



Last addrena 

FF69- 



Dlaeaaombly 

LDA #$AA 



A 9 A A 

Top mtn bftea of ttack Proceuor codet Veer defined location & Contend 

ST=7C Hi 32 D5 43 D4 CI NV-BDIZC 0000=4C 

Accumulator X mg. Y rag. Slack pointer Pwcenor tietue Content ol referenced eddreet 

A- : AA X==93 Y==25 SF-F2 PS-101 10001 [ J =DD 

MM*!** m*mno.*umM Anthro-Digital, Inc. 

FF6B _ S5 33 STA $33 1*0033) P.O.Box 1385 

Pittsfield, MA 01202 

413^48-8278 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



111 



Circle No. 76 



iTfa^ 




Quit Playing Games . . . 

Disk Based Software to Make Your 
Computer Get Down to Business 

Disk Data Manager — Create and manage your own data 

base. Allows you to create, add, change, delete, search, 

sort, print, etc. Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 

VIC 20. . . 59.95 CBM 64 . . . 89.95 

Payroll System— Full featured, complete payroll sys- 
tem. Even prints checks. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Mailing List— Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 
Presorts by Zip Code. Prints on stock up to four 
labels wide. 

VIC 20 . . . 44.95 CBM 64 . . . 54.95 

Inventory Package— Maintains quantity on hand, cost, 
sales price, reorder point, etc. Generates suggested 
reorder, sales report, and sales analysis. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . .99.95 

General Ledger— Up to 7 5 accounts! Generates Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Update Report, etc. 
VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Checkbook Manager— Up to 2 5 expense categories. 

Tracks all outstanding checks until they are paid. 

VIC 20. . . 49.95 CBM 64 . . .49.95 

CONTACT US FOR ALL YOUR 
DISK BASED SOFTWARE NEEDS 

Call for specifics on Hardware Configurations. 

Send Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope for 

Catalogue of Games and other Applications 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 



P.O. Box 863085 
Piano, Texas 75086 

(214) 867-1333 

VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted 



MasterCard) 



Reviews in Brief 



(continued) 



in VICTERM, it is easy to set baud rate (up to 300 baud), 
duplex, word length (seven or eight bits), stop bits, parity, 
line feed "signals", CBM "half" ASCII or true ASCII, and 
screen color combinations. VICTERM can avoid having 
words split from one line to the next. VICTERM also 
redefines the VIC's function keys to the most frequently 
used communications codes; e.g., Fl is Control-C, etc. A 
free subscription to CompuServe is included, with the first 
hour paid by Commodore. 

Pluses: The modem and the software are easy to use and 
reliable. An outstanding value. 

Minuses: The current VICTERM software will not support 
a disk or a printer, nor is there any way to use the package 
to transmit or receive a program. The manual refers to a 
new terminal software package called VICTERM-40 that is 
being developed and should solve these shortcomings as 
well as provide an optional 40-character terminal display 
line. 

Documentation: The 20-page booklet is well written and 
comprehensive. 

Skill level required: No special skills. 

Reviewer: David Malmberg 



JMCRO 



DISCOUNT COMPUTER 



APPLE 



|§cippkz° 



Eliminator 


$29.95 


21.00 


War 


24.95 


18.00 


Adventureland 


29.95 


21.00 


Pirates Adventure 


29.95 


21.00 


Golden Voyage 


29.95 


21.00 


Magic Window 


99.95 


72.00 


Temple of Apshai 


39.95 


29.00 


Upper Reaches of Apshai 


19.95 


15.00 


Curse of Ra 


19.95 


15.00 


Midway Campaign 


16.00 


12.00 


Hi-Res Computer Golf 


29.95 


21.00 


DOS Boss 


24.00 


18.00 


The Arcade Machine 


44.95 


33.00 


Star Blazer 


31.95 


23.00 


Chopflfter 


34.95 


25.00 


Serpentine 


34.95 


25.00 


Oeadly Secrets 


34.95 


25.00 


Raster Blaster 


29.95 


21.00 


Bug Attack 


29.95 


21.00 


The Home Accountant 


74.95 


54.00 


Snack Attack 


29.95 


21.00 


Pig Pen 


29.95 


21.00 


Wordrace 


24.95 


18.00 


Rendevous 


39.95 


29.00 


Russki Duck 


34.95 


25.00 


Horizon V 


34.95 


25.00 


Sargon II 


34.95 


25.00 



Softcard Premium System 775.00 600.00 
Wizard and the Princess 32.95 24.00 
Time Zone 



Zork I 39.95 29.00 Threshold (d) $39.95 29.00 

Zork II 39.95 29.00 Snake Byte (d) 29.95 21.00 

Deadline 49.95 36.00 Space Eggs (d) 29.95 21.00 

Mastertype 39.95 29.00 Bandits (d) 34.95 29.00 

Castle Wollenstein 29.95 21.00 Color Print (d) 39.95 29.00 

Supertextll 150.00 108.00 Canyon Climber (d) 29.95 21.00 

Shooting Arcade (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

Pacific Coast Highway (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

99.95 72.00 Clowns And Balloons (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

Cranston Manor 34.95 25.00 Wordrace (d) 24.95 18.00 

Threshold 39.95 29.00 Andromeda (d) 34.95 25.00 

Sottporn Adventure 29.95 21.00 Deadline (d) 49.95 36.00 

Crossfire 29.95 21.00 Zork ! (d) 39.95 29.00 

Frogger 34.95 25.00 Zork II (d) 39.95 29.00 

Laff Pak 34.95 25.00 Alien Swarm (d) 34.95 25.00 

Ultima II 59.95 44.00 Action Quest (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

Screenwriter II 129.95 94.00 Ghost Encounters (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

Graphics Magician 59..95 44.00 K-Razy Shootout (c) 49 95 36.00 

Pie Man 29.95 21.00 K-Razy Kritters (c) 49.95 36.00 

Fastgammon 24.95 18.00 Ultima I (d) 39.95 29.00 

Congo 34.95 25.00 All Baba and Forty Thieves (d) 32.95 24.00 

Goldrush 34.95 25.00 Deluxe Invaders (c) 39.95 29.00 

Gorgon 39.95 29.00 Gorf (c) 49.95 36.00 

Beer Run 29.95 21.00 Wizard of Wor (c) 49.95 36.00 

Snake Byte 29.95 21.00 Preppie (d) (t) 29.95 21.00 

Tigers in The Snow (d) (t) 39.95 29.00 

Ghostly Manor (d) 24.95 16.00 

Raster Blaster (d) 29.95 21.00 



Intec 32K Board $75.00 

APPLE Compatible Disk Drive $265.oo 

VERBATIM/DATALIFE Disks $26.00 



SPECIAL OFFERS 



T= Cassette 
D=Disl< 
C= Cartridge 



JK 

ATARI* 



Rear Guard (d) 


24.95 


18.00 


Rear Guard (t) 


19.95 


15.00 


Caverns of Mars (d) 


39.95 


29.00 


Atari Basic (c) 


59.95 


45.00 


Star Raiders (c| 


44.95 


33.00 


Centipede (c) 


44.95 


33.00 


Pac Man (c) 


44.95 


33.00 


Pilot (c) 


79.95 


60.00 


Temple ol Apshai (d) (t) 


39.95 


29.00 


Upper Reaches of Apshai (t) 


19.95 


15.00 


Curse of Ra (d) 


19.95 


15.00 


Midway Campaign (t) 


16.00 


12.00 


Apple Panic (d) 


29.95 


21.00 


Track Attack (d) 


2995 


21.00 


Choplifter (d) 


3495 


25.00 


Star Blazer (d) 


31.95 


24.00 


Wizard and the Princess (d) 


32.95 


24.00 


Jawbreaker (d) (t) 


29.95 


21.00 


Crossfire (d) (t) 


29.95 


21.00 


Frogger (d) (t) 


34 95 


25.00 


The Shattered Alliance (d) 


39.95 


29.00 


Battle of Shiloh (d) 


3995 


29 00 


Submarine Commander |c) 


4995 


39.00 



MANY MORE PROGRAMS AVAILABLE 



TERMS: Send check or money order 
for total purchase price, plus $2.00 
for shipping. Ml residents add 4% 
tax. C.O.D. accepted. 

® MFGS. TRAOEMARK 

Circle No. 77 



STROM « 



P.O. Box 197 
Plymouth, Mi. 48170 
(313)455-8022 



SYSTEMS INC. 



VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED L . 



WRITE OR CALL FOR FREE CATALOG 

PHONE ORDER HOURS 

4 PM - 9 PM MON.-FRI. 

INCLUDE CARD NUMBER 
AND EXPIRATION DATE WITH 

CREDIT CARD ORDERS. 
INCLUDE TYPE OF COMPUTER. 



112 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



— OSI LIVES! — 

and gets FULL SUPPORT at Community Computers 



Keywriter - New 
Word Processor 

Compatible with Single User, Multi- 
user and Network Systems! 

Keywriter incorporates standard com- 
mands with powerful features like: 

• Mail Merge, DMS Compatible 

• Menu Driven 

• Full Screen Editing 'User Friendly 

• On Screen Help and Prompts and 
Formatting 

• Linked Printout of up to Nine Files 

• Compatible with latest OS-65U 
Version 

• Requires 8" Floppy or Hard Disk 
System 

Keywriter offers a true full screen 
editor, with four way cursor control at all 
times. 

Keywriter documentation includes a 
60 page Self Teaching Manual. $300 



Compiler for 65U 

A true native code compiler. Supports 
all OS-65U features, except common 
varibles. 2-10x improvement in speed. 
Compatible with latest version of 
OS-65U. $395 

Editor-ROM 

Most powerful Editor-ROM available 
for OSI machines. Full four way cursor 
movement; windows; keystroke control 
of special features. Also has com- 
munications software for level I multi- 
station systems. 

For all C1P, C2, C4, C8P Basic-in- 
ROM systems, except 400 and 500 Rev 
A, B, C, CPU's. Requires some cuts and 
jumpers $30 

• Full Support for OSI 

• Custom Hardware & Software 

• Service Contracts Available 



y& Community 2 j,™l\ ™^° DT . 

UOmpUierS Arlington, Va 22201 



Circle No. 62 



Since 1977 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Cluster System 
Software 

Connect up to 16, or more, C1, C2, C4, 
or C8 systems to any OSI 8" floppy 
system. Fast, simple disk/printer share 
system. 

Ideal for schools. $500 

DMS-X 

DMS compatible database manage- 
ment system with full screen file editor; 
definable reports with specifications 
editing; powerful report formatter; fast 
machine code keyfile sort; flexible create 
and recreate utilities; more. 

System is fully driven menu. 

$300 + DMS license 

OSI / IBM 

Double Density 

Floppy Controller 

• Replaces 470 board 

• Fully compatible with OSI format 
and IBM single density format. 

• Double density, too. Up to 2.4 meg 
storage on standard floppy drives. 

• 5Vi" Drive capability, software 
selectable. 

• Phase-locked loop insures data 
integrity. 

• Special introductory price. $500 




WE TOOK 



BYTE 
OUT OF 



n '] r u m f 
■ 1 1 n \ i i 





ORDERING INFO 
We accept Visa, Mastercard. 
Money Orders or Certilied Check 
Personal checks require 2 weeks 
tor hank clearance. All items 
factory fresh & carry manufac 
turer s warranty. Prices subject to 
change without notice 




COMPUTERS 

ATARI 400 $197. 

ATARI 800 $598. 

ATARI 410 $74. 

ATARI 810 $439. 

COMMODORE 64 CALL 

COMMODORE VIC 20 $149. 

COMMODORE VIC 1530 $69. 

NEC PC 8001A $739. 

NEC PC 8012A $499. 

NEC PC 8031A $739. 

SANYO MCB 1000 $1599. 

TIMEX 1000 $84. 

XEROX 5V4" CALL 

XEROX 8" CALL 

XEROX 630 CALL 

DISKETTES 

BASF CALL 

MAXELL CALL 

TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO 910 $589. 

TELEVIDE0 950 $945. 



PRINTERS 

DIABLO 620 $1199. 

DIABLO 630 $1675. 

0K1DATA 82A $419. 

0KIDATA 83A $699. 

OKiDATA 84P $1029. 

EPSON CALL 

NEC 8023 $479. 

SOFTWARE 

MICROSOFT CALL 

MICROPRO CALL 

ALL MAJOR BRANDS CALL 

B0MPIWAY, INS. 

24 LUMBER ROAD 
ROSLYN, N.Y. 11576 

toll free 800 6451362 
516 621 1362 

Circle No. 63 



No. 59- April 1983 



MICRO 



113 



a 



ADVANCED 



m 



JS dril !: 



lira 

Ml tit 



% 



Zoom HiRes Graphic Printing 
for Apple Computers 

Print front or back view of either or both screens 
Print upright, upside down, rotated left or right 
Selectable printing densities for many printers 
Easily place zoom viewport using on-screen crosshairs 
Large range of scale factors, independently selected 
Load files to either screen in just 5 keystrokes 
Type upper/lower case English or Greek text on screen 
Attach screen dump to your own programs, complete 
details 

Real Apple II DOS 3.3 format — Unprotected backup 
with COPYA 

Supports over 70 dot matrix and letter quality printers 
Supports serial, parallel, graphic, and buffer I/O cards 
Also works with the Basis and Franklin Computers 
Only $34.95 postpaid or see your dealer 
Versions without text annotation available for 
Apple II Pascal $34.95 

Apple III SOS 1.1 $44.95 

2281 Cobble Stone Court 



3i 



Circle No. 37 



_. Dayton, Ohio 45431 - 

R 513/426-3579 A 

GmartuiaPtj 



Dealer Inquiries 
Invited! 



ID 




Basic Aid 

"An excellent program 
and fine utility." 
Rainbow Review -Aug. 82 

Single control key input of 
BASIC commands. $34.95 



Spectrum Stick 

"More like arcade joysticks 
than anything we've yet 
encountered." 
Rainbow Review- Oct.82 

Response and control put the joy 
back in color computing. $39.95 



CALL NOW 
212-441-2807 

FOR FAST DELIVERY 
All orders plus $2 shipping 

Circle No. 64 



Colorcom/E 

"Out of thousands of programs, 
this program... SUPER!" 
SOUS Review-Nov.82 

A smart communications package. 
Disk or Rompack $49.95 

CoCo/EAD 

Color Computer Editor, 
Assembler and Debugger $6.95 

Spectrum Paddle 

For quicker side-to-side action 
and higher scores. $19.95 



SEND TO 
DEPT. C2 93-15 86TH DRIVE 
W00DHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 
NY residents add sales tax 



Obits 



Deadline for MICRObits: 20th of second month before publica- 
tion; ive., April 20th for June issue. Send typewritten copy 
(40-word limit) with $25.00 per insertion, 
at $10.00.1 



(Subscribers: first ad 



Enhanced OS65D 3.3 C1P-MF 

Many new functions such as system commands for catalog 
control, 10 active files, end of file/end of volume processing, 
background printing, file append, dynamic file buffers/sectors 
command file processing, long string read command. Many 
more!: $30. Write for details. 

Ray Lydon 

20 Eastwood Dr. 

Grafton, OH 44044 



Lessons in Algebra 

An easy and fun way to learn the basic elements of high 
school algebra. Apple computer diskette $29.95. 30-day 
money^back guarantee if not satisfied. 

George Earl 

1302 So. General McMnllen Dr. 

San Antonio, TX 78237 



The State of the Art in Astro-Software 

Wide range of astrological and astronomical software of the 
highest quality. From powerful (and income-producing) 
astrological charting service packages and printing 
interpretation packages, to super-accurate computer 
ephemerises. For all Commodore computers, Apple II Plus, 
andTRS-80. 

Matrix Software 

315 Marion Avenue 

Big Rapids, MI 49307 



Apple li Interfacing 

FLY BOARD is a programmable interface that includes a 6522 
VIA, 2K bytes of RAM, two 36-inch DIP jumpers, and 
documentation that makes interfacing easy and fun. Only 
$129.95 from: 

SNAVE SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 957 

Niles, IL 60648 

(312) 966-4505 



Go 

Plays at 9 kyu level, scores automatically, can vary board 
size, etc. $29.00. 

John F. Moore 

1145 Alameda #1 

Belmont C A 94002 



JVKRO 



114 



MICRO 



No. 59- April 1983 



VIC-20 USERS: Get Serious With A PHDIYIQJEEN 



• A cartridge development system • Comprehensive manuals 

• Program from Commodore VIC-20 keyboard into built-in 4K 
ROM emulator • Jumper to target ROM socket 

• Test programs in circuit • Fits EXPANSION PORT 

• Includes Hexkit 1.0, a powerful 100% machine code editor/de- 
bugger utility program that makes coding for 8-bit Micros a snap. 

• Built-in EPROM programmer and power supply 

• Burns & runs EPROMS for the Commodore VIC-20, too 
Programs 2716, 2732, 2732A, 27C16, 27C32, adaptable to 2532 & 2764 

PRQMQLJEE'N cartridge complete only $199 




US Canada 

Promqueen 64 $299.00 $399.00 

8K board with 1 EPROM $29.95 $39.95 

16 board with 1 EPROM $39.95 $49.95 

8K board with 1 EPROM, C64 $39.95 $49.95 

Send for Free Brochure 



GLOUCESTER 
CarciPLITER.mc. 



Distributed in U.S. by Arbutus Total Soft, Inc., 4202 Meridian, Suite 214, 
Bellingham, WA 98226. Phone 800-426-1253, in Washington 206-733-0404 

Distributed in Canada by IBC/Distrlbutlon Canada,4047 Cambie St., 
Vancouver, BC V5Z 2x9. Phone 604-879-7812 



Circle No. 55 



UPGRADE YOUR AIM-65* INSTANTLY 



*A trademark of Rockwell Inc 



To A 6809 Development System 

With The 

"MACH-9" 

From 

M M S Inc. 




INTRODUCTORY PRICE 

$239. 

Plus $6 U.P.S. 
And Handling 

Includes: 

*6809 CPU Plug-in Assembly 
*Super-set of AIM Monitor 
*Two-Pass Symbolic Assembler 
'Complete Monitor Source Listings 
'Enhanced Cut & Paste Editor 
'200 Page Manual 
'Full I/O Control 



MACH-9" is assembled and tested with 
local BUS, 5 locking low force ROM sockets 
and 2K Static RAM 



MMS Inc. 

1110 E. Pennsylvania St, 

Tucson. AZ 85714 

(602) 746-0418 




Circle No. 27 



No. 59 - April 1983 



MICRO 



115 



/AlCftO 

Hardware Catalog 



4 



Apple Drive Signal Monitor 



A unique programming 
aid for Apple computers 
monitors drive line status 
and computer power. The 




BSiML 
Mmmk 




Drive Signal monitor from 
Teaco, Inc. 

ADASI units provide LED 
status indication of all lines 



connecting the floppy drive 
to the computer. On sys- 
tem bootup, the display 
shows the activity with a 
display of flashing lights. 
First, it indicates the power 
supply voltages to assure 
safe operation. Then the 
multi-colored display 
shows the status of all 
lines, for system analysis. 
ADASI daisy chains be- 
tween the computer and 
drive or can be used with 
the computer alone. 

Three are available: The 
ADASI I ($59.50), designed 
for internal drive connec- 
tion, and the ADASI II 
($139.50) and ADASI III 
(149.50), for their respec- 
tive drives with external 
connection. 

Contact computer 
stores or Teaco, Inc., P.O. 
Box E, 2117 Ohio Street, 
Michigan City, IN 46360; 
(219)874-6234 



Apple Software Protected 



A programmable Data 
Lok for protection of Apple- 
compatible software allows 
software to be copied for 
normal backup. However, 
the software will run only 
on machines with Data Lok 
plugged into the game port V 
socket. ^T 

Each series of keys sup- 
plied to various software 
companies is unique to that 
company. They in turn in- 
sert unique code into their 
software. Quantity pricing 
is as low as $12. The device 
is available only to 




authorized software com- 
panies on a controlled 
basis. 

Available from Teaco, 
Inc., P.O. Box E, Michigan 
City, IN 46360; 

(219)874-6234 




2200 Series Numonics Pad 



A 



A new electromagnetic 
digit iaing tablet features 
user specification of output 
data in absolute measure- 
ment or the number of 
user-defined minimum in- 
crements down to 0.001" 
(0.025 mm]. Metric or 
English measurements are 
also switch-selectable. 
Multiple interfaces add to 
its flexibility — dual 
RS232C, bit parallel or 
IEEE-488 — and can be out- 
put in either the standard 
serial or packed binary for- 
mat. It operates in point, 
stream, incremantal. or 
switch stream modes and 
measures up to 200 points 
per second. Other standard 
features include firmware 
for self-diagnostics, metric 
menuing. host override of 
switch-settable functions, 
and an inboard audible 
tone. Optional features 
include 1, 4, or 16 button 



cursors, axis rotation and 
scaling. 

An 12"xl2" ($675.00) 
and a 20"x20" ($1275.00) 
version are available. 
Quantity prices on request. 

For more information 
write Numonics, 418 
Pierce Street, Lansdale, PA 
19446 (215)923-0183 



Silence Noisy Printers 

Soundtrap quiets print- 
ing noise to a level where a 
business or phone conver- 
sation can be conducted 
standing next to a func- 
tioning printer, according 
to Trace Systems, Inc. with 
the unit in the upright posi- 
tion, held by the optional 
stand, the accessory 
becomes a data holder or 
copy stand. Soundtrap also 



116 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



provides storage for paper 
and simplifies paper feeding 
and fan folding. 

This accessory ac- 
comodates most popular 
printers, including Epson, 
NEC, Okidata, IBM, and 
Apple. 

For pricing and other 
information, contact Trace 
Systems, Inc., 1928 Old 
Middlefield Way, Moun- 
tain View, CA 04043; toll 
free (800) 24-TRACE, or in 
CA, call Jim Paige collect at 
(4151 964-3115 




Soundtrap from Trace 
Systems, Inc. 



Commodore 
Communications 

Compack for the Com- 
modore 4032, 8032, 64 is 
an intelligent terminal 
communications package 
that turns the Commodore 
into a communications 
control center. It records 
data to disk, reads data 
from disk, and sends data to 
the printer. User programs 
control the unit to provide 
remote telemetry, bulletin 
boards, etc. Price is 
$129.95. 

For more information 
contact CGRS Microtech, 
P.O. Box 102, Langhorne, 
PA 19047. 



Portable 68000 Trainei 

Micro 68000 is a por- 
table 68000 Training/Pro- 
totyping System designed 
for engineers and techni- 
cians. It comes with six 
amp switchig power sup- 
ply, Versabus 68000 com- 
puter board, hexadecimal 
keyboard, and LED display 
packaged in a hardwood 
and dark, plastic case. An 
optional, padded carrying 
case is also available. 

The 16K byte memory 
can be any combination of 
RAM or ROM and includes 
both Pete-bug keyboard 
monitor and Tutor-bug pro- 
viding the user with debug, 
assembly, disassembly, 
program entry, and I/O 
control functions. The ex- 
panded display board shows 
entries in both hexadecimal 
and binary. The computer 
board contains two RS-232 
ports and 32 bits of parallel 
I/O. Micro 68000 comes 
with Lance Leventhals's 
' ' 68000 Assembly Language 
Programming/' Motorola's 
"68000 Users Manual," 
and CSA's "Micro 68000 




Micro 68000 from Computer Systems Associates 



User's Manual." Price is 
$1498.00 

For more information 
contact Computer Systems 
Associates, 7562 Trade St., 
San Diego, CA 92121; 
(619)566-3911 



64K Buffer 
for Epson Printers 

A new printer buffer 
card, Wizard-EBI Epson 
Buffered Interface mounts 



Wizard-EBI Epson Buffered Interface from Wesper 
Microsystems 




inside all Epson MX Series 
Printers. It allows the com- 
puter to dump its print data 
into the buffer quickly free- 
ing up the computer. The 
printer continues to print at 
its own rate of speed while 
the computer goes on to the 
next task. 

The Wizard-EBI does 
not change the printer 
characteristics, so no 
special software or cabling 
is required. Delivered ready 
to install by a simple pro- 
cedure, the buffer is 
available with 8K 
($139.00), 16K ($158,001, 
32K ($200.00), or 64K 
($280.00) characters, 
depending on the number 
of RAM chips plugged into 
sockets provided on the 
card. The Wizard-EBI has a 
Centronics-compatible 
parallel interface identical 
to that of the Epson printer. 

For more information 
contact Wesper Micro- 
systems, 3188 Pullman 
Street, Costa Mesa, CA 
92626; (800) 850-8737, or 
in CA [714] 850-1666. 

JUCRO 



l ! 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



117 



/AICRO 

Software Catalog 



Dark Crystal 
for the Apple 

The Dark Crystal Ad- 
venture Game offers sig- 
nificant advancements in 
graphics, language, and pro- 
gramming, according to its 
producers. The player be- 
comes Jen, the hero of the 
movie ''The Dark 
Crystal," and controls ac- 
tions by typing commands 
on the computer keyboard. 

The plot of the game 
concerns a quest for a miss- 
ing shard (as it did in the 
motion picture), which 
must be replaced by Jen in 
the broken crystal in order 
to save the world. 

Price is $39.95. Avail- 
able from Sierra On-Line 
Inc., Sierra On-Line 
Building, Coarsegold, CA 
93614; (209) 683-6858. 



Elementary Fun 

Rhymes and Riddles for 

the Atari, IBM/PC, and 
Apple II Plus, contains 
three-letter guessing 
games, nursery rhymes, 
riddles, and famous say- 
ings. In each game you 
press letters to fill in the 
blanks and complete the 
lines. Once you have cor- 
rectly completed the lines 
you are rewarded with col- 
orful graphics and sound. 

Price is $29.95. Avail- 
able from Spinnaker Soft- 
ware Inc., 215 First St., 
Cambridge, MA 02142 



Help With Math 

Elements of Mathe- 
matics for the Apple II Plus 
assists in the instruction of 
the elements of mathe- 
matical functions. Content 



includes: adding fractions 
(common denominators); 
reducing fractions; adding 
fractions (unlike denomi- 
nators). Student record- 
keeping is provided. 

Price is $90.00. Avail- 
able from Electronic 
Courseware Systems, Inc., 
P.O. Box 3274, Station A, 
Champaign, IL 61820; 
(217) 359-7099. 



Stock Market 
on the Apple 

This Stock Market Util- 
ity Package, DOW 2000/ 
OPTION43/BE. POINT7, 

will determine price projec- 
tions based on a stock's 
BETA coefficient or Rela- 
tive Strength # and the 
Dow Jones Average. Projec- 
tions are made as you vary 




the DOW, on one stock or 
entire portfolio with single 
scan, quick scan, or vari- 
able scan of values. The op- 
tion program will give you 
the percent of cost increase 
over the option months to 
determine which month 
and strike price option to 
buy for a given stock. 
BE.POINT7 will determine 
your break-even point for 
options or securities. 

Price is $23.95 (booklet 
$4.95 extra). Available 
from Bit'n Pieces Series, 
P.O. Box 7035, Erie, PA 
16510-0035. 



Improve Your Typing 

Typing Package for the 

VIC-20 consists of three dif- 
ferent programs on a single 
tape and assists typing 
students. One program, 
WARMUP, takes the stu- 
dent through a series of 
finger exercises of increas- 
ing difficulty. The other 
programs give the student 
drill on longer blocks of 
text. A score is indicated for 
all programs. The package 
is a supplement to a school 
course or self-teaching text. 
Price is $12.75. Avail- 
able from MFJ Electro- 
Enterprises, P.O. Box 
13076, Kanata, Ont. K2K 
1X3 Canada; (613) 
592-2962. 



"The Dark Crystal" adventure game recreates scenes from 
the motion picture. 



VIC Adventure 

In Zorlok an adventure 
game for the VIC-20, you 
are the great, great grand- 
son of Zorlok the wizard, 
and you have inherited a 
quest! You must enter his 
castle, wipe out a plague of 
monsters, and regain his 



118 



MICRO 



No. 59 - April 1983 



^WflHE flESaCJflTES, LTD. 

in 1 


u- 

LU 
03 


u-ccird 


Questionnaire Analysis Software 




• Microcomputer based 

Avoid the expense of contract services -- do everything in-house on 
yaur own Apple 11* microcomputer. 




• Easy dato entry 

Avoid time consuming keypunching. Uses respondent-marked cards 
entered with an Optical Mark Reader (keyboard entry also passible). 




• Comprehensive data onalysis 

Sort on any varioble(s), tally all responses, conduct cross tabs, 
correlations, linear regression, frequency distributions, ond more. 




• Complete editing capabilities 

Weight items, derive composites, add or delete items, and more. 


• Easy-to-use 

Programs are user friendly, menu driven, and interactive. No special 
computer expertise is required. 


Coll ar send far more information today. 


SCIENTIFIC SQFTWflftE ASSOCIATES, LTD. 


BGXflDB • KlflJSflU, Kll. 5U£)1 


TEJ-EPHD^E: (715) BW-JQE.6 


Apple 11+ is a registered trodemarlt af Apple Computer, Inc. 


Circle No. 49 



Boxey Says: The place to find the 
Cable you need is in my Catalog!" 




No matter what type of data cable you need, you can find it in the 
BLACK BOX® Catalog. We carry 23 types of cables to fit every 
popular interface (17 in all). Data Cables are available cut to length 
and terminated to your specs or in bulk with separate connectors for 
on-site installation. 

The 1983 Edition of the BLACK BOX®Catalog contains 282" differ- 
ent data communications products, including cables. 
Send for your copy today. It's Free! 

'56 models of Data Switches. 14 Test Sets, 7 Modem Eliminators. 6 Line Drivers, 5 Protocol 
Converters, 9 Communication Adapters, 8 Printer Interlaces, 8 Terminal/Line/Modem sharing 
devices, Tools, etc.. etc. 

Phone or write: 



J^L 



MACK BOX® CATALOG 



fA MICOM COMPANY 



Dept. SQ • P.O. Box 12800 • Pittsburgh, PA 15241 
(412)746-2910 • TWX 510-697-3125 



Circle No. 69 



IMAGE PRINTER X 

THE FULL SERVICE PICTURE PRINTER 



BEYOND CONVENTIONAL PROGRAMS. 

The new, improved IMAGE PRINTER goes beyond 
the capabilities of conventional picture printing pro- 
grams for the Apple //. Even owners of graphic 
printer interface cards will find that IMAGE PRINTER 
greatly expands their picture printing abilities! 

FULL SERVICE MEANS MORE FEATURES. 

IMAGE PRINTER starts you out on the fast track by 
helping you "capture" the HI-RES pictures from your 
favorite programs — even the copy-protected ones! 

IMAGE PRINTER then lets you customize the picture 
the way you want by adding titles, lines, boxes, color 
filling portions of the screen, or even scrolling the 
entire picture in any of four directions. 

After you polish your picture, IMAGE PRINTER lets 
you easily select any portion of it to be printed. The 
resulting image can be shrunk or expanded and then 
printed either vertically or horizontally, anywhere on 
the printed page. 




FEATURES 


IMAGE 
PRINTER 


GRAPHIC 
PRINTER 
CARD5 


OTHER 

PICTURE 

PROGRAMS 


Capture pictures from programs 
Save pictures on diskette 
Menu driven for ease of use 
Unprotected, modifiable 


X 
X 
X 

X 


— 


X 
X 


Add titles, borders, lines & boxes 
Color fill portions of picture 
Scroll pictures 4 ways 


X 
X 
X 


E 


— 


View picture before printing 
Print any portion of picture 
Select a portion of a picture 
using a graphic "window" 


X 
X 
X 


— 


X 
X 


Print Vz to 6x normal size 
Print horizontally or vertically 
Print anywhere on page 


X 
X 
X 


X 


X 
X 



Image Printer works with over 30 different printers and 20 

different interface cards. 

DON'T SETTLE FOR LESS! 

GET THE FULL SERVICE PICTURE PRINTER! 549.95 



Sensible 



6619 Perham Drive 
West Bloomfield, Michigan 
48033 (313)399-8877 
Visa and Mastercard Welcome Add 1 25 postage and handling per program 



^J Software, Inc. 



Circle No. 71 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



119 



Software Catalog (continued) 



treasures. Multiple skill 
levels are provided. 

Price is $39.95. Avail- 
able from MicRo Informa- 
tion Systems, P.O. Box 73, 
Wayne, NJ 07470; (201) 
696-3296. 



FILEXforPET/CBM 

FILEX for PET/CBM 
allows you to read and 
write IBM "BASIC Data 
Exchange" diskettes. The 
system allows information 
exchange between main- 
frame/mini computers, and 
remote CBM machines. Re- 
quires 32K, PEDisk 8" 
floppy. 

Price is $245.00, which 
includes ROM and manual. 
Available from CGRS 
Microtech, P.O. Box 102, 
Langhorne, PA 19047; (215) 
757-0284. 



Light Typing 

MasterTypeTM ; for the 
Atari 400 or 800 and Apple 
II provides typing instruc- 
tion in game format. You 



must zap the enemy word 
by typing it correctly or the 
word will zap you. Eighteen 
lessons graduate from 
home letter recognition to 
eight-letter words, num- 
bers, and BASIC program- 
ming words. You can create 
your own lesson to meet in- 
dividual needs. 

Price is $39.95. Avail- 
able from Lightning Soft- 
ware, Inc., P.O. Box 11725, 
Palo Alto, CA 94306. 



SXR Plus 
f or the Apple II 

SXR Plus produces a 
sorted cross reference of an 
Applesoft source program. 
Variables are always in- 
cluded and the user has the 
option to include/exclude 
referenced line numbers, 
numeric constants and or 
strings. All information is 
presented in a single alpha- 
betized list; the user can 
select either a 40- or an 
80-column format. A search 
feature is also included. 



Price is $39.95. Avail- 
able from Prasek Computer 
Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 
2427, Santa Clara, CA 
95055; (408) 554-0420, or 
computer stores. 



Geography on the 
Color Computer 

Geography Pac for the 

TRS-80 Color Computer, 
an educational program, 
helps you learn world or 
U.S. geography in an en- 
joyable way. You need 16K 
Extended BASIC machine 
language and a cassette tape 
recorder. 

The $29.95 price in- 
cludes cassette tape of U.S., 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
South Central America. 

Available from Spectral 
Associates, 141 Harvard 
Avenue, Tacoma, WA 
98466. 



Apple II Game 

Monster Mash is an 

arcade-style game for the 
Apple II and Apple EH (in 
emulation mode) computers. 
It's your job to keep the 



rowdy monsters in the 
graveyard, and all you have 
to do it with is your new 
Monster Masher system 
and quick reflexes. The 
game offers many different 
skill levels and control con- 
figurations. 48K required. 

Price is $29.95. Avail- 
able from The Software 
Farm, 3901 So. Elkhart St., 
Aurora, CO, 80014; (303) 
690-7559. 



Commodore 
Word Processor 

Copy-Writer for the 
Commodore PET/CBM and 
Commodore 64 is a second- 
generation word processor 
containing features of the 
best word processing sys- 
tems; pagination, number- 
ing, justification, spacing, 
searching, block moves, 
etc. It also contains capabil- 
ities for double column, 
shorthand, and graphics. Pe- 
ridodic updates are included. 

Price is $185.00.Avail- 

able from CGRS Microtech, 

P.O. Box 102, Langhorne, 

PA 19047; (215) 757-0248 

JMCRO 



IS THERE LIFE AFTER BASIC ? 
YES I WITH... 



COLORFORTH™ 

MOVE UP FROM BASIC! Forth is a new, high level language available now for the TRS-80® Color Com- 
puter. COLORFORTH, a version of fig FORTH, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than 
Basic, and can be programmed faster than Basic. COLORFORTH Is highly modular which make testing 
and debugging much simpler. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and 
requires only 16K. It does not require Extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORIR you receive 
both cassette and RS/DISK versions, the standard fig EDITOR and an extensive instruction manual. Both 
versions and 75 page manual $49.95 



Add $2.00 shipping 

DEALER AND AUTHOR INQUIRIES INVITED 

ARMADILLO INT'L SOFTWARE 

P. O. Box 7661 
Austin, Texas 78712 



Texas residents add 5 percent 






~~- ] 


V^k 





Phone (512) 459-7325 



Circle No. 12 



120 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 




*^i*^*J 



THE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE 
FORTH — A Tool for Craftsmen! 

It has been said that if Chippendale had made programs he would 
have used FORTH as his tool. If you want to learn how to program, 
use a teaching language — PASCAL or BASIC. If you know how to 
program, use a language designed for craftsmen — FORTH. 

FORTH Systems 

For all FLEX systems: 6800 & 6809. Specify 5" or 8" diskette and 
hardware configuration. For standalone versions, write or call. 

* * tFORTH— extended fig-FORTH (1 disk) $1 00 ($1 5) 
** tFORTH +— extended more! (3 5" or 2 8" disks) $250($25) 

tFORTH + includes 2nd screen editor, assembler, extended 
data types and utility vocabularies, GOING FORTH CAI course 
on FORTH, games, and debugging aids. 

TRS-80 C0LORFORTH — 10K ROM Pack 

Full screen editor. Will work on 4K, 16K, or 32K systems 
$1 10 ($20). Disk versions available. 

Applications Programs 

** firmFORTH 6809 tFORTH + only $350 ($10) 

For target compilations to rommable code. Deletes unused 
code and unneeded dictionary heads. Requires tFORTH + . 

* * Tl N Y PASCAL compiler in FORTH . 6800/09 $75 ($20) 
** FORTH PROGRAMMING AIDS: Extensive debugging, decom- 
piling, and program analysis tools. $150 ($10) 

Manuals alone, price in ( ). Add $5/system for shipping. $12 for 
foreign air Ta | bo , M i cr0 systems 

1927 Curtis Ave., Redondo Beach, CA 90278 
(213)376-9941 
(TM) tFORTH, COLORFORTH and firmFORTH are trademarks of Talbot Microsystems. 
(TM) FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants. 



ATTENTION 
PROGRAMMERS!! 

DATASOFT is currently seeking programs and 
programmers to add to their rapidly growing 
and expanding operation. A 4eading marketer 
and developer of personal computer software, 
DATASOFT offers experienced assembly- 
language programmers the opportunity to join 
their staff to develop and translate arcade 
games such as ZAXXON™, as well as to author 
original material for theirgames, education and 
home management product lines. DATASOFT 
pays competitive salaries, plus bonuses based 
on product performance. Relocation assistance 
is available, if needed. 

If you have working knowledge of Atari, Apple, 
Tl, or Commodore operating systems, graphics, 
animation and sound, call or write Melinda 
Storch at: 



Da 



DDij(S: 



~\^y COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

9421 Winnetka Ave. 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
(213)701-5161 / (800)423-5916 

ZAXXDN and SEGA are registered trademarks of Sega Enterprises. 
DATASOFT is a registered trademark of Datasoft, Inc. 



Circle No. 72 



ROCKWELL Microcomputers from Excert, Inc. 



• • SPECIALS • • 

A65-1 (1KRAM) $435 

A65-4 (4K RAM) $455 

A65-4B.4F (4K, BASIC or FORTH) . . $495 
A65-4AB (4K, BASIC & Assembler) . $525 
A65/40-5000 (32K RAM) $1250 

LANGUAGES for 
AIM 65® & AIM 65/40® 

Assembler $35 

BASIC ROMs $65 

FORTH ROMs $65 

ENCLOSURES & 
POWER SUPPLIES 

A65-006 $175 

ENC4A $115 

ENC5A $130 

ENC6A $140 



Educational Computer Division 
EXCERT INCORPORATED 



SERVICE 

INSTALLATION 
CONSULTING 



P.O. Box 8600 
White Bear Lake 
Minnesota 55110 

(612)426-4114 



RM 65® SERIES 

Deduct 5% from list if 
ordered with AIM 65® or 
AIM 65/40®. 

REPAIR SERVICE 

(out of warranty only) 
$25/hr. plus parts - $25 min. 

SPARE PARTS 

are available 



Authorized Dealers for: 

CUBIT, MTU, FORETHOUGHT PRODUCTS, 
GORDOS, SEAWELL, DYNATEM, 
APPLIED BUSINESS COMPUTER 

CASH DISCOUNT ■ Deduct 5% for Prepaid Orders 
(we pay shipping) 

TERMS: 

Net 30 from approved Companies & Institutions — otherwise COD. 

Shipping will be added to order. Minnesota residents add 6% sales tax. 

Prices subject to change without notice. 




AIM 65. AIM 65/40 and RM 65 are registered trademarks ol 
Rockwell International Corp. 



Circle No. 73 



No. 59 -April 1983 



MICRO 



121 



VIDEO TERMINAL BOARD 82-018 



This is a complete stand alone Video Terminal board. 
All that is needed besides this board is a parallel 
ASCII keyboard, standard NTSC monitor, and a 
power supply. It displays 80 columns by 25 lines of 
UPPER and lower case characters. Data is transfer- 
red by RS232 at rates of 110 baud to 9600 baud — 
switch selectable. The UART is controlled (parity etc.) 
by a 5 pos. dip switch. 

Complete source listing is included in the documen- 
tation. Both the character generator and the CRT pro- 
gram are in 2716 EPROMS to allow easy modification 
to your needs. 

This board uses a 6502 Microprocessor and a 6545-1 
CRT controller. The 6502 runs during the horz. and 
vert, blanking (45% of the time). The serial input port 
is interrupt driven. A 1500 character silo is used to 
store data until the 6502 can display it. 

Features 




6502 Microprocessor 
6545-1 CRT controller 
2716 EPROM char. gen. 
2716 EPROM program 
4K RAM (6116) 



• 2K EPROM 2716 

• RS232 I/O for direct 
connection to computer 
or modem. 

• 80 columns x 25 line display 



• Size 6.2" x 7.2" 

• Output for speaker (bell) 

• Power + 5 700Ma. 

+ 12 50Ma. 
-12 50Ma. 



BAUD RATE 

GENERATOR 
110-9600 



PARALLEL 
KEYBOARD 

INPUT 

(TTL) 



VIDEO TERMINAL 
82-018 



UART 




VIDEO 
DISPLAY 
CIRCUIT 



COMPOSITE 
VIDEO 



SPEAKER 
(BELL) 



+ 5 +12 -12 GND. 



This board is available assembled and tested, or bare board with the two EPROMS 
and crystal. 

Assembled and tested #82-01 8A $199.95 

Bare board with EPROMS and crystal #82-01 8B $ 89.95 

Both versions come with complete documentation. 



John Bell Engineering, Inc. 



#249 



ALL PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE FROM JOHN BELL ENGINEERING, INC. • 1014 CENTER ST., SAN CARLOS, CA 94070 
ADD SALES TAX IN CALIFORNIA • ADD 5% SHIPPING & HANDLING 3% FOR ORDERS OVER $100 

(415) 592-841 1 10% 0UTSIDE USA - 

WILL CALL HOURS: 9am ■ 4pm 



SEND $1.00 FOR CATALOG 



ADD $1.50 FOR CO.D. 



122 



MICRO 



Circle No. 21 



No. 59 -April 1983 



mm m^M mm 



BULLETIN BOARD 



# 



FORUM-80 Augusta, GA 18031 279 5392 

FORUM-80 Charleston, SC (8031 552 1612 

FORUM-80 Cleveland, OH &(216| 486 4176 

FORUM-80 #2, Denver, CO 13031 399 8858 

FORUM-80 El Paso, TX (915) 755 1000 

FORUM-80 Family Historian Fairfax, VA (703) 978 7561 

FORUM-80 Ft. Lauderdale, FL (3051 772 4444 

FORUM-80 Hull, England (01 1) 44 482 859169 

FORUM-80 Kansas City, MO #1 &I816I 861 7040 

FORUM-80 Kansas City, MO & 816 931 9316 

FORUM-80 Las Vegas, NV 702 362 3609 

FORUM-80 Linden, NJ 201] 486 2956 

FORUM-80 Medford, OR 503) 535 6883 

FORUM-80 Medical, Memphis, TN 901) 276 8196 

FORUM-80 Monmouth, Brielle, N) (201) 528 6623 

FORUM-80 Montgomery, AL 205 272 5069 

FOJUJM-80 Nashua, NH (603) 882 5041 

FORUM-80 Prince William County, VA (703) 670 5881 

FORUM-80 San Antonio, TX 1(512] 655 8143 

FORUM-80 Seattle, WA (2061 723 3282 

FORUM-80 Sierra Vista, AZ (6021 458 3850 

FORUM-80 Shreveport, LA (3181 631 7107 

FORUM-80 Westford, MA (6171 692 3973 

FORUM-80 Wichita, KA &[316| 682 2113 

FORUM-80 Wichita Falls, TX (817) 855 3916 

FORUM-80 Wild goose board, Tampa, FL (813| 988 7400 

Greene Machine, WPB, FL (305) 965 4388 

Greene Machine Fricaseed Chicken, Arcadia, CA |213) 445 3591 

Greene Machine, Riverside, CA !(714) 354 8004 

Greene Machine Corsair, WPB, FL !(305) 968 8653 

Greene Machine, Los Alamitos, CA !(213) 431 1443 

Greene Machine, Rome, NY !i|315) 337 7720 

Greene Machine, Irvine, CA (714 551 4336 

Greene Machine, Temple City, CA !(213] 287 1363 

HBBS Denver, CO (3031 343 8401 

HBBS El Paso, TX |915| 592 1910 

HBBS Oklahoma City, OK (405) 848 9329 

MCMS C.A.M.S. Chicago, 1L #1&|312| 927 1020 

MCMS J.A.M.S. Lockport, 1L (8151838 1020 

MCMSL.A.M.S. Round Lake, 1L 3121740 9128 

MCMS P.C. M.S. Wheaton, IL !&(312) 462 7560 

MCMS Metro West Database, Chicago, IL &|312] 260 0640 

MCMS NC Software, Minneapolis, MN (612) 533 1957 

MCMS WACO Hot Line, Schaumburg, IL pvt (312) 351 4374 

NET-WORKS ABC, Kansas City, MO (816) 483 2526 

NET-WORKS Apple Grove, Dallas, TX (2141 644 5197 

NET-WORKS Apple Shack, Dallas, TX 2141 644 4781 

NET- WORKS Armadillo, Grand Forks, ND (7011 746 4959 

NET-WORKS Beach BBS, Pensacola, FL |904) 932 8271 

NET- WORKS Big Apple, Miami, FL (3051 948 8000 

NET WORKS C.A.M.S., Decatur, IL (217) 429 5541 

NET- WORKS Charleston, WV 1304) 345 8280 

NET-WORKS Chipmunk, Hinsdale, IL 312 323 3741 

NET-WORKS Coin Games, Los Angeles, CA (213) 336 5535 

NET-WORKS COMM Center NW3N AGAD, Laurel, MD . . (301 ) 953 3341 

(301)792 0305 

NET- WORKS Computer City, Providence, Rl (401) 331 8450 

NET- WORKS Computer Emporium, Des Moines, IA (5 15) 279 8863 

NET- WORKS Computer Emporium, San Jose, CA |408) 227 0227 

NET-WORKS Computer Market, Honolulu, HI 808) 521 7312 

NET-WORKS Computer Pro, Ft. Worth, TX (8171 732 1787 

NET-WORKS Computer Station, St. Louis, MO 3141432 7120 

NET-WORKS Computer Store, Honolulu, HI (808) 488 7756 

NET-WORKS Computer World, Los Angeles, CA (213) 859 0894 

NET- WORKS Crescent City, Baton Rouge, LA 504 454 6688 

NET-WORKS Dallas, TX (214) 361 1386 

NET-WORKS Dayton, OH (513) 223 3672 

NET-WORKS Eclectic Computer Sys., Dallas, TX (214 239 5842 

NET-WORKS Granite City, IL (618) 877 2904 

NET-WORKS Greenfield, IN (317) 326 3833 

NET-WORKS Hacker-net, Dallas, TX (214) 824 7160 

NET-WORKS Hawaii (808) 521 7312 

NET-WORKS Hawaii Connection, Honolulu, HI (808) 423 1593 

NET-WORKS MAG1E, Galesburg, IL |309) 342 7178 

NET-WORKS Magnetic Fantasies, Los Angeles, CA (213 388 5198 

NET-WORKS MICRO-BBS Chelmsford, MA 617) 256 1446 

NET-WORKS Missouri (314) 781 1308 

NET-WORKS New York, NY (212) 410 0949 

NET-WORKS North Parks, Chicago, IL (312) 745 0924 

NET- WORKS Pirate's Harbor, Boston, MA (617 720 3600 

NET-WORKS Pirate's Lodge ??? (914] 634 1268 

NET-WORKS Pirate's Ship, Chicago, IL (312] 935 2933 

NET-WORKS Pirate's Trek !>.'. (516) 627 9048 

NET-WORKS Portsmouth, NH |603 436 3461 

NET-WORKS Softworx, West Los Angeles, CA (213 473 2754 

NET-WORKS Sparklin' City, Corpus Christi, TX (512 882 6569 

NET- WORKS Toronto, Ontario, CN (416 445 6696 

NET-WORKS Warlock's Castle, St. Louis, MO (618 345 6638 

NET- WORKS Winesap, Dallas, TX (214 824 7455 

NET- WORKS ??? (914 725 4060 

ONLINE CDC, San Diego, CA (619| 452 6011 

ONLINE Computerland, Montreal, Quebec, CN (514) 931 0458 

ONLINE Dickinson's Movie Guide, Mission, KS (913) 432 5544 

ONLINE Indianapolis,IN.ID# = GUES, pswd- pass (317) 787 9881 

ONLINE Saba, San Diego, CA (619) 692 1961 

ONLINE Santee, CA. . . .ID #- GUEST, pswd-PASS. . . . (619) 561 7271 

PASBBS Torrance, CA #1 (213) 516 7089 

PBBS Co-operative Comp Svc, Palatine, IL (312) 359 9450 

PET BBSS.E.W.P.LT.G., Racine, Wl (414) 554 9520 

PET BBS Commodore Comm., Lake St. Louis, MO (314] 625 4576 

PMS-"IF", Anaheim, CA (714) 772 8868 

PMS -Anchorage, AK [907] 344 8558 

PMS -Apple Bits, Kansas City, MO !(913) 341 3502 

PMS -Apple Guild, Weymouth, MA (617] 767 1303 

PMS -Baltimore, MD (301) 764 1995 



■24 
•24 



•24 
"24 
•24 
"24 
•24 



'24 
•24 



■24 
•24 

•24 
•24 
•24 
•24 



•24 



•24 
•24 



■24 
•24 



•24 
•24 
•24 

"24 

•24 

•24 
•24 



"24 
•24 
•24 



PMS -Campbell, CA (408) 370 0873 

PMS -Century 23, Las Vegas, NV (702) 878 9106 

PMS -Chicago, IL (312) 373 8057 

PMS -Cincinnati, OH (513) 671 2753 

PMS -Computer City, Danvers, MA -. . (617) 774 7516 

PMS -Computer Merchant, San Diego, CA |619| 582 9557 

PMS -Computer Solutions, Eugene, OR |503) 689 2655 

PMS -Date! Systems Inc., San Diego, CA !(619| 271 8613 

PMS -Downers Grove/SRT, Downers Grove, IL (312) 964 6513 

PMS -El Caion, CA (619) 579 0553 

PMS -Ellicott City, MD (30l) 465 3176 

PMS -Escondido, CA (619) 7460667 

PMS -Ft. Smith Comp. Club, Ft. Smith, AK (501) 6460197 

PMS -Gulfcoast, Freeport, TX (713] 233 7943 

PMS -Indianapolis, IN (317) 787 5486 

PMS -Lakeside, CA. (type PMS to activate] (619] 561 727 1 

PMS -Los Angeles, CA (213) 334 7614 

PMS -Massillon, OH (216) 8328392 

PMS -McGraw Hill Books, New York, NY (212) 997 2488 

PMS -Minneapolis, MN (612] 929 6699 

PMS-I.A.C.,LakeForest, IL (312.) 295 6926 

PMS -O.A.C., Woodland Hills, CA [213) 346 1849 

PMS -Pikesville, MD (301) 653 3413 

PMS -Pleasanton, CA (415) 462 7419 

PMS -Portland, OR !(503| 245 2536 

PMS -Portola Valley, CA (415] 851 3453 

PMS -RAUG, Akron, OH (216) 867 746? 

PMS -Rutgers Univ. Microlab, Piscataway, NJ (201) 932 3887 

PMS -Santa Cruz, Aptos, CA (408) 688 9629 

PMS -Santee, CA #1 (619) 561 7277 

PMS -Shrewsbury, NJ (201| 747 6768 

PMS -Software Unltd, Kenmore, WA (206) 486 2368 

PMS -Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN ! 612 929 8966 

PMS -Your Computer Connection, KSCty, MO !(913) 677 1299 

PSBBS Baltimore, MD (301) 994 0399 

PSBBS Washington, DC (202| 337 4694 

RATS Systems #1 (201) 887 8874 

RATS Homewood, IL (312) 957 3924 

RATS Wenonah, NJ (609| 468 5293 

RATS Wenonah, NJ #2 (609| 468 3844 

RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 
RCP/M 



A.B.DickCo.,Niles,IL &(312| 647 7636 

AIMS Hinsdale, IL (312) 789 0499 

Arlington, VA (703) 536 3769 

CBBS CP/M Net Simi Valley, CA (805) 527 9321 

CBBS Columhus, OH [614J 272 2227 

CBBS Dallas, TX (214)9318274 

CBBS Frog Hollow, Vancouver, BC, CN (604| 873 4007 

CBBS Pasadena, CA (213) 799 1632 

703|5242549 

916|483 8718 
503) 621 3193 
408) 263 2588 
(303) 781 4937 



CBBSRLP, MacLean, VA. 

CBBS Sacramento, CA 

Chuck Forsberg, OR 

Collossal Oxgate, San Jose, CA. 

CUG-NOTE , Denver, CO 

CUG NODE, PA State College (814) 238 4857 

Detioit, MI (313) 584 1044 

Geneseo, IL (309| 944 5455 

HAJPN Hamilton, Ontario, CN (416| 335 6620 

IBM PC, Niles, IL 1312) 259 8086 

Logan Squire, Chicago, IL (312) 252 2136 

MCBBS Keith Petersen, Royal Oak, MI (313) 759 6569 

MCBBS Ken Stritzel, Flanders, NJ (20 1 ] 584 922! 

MCBBS Superbrain, Lexington, MA $& 617] 862 0781 

MCBBS TCBBS Dearborn, MI (313) 846 6127 

Mississauga HUG, Toronto, Ont.,CN $&(416) 826 5394 

NEI, Chicago, IL (312) 949 6189 

Palatine, IL &(312| 359 8080 

RBBS Allentown, PA (215) 398 3937 

RBBS ANAHUG, Anaheim, CA (714) 774 7860 

RBBS Arvada Elect., Colorado Springs, CO (3031634 1158 

RBBS BBS Valley !(213| 360 5053 

RBBS Boulder, CO (303) 499 9169 

RBBS Bethesda, MD |301| 229 3196 

RBBS Brewster, NY (914) 279 5693 

RBBS Comp. Tech. Assoc, El Paso, TX (915 533 2202 

RBBS Computerized Services, Tampa, FL (813) 988 7400 

RBBS Computron, Edmonton, Alberta, CN 403) 482 6854 

RBBS Cranford, NJ |20l| 272 1874 

RBBS DataTech 001, San Carlos, CA #1J&(415) 595 0541 

RBBS DataTech 004, Sunnyvale, CA |408| 732 2433 

RBBS DataTech 006, San Francisco, CA (415) 563 4953 

RBBS Edmonton, Alherta, CN &(403) 454 6093 

RBBS El Paso, TX (915) 598 1668 

RBBS Fort Mill, SC (803) 548 0900 

RBBSGFRNDtaExch. Garden Grove, CA $&(714) 534 1547 

RBBS GFRN Dta Exch. Palos Verdes, CA J&J213 541 2503 

RBBS Grafton, VA 804 898 7493 

RBBS Houston, TX (713) 497 5433 

RBBSHuntsville, AL (20S) 895 6749 

RBBS Laurel, MD (301) 953 3753 

RBBS Larkspur, CA (415) 461 7726 

RBBS Marin County, CA (415) 383 0473 

RBBS Mike's, Milwaukee, WI ![414) 647 0903 

RBBS MUG, Mission, KS &(913) 362 9583 

RBBS Napa Valley, CA (707) 253 1523 

RBBS Ocean, NJ &|201) 775 8705 

RBBS Piconet Oxgate, Mountain View, CA |415| 965 409? 

RBBS San Jose Oxgate, San Jose, CA (408) 287 5901 

RBBS Surrey, Vancouver, BC, CN (604) 584 2643 

RBBS Pontiac, MI (313) 338 8515 

RBBS Paul Bogdanovich, NJ (201) 747 7301 

RBBS Rochester, NY (716) 223 1100 

RBBS Rutgers, New Brunswick, NJ (201) 932 3879 

RBBS San Diego, CA $&(619) 273 4354 

RBBS Sofwalre Store, Los Angeles, CA (213) 296 5927 

RBBS Software Tools, Australia (02) 997 1836 

RBBS Southfield, MI (313) 559 5326 

RBBS Westland, Ml (313)7291905 

RBBS Woodstock, NY (914)679 8734 

RBBS Yelm, WA (206) 458 3086 

Silicon Valley, CA (4081 246 5014 



■24 
■24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



'24 
•24 
•24 
•24 
•24 

■24 
•24 
■24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
"24 



•24 
•24 
•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 
-rb 



"24 
•24 
"24 
•24 

"24 
■24 
"24 

•24 



•24 
'24 
•24 



•24 
•24 
•24 



-rb 
•24 
■24 
•24 



"24 
'24 
•24 



"24 
•24 
•24 
•24 

•24 
-rb 
•24 
-rb 
•24 



JMCftO 



BULLETIN BOARD 



Q 


oo 


tf 


% 


< 


CD 


o 


.C 
CO 


« 


c 
o 


z 


CO 

F 


*— < 


i— 


H 


o 


w 




^ 


^ 


hJ 


Jg 


D 


2 


« 


^ 



RCP/M SJBBS Bears ville, NY (914) 679 6559 -rb 

RCP/M SJBBS Johnson City, NY [607] 797 6416 

RCP/M Terry O'Brien, Vancouver, EC, Canada [604) 584 2543 

Remote Northstar Atlanta, GA #1 |404| 926 4318 '24 

Remote Northstar Denver, CO [303| 444 7231 

Remote Northstar Largo, FL (813| 535 9341 *24 

Remote Northstar NASA, GreenSelt, MD (301)344 9156 

Remote Northstar Santa Barbara, CA (805) 682 7876 

Remote Northstar Santa Barbara, CA (805) 964 4115 

Remote Northstar Virginia Beach, VA [804) 340 5246 



ST80-CC Lance Micklus, Inc. Burlington, VT * 1|802) 862 7023 "24 

ST80-PBB Monroe Camera Shop, Monroe, NY (914) 781 7605 

TCBBS B.A.M.S. New York, NY (212)362 1040 - 24 

TCBBS Leigh's Computer World, NY 212) 879 7698 

TCBBS AstroCom, New York, NY #1!(212| 799 4649 

TRADE-80 Alhany, GA (912) 439 7440 *24 

TRADE-80 Ft. Lauderdale, FL #1 [305] 525 1192 

TRADE-80 Omaha, NE (402| 292 6184 

TRADE-80 Erie, PA [814) 898 2951 *24 



MISCELLANEOUS OR UNKNOWN SYSTEM TYPES 



ABBIES Inio System Phila, PA |215) 237 6908 

ABBS |?) Queens, NY (212) 896 0519 

(?| (Western Massachusettesl (413) 637 3515 

ACE Oregon (503) 343 4352 

Adventure BBS (516| 621 9296 

All Night BBS (213) 564 7636 

Alpha, Tampa, FL. . . .acct# - ABCD00, pwd- TRYIT (813) 251 4095 

Aphrodite-E (201) 790 5910 

Apollo's Chariot, Apollo, FL (813) 645 3669 

Apple-Can Ontario [416) 781 1796 

Apple-Gram (313) 295 0783 

Applecrackers, Columbus, OH (614) 475 9791 

Apple Tree BBS California (714) 963 7222 

ARBB Seattle, WA (206) 546 6239 

Armadillo Media Services, Houston, TX (713) 444 7098 

Astro BBS New York |212) 787 5520 

ATBBS Honolulu, HI (808) 833 2616 

Aviators Bulletin Board, Sacramento, CA (916) 393 4459 

Bathroom Wall BBS, San Antonio, TX 1512)655 8143 

Baton Rouge Data System, Baton Rouge, LA 1504) 9260181 

Blue BOSS IBM PC, Berkeley, CA (415)845 9462 

BBS Annandale, VA (703| 978 9754 

BBS Apollo, Phoenix, AZ !|602| 2461432 

BBS Atlanta, GA |404| 939 1520 

BBSB.R., Los Angeles, CA 1213)394 5950 

BBS Computer Applications Co., Poland, OH (216) 757 371 1 

BBS Homestead, FL (305) 246 1111 

BBS Living Videotext, Menlo Park, CA (415) 327 8876 

BBS Metro Detroit, MI ![313| 455 4227 

BBS Pensacola, FL (904)477 8783 

BBS SUE Milwaukee, Wl (414) 483 4578 

BBS The BULL, Toronto, Ontario, CN ![416| 423 3265 

BBS-80 DALTRUG, Dallas, TX (214) 235 8784 

Big Top Games System, Milwaukee, WI (414)259 9475 

Boston Information Exchange, Boston, MA &|617) 423 6985 

Bronx BBS, NY |212| 933 9459 

Bradley Computer BBS . .(813)734 7103 

BSBB Tampa, FL (813)885 6187 

Call A.P.P.L.E. Washington (206) 524 0203 

C.A.M.S. Illinois [217)429 5505 

Capital City BBS, Albany, NY (518) 346 3592 

Carrier 2 Alexandria, VA |703| 823 5210 

C-HUG Bulletin Board, Fairfax, VA (703)360 3812 

COMM-80 Queens, NY [212| 897 3392 

Communique-80 Livingston, N) 201| 992 4847 

Compuque-80, Houston, TX (713) 444 7041 

Compusystems, Columbia, >> (803) 771 0922 

Computer Connection |213| 657 1799 

Datamate, Canoga Park, CA #1 (213) 998 7992 

Davy (ones Locker (313| 764 1837 

Dimension-80 Orange, CA (714) 974 9788 

Distra-Soft, Montreal, Quebec, CN (514| 327 5764 

Dragon's Game System (pass « DRAGON]. [213| 428 5206 

Drummer (415) 552 7671 

Electric Line Connection, Sherman Oaks, CA (213) 789 9512 

Experimental-80 Kansas City, MO (913) 676 3613 

FGS/RP Games Illinois (312) 743 8176 

Heath BBS Lakewood.N) (201) 363 3122 

Hermes-80 Allentown, PA [215| 434 3998 

HEX Silver Spring, MD %(301) 593 7033 

IDBN Info-Net, Costa Mesa, CA (714) 545 7359 

INFOEX-80 West Palm Beach, FL (305) 683 6044 

INFOEX-80 Akron, OH ![216| 724 2125 

Infoport Ontario (416] 278 3267 

Info-System Ontario (416) 622 2462 

Irvine Line, Irvine, CA 714) 551 4336 

)CTS Redmond, WA [206] 883 0403 

Kinky Kumputer, San Francisco, CA (415) 626 5465 

Kluge Computer $&|213| 947 8128 

LA. Interchange, Los Angeles, CA (213) 631 3186 

Lehigh Press BB, PA #1 [215] 435 3388 

Lethbridge Gaming System, Lethbridge, AB (403) 320 6923 

LITHO/NET (800] 831 6964 

Long Beach Community Computer [213)591 7239 



•24 
-so 



"24 
■24 



'24 
•24 
"24 



'24 
■24 



'24 
'24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



Mail Board-82 Seattle, WA [206) 527 0897 

Micro-80 West Palm Beach, FL [305] 686 3695 

Micro Design, Houston, TX (713] 864 4672 

Micro Informer J813J 884 1506 

Midwest, St. Louis, MO (314) 227 4312 

Mini-Bin Seattle, WA (206) 762 5141 

MOUSE-NET Orlando, FL (305 1 277 0473 

MRCBBS [415| 968 1093 

MSG-80 Everett, WA [206) 334 7394 

NBBS Norfolk, VA (804) 444 3392 

NESSY Chicago, IL 1 (312) 773 3308 

New England Comp. Soc, Maynard, MA [617) 897 0346 

New Jersey TELECOM #1 (20l| 635 0705 

North Orange County Computer Club (714) 633 5240 

Novation CO., Los Angeles, CA pass-CAT (213) 881 6880 

Nybbles-80 Elmsford, NY |914| 592 5385 

Nybbles-80 NY (212) 626 0375 

OARCS Portland, Oregon |503) 641 2798 

OCTUG Orange County, Garden Grove, CA 714) 530 8226 

Ohio Valley BBS |614| 423 4422 

Oracle North Hollywood, CA (213) 980 5643 

Orange County Data Exchange, Garden Grove, CA (714) 537 7933 

OS UNA Scarsdale, NY (914] 725 4060 

PACS Online Phila, PA (215)3424013 

PACE -NET Pittsburg, PA (412 655 2652 

Personal Msg. System-80. Deerfield Bch, FL &(305| 427 6300 

PET BBS Commodore, Chicago, IL [312] 397 0871 

PET BBS AVC Comline, Indianapolis, IN (317| 255 5435 

PET BBS KCPUG, Kansas City, KS (816) 356 2382 

PET BBS Nortec Ontario [4161 782 7320 

PET BBS R.T.C. Ontario (416) 884 6198 

PET BBS SE Wyoming PUG [307] 637 6045 

PET BBS PSI WordPro, Ontario, CN # 1 (416) 624 5431 

PET BBS TPUG, Toronto, Ontario, CN (416) 223 2625 

PHOTO-80, Haledon, N) [201) 790 6795 

PIG-STY Costa Mesa, CA [714| 545 4648 

PMBBS [713] 441 4032 

Potomac Micro Magic Inc., Falls Church, VA (703) 3790303 

RACS V Fullerton, CA (714) 524 1228 

Remote Apple Jackson, MS [601J 992 1918 

RIBBS Villanova, PA (215) 527 6087 

SATUG BBS, San Antonio, TX (512) 494 0285 

Scream Machine (312) 680 9613 

Seacomm-80 Seattle, WA (206) 763 8879 

SIGNON Reno, NV pswd = FREE. (702 1 826 7234 

$|702|826 7277 

SISTER Staten Island, NY (212) 442 387? 

SLAMS Missouri (314) 839 4307 

S.L.U.M.S. Missouri (314| 394 7233 

Software Referral Service (603) 625 1919 

Sunrise Omega-80, Oakland, CA (415)452 0350 

Swap and Shop Washington (206) 248 2600 

Switchboard, Alexandria, VA (703) 765 2161 

System/80 San Leandro, CA (415) 895 0699 

Talk-80 ROBB, Portsmouth, VA (804) 484 9636 

Tari-Board Denver, CO |303) 221 1779 

TBBS Canopus, Milwaukee, WI !|414| 281 0545 

TCUG BBS, Washington, DC 1 703 1 836 0384 

TECOM-80, Tampa, FL (813) 839 6746 

Telcom 7 New Fairfield, CT (203) 746 5763 

Telemessage-80, Atlanta, GA (404)962 0616 

THUG Heath Ontario (416| 273 3011 

Treasure Island [313) 547 7903 

Twilight Phone (313] 775 1649 

Vanmil, Milwaukee, WI !|414| 271 7580 

Visiboard, Wellesley, MA !(617| 235 5082 

Washington Apple Pie Maryland [301) 657 4507 

Weekender, Houston, TX (713] 492 8700 

Westside Download, Detroit, MI [313) 533 0254 

XBBS Hamilton, OH (513) 863 7681 

Zachary 'Net, Houston, TX (713)933 7353 



•24 
•24 



'24 
'24 
■24 
■24 



■24 
'24 
■24 



■24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



•24 
•24 



"24 

•24 



*2 4 denotes 24-hour operation 

#1 denotes original system of that type 

-rb denotes call, let ring once and call back 

-so sexually-oriented messages 

-rl religious orientation 



! new system or new number to existing system 

$ Supports VADIC 1200 baud ooeration 

& Supports 212A 1200 baud operation 

% Supports BAUDOT operation 



© 



jJMCftO 




ABILITY 



You Pick The Disk System, MegaFlex Controls It! 



WITH SOFTDRIVERS FOR 
A FLEXIBLE FUTURE! 

MEGAFLEX— a universal 
floppy disk controller and 
modern alternative to the 
Apple drive system offering 
increased storage, im- 
proved reliability and . . . 
FLEXIBILITY. 

Enjoy megabytes of 
online storage with your 
choice of micro, mini, or 
maxi drives— or even 6Mb 
with the Amlyn cartridge 
pack! Ideal for high- 
capacity storage now, 
winchester-disk backup 
later. 

The MEGAFLEX secret is to autoboot soft 




BRIDGE THE APPLE 
FORMAT BARRIER! 

The MEGAFLEX diskette 
does what Apple's 
cannot— read and write 
diskettes from other 
computers! Software- 
controlled industry-stan- 
dard IBM 3740 or System 
34 type formats allow the 
MEGAFLEX library of refor- 
matting software to read 
and write Altos, Radio 
Shack, Osborne, and IBM 
PC diskettes. (Call for the 
latest software details.) 
MORE STORAGE, MORE 
UNIVERSAL FEATURES, LOWEST COST 
MEGAFLEX with 8" maxi or high density 5.25" 



drivers that match the needs of your drive system, minis gives you 1 .2 Megabyte of formatted data per 
All hardware functions are software-controlled, diskette for 8 times the file and data size! 



MEGAFLEX can match new drive capabilities with- 
out hardware changes. Drive-dependent ROMs 
have been eliminated. 

APPLE III? OF COURSE!! 

MEGAFLEX is compatible with BASIC, CP/M, 
Pascal, VISICALC, SOS and DOS-emulation on the 



MEGAFLEX offers flexible software choices: 

• data rate (250/500 Kbits per second), 

• single and double density recording, and 

• single/double sided drive operation (max 
4 drives). 

MEGAFLEX has the lowest chip count of any 



Apple III, Apple II, Franklin Ace and Basis. All Ian- controller today! This means less power, a cooler 

guage features and operating system commands Apple and better reliability. 

(LOAD, BRUN, etc.) are standard. If you can oper- Lowest price, highest performance, that's 

ate Apple drives you can op- k a h^| a |M^jHp||^'>< MEGAFLEX! 

erate MEGAFLEX! Your AVA C»M An w M m 11722 sorrento valley road 

Apple software will run with-J^miSW I I tl\ SSSSSbT 

OUt modification tOO. A Division of SVA TWX 910-335-2047 APPLE TWO SDG 



TRADEMARKS CP/M-Digilal Research 



Circle No. 59 



/AICRO 

6809 Bibliography 



119. Microcomputing 6, No. 11, Issue 71 (November, 1982) 

McGowan, Garrett E., "COCO Can Go," pg. 27. 
A comparison between the Color Computer and the IBM PC 
on the generation of random numbers in benchmark tests. 

120. MICRO, No. 54 (November, 1982) 

Tenny, Ralph, "A Monitor for the Color Computer, " pg. 19-21. 

Step-by-step instructions to get composite video from the 

6809-based Color Computer to drive a standard video 

monitor. 

Anderson, Ronald W., "FLEX and the TRS-80 Color 

*; v • Computer," pg. 23-24. 

A brief description of the FLEX09 operating system as imple- 
- ; .\. mented on the 6809-based TRS-80 Color Computer. 

•:■■ Steiner, John, "CoCo Bits," pg. 38-39. 

J: Notes on the TRS-80 Color Computer point out that this 

,; L machine is more than a game machine. 

121. Compute! 4, No. 11 (November, 1982) 

3 Anon., "Terminal Emulation Package for the SuperPET," pg. 

;$ 246-247. 

"£' >" A utility package for the 6809-based SuperPET. 

122. 80-U.S. 5, No. 11 (November, 1982) 

Staff, "Notes," pg. 16. 
; Simulating the PRINT® command on the TRS-80 Color 

Computer. 

i ."'. Wright, Darrel, "Color Computer Communication," pg. 

A ■ 58-60. 

' ; An evaluation of ColorCom/E Version 2.0 for the TRS-80 

;l§^ Color Computer. 

" %1 Laronda, Joseph P., "Variable Listing," pg. 65-71. 
. "-' Analyze your Color Computer programs with this utility. 

*f Latham, J.L., "EDTASM Plus," pg. 109-111. 
f "B-. An editor/assembler for the TRS-80 Color Computer. 

: „~ Latham, J.L., "PRTNTCC Version 1.4," pg. 111-112. 
t % - A printer buffer for the Color Computer. 

; "} Staff, "Color Computer EPROM Cartridge," pg. 119. 

CMEMORY-16 is a plug-in cartridge for the TRS-80 Color 
\ - f Computer that allows the user to add up to 16K of con- 

=vi tinuous read-only memory. 

'T 123. Creative Computing 8, No. 12 (December, 1982) 

('.■£". \ Coffey, Michael, "New Processors for the Apple II," pg. 30-47. 

' ; A review includes information on 6809 options for the Apple. 

-5 ' Linzmayer, Owen, "TRS-80 Color Computer Games," pg. 

fi 75-87. 

A review of several games for the 6809-based Color Computer. 

,, Norman, Scott L., "The Color Computer Speaks," pg. 148-152. 

:lft ' A speech-synthesis program for the Color Computer. 

* Ahl, David H., "Make Your Computer Into a Love Potency 

f £0 Meter," pg. 346-348. 

"SSf How to build an analog-to-digital interface on your Color 

flw.- Computer for fun and learning. 

'5a- 

|||| 124. Micro Computer Printout 3, No. 12 (November, 1982) 

||||l Allason, Julian, "Micro 8," pg. 29. 

flip" The Fujitsu "Micro 8" has three microprocessors, two 

R, ; 6809's, and a Z80A CPU to run CP/M software. 



No. 59 -April 1983 M 



HSU*; 



Dr. William R. Dial 
438 Roslyrv Avenue 
Akron, OH 44320 



125. Commodore Magazine (October/November, 1982) 

Staff, "SuperPET Update," pg. 12. 
Questions and answers on the 6809-based SuperPET. 

126. '68 Micro Journal 4, Issue 11 (November, 1982) 

Anderson, Ronald W., "FLEX User Notes," pg. 9-11. 
Comments on 6809/FLEX software, Lucidata Pascal Version 
3 and ABASIC for the 6809, FORTH for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer, etc. 

Nay, Robert L., "Color User Notes," pg. 14-16. 
Notes on Color FORTH and other products for the Color 
Computer. 

Wolf, Michael, "Keyboard Scan Routine," pg. 16-19. 
A routine enabling you to generate all 128 ASCII characters, 
control codes, and Escape sequences for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. 

Perotti, James, "CC FORTH," pg. 19-20. 
A discussion of the features of this version of FORTH for the 
6809-based Color Computer. 

Como, Norm, " 'C User Notes," pg. 20-24. 
Notes on the use of 'C by 6809-based systems. 

Anon, "Problem 6809 Chips," pg. 29. 
A discussion of "flakey" 6809 CPU devices points to prob- 
lems with chips made prior to the CW3 mask set number. 

Anon, "FD88 Dev. Sys.," pg. 31-34. 
With the FD88 Acorn Computer System development board 
two systems (FLEX, OSO, UniFLEX, SDOS, etc.) can co- 
reside in a single 6809 computer at one time. 

127. 80 Micro, No. 35 (December, 1982) 

Wasler, David L., "Wolfbug 64K," pg. 41-44. 

Upgrade the 4K, 16K, or 32K Color Computer to 64K using a 

monitor called Wolfbug and a 64K RAM adapter card. 
Norman, Scott L., "The Color Computer Goes FORTH," pg. 
80-86. 

Programming in FORTH is now possible for TRS-80 Color 

Computer users. 
Garrison, Sidney C, "Flaky," pg. 94-98. 

A graphics program for the 6809-based TRS-80 Color Computer. 

Chuck, Michael J.,"CC CQ," pg. 200-209 
Morse Code for the Radio Amateur on the TRS-80 Color 

Computer. 
Knecht, Ken, "Color Diskdump," pg. 354. 

A BASIC program for the 6809-based Color Computer 

that lets one see what is stored on a disk file or in any 

area of memory. 
Ginger, Ron, "Easy Picture Editor," pg. 388-392. 

Simple commands for art or games graphics: lines, 

boxes, and circles for the 6809-based TRS-80 Color 

Computer. 

Ramella, Richard, "Fun House," pg. 419-424 

A Color Computer listing for the ancient Hanukkah 
game of Driedel. 

128. Interface Age 7, Issue 10 (November, 1982) 

Segal, Hillel, "Smoke Signal Chieftain," pg. 42-45 

The Smoke Signal Chieftain microcomputer runs on a 
6809 microprocessor at 2 MHz, and has shown very good 
results in business benchmark programs. 

JMCftO 



127 



Advertiser's Index 



AB Computers 60 

ABC Data Products 89 

Acorn Software Systems 90 

Alternative Energy Products 22 

Amdek 64-65 

Anthro-Digital Software Ill 

Applefest 126 

AppleTree Electronics 8 

Arbutus Total Soft 115 

Ark Computing 66 

Armadillo Software 120 

Aurora Software 52 

Black Box Catalog 119 

Community Computer 113 

Compress 77 

Compu$ense 18,52,81,105,107 

CompuTech 108 

Compu-Way 113 

Computer Case Co 7 

The Computerist, Inc 109 

Computer Mail Order 96-97 

Computer Science Engineering 59 

Computer Trader 59 

Datamost, Inc 6,25 / 

DataSoft, Inc 121 

Design Dynamics 104 

Digital Acoustics 87 

D&N Micro 11 

Don't Ask Software 75 

Eastern House Software 56 

Excert 121 

Execom, Inc 43 

Federal Energy 107 

Gimix, Inc 1 

Gloucester 115 

Hayden Software 95 

Hudson Digital Electronics 41 

I JG 63 

Intec Peripherals 22 

Interesting Software 10 

John Bell Engineering 122 

John Wiley & Sons 9 

Leading Edge BC 



Logical Devices 43 

Lyco Computing 19 

Manx Software 108 

McMillan Publishing 83 

Microbits (Classifieds) 114 

Micro Data Supplies 21 

Micro Motion 89 

Micro Mountain 69 

Microspec 112 

Microtech 16 

Microware Distributing 89 

Midwest Micro 83 

Modular Mining 115 

Modular Systems 90 

Penguin Software 3 

Performance Micro Products 18 

Perry Peripherals 110 

RH Electronics 15,101 

Rockroy IFC 

Scientific Software 119 

Sensible Software 119 

SGC 53 

S J B Distributors 17 

Skyles Electric Works 34 

Smartware 114 

Softronics 36 

Sorrento Valley Assoc 125 

Southwestern Data Systems 79 

Spectrum Projects 114 

Strom Systems Inc 112 

Talbot Microsystems 121 

Unique Data 85 

Versa Computing 13 

Victory Software 103 

Vista Computing IBC 

XPS, Inc 91 

Zytrex 105 

MICRO Advertising 

Mastering Your Vic-20 68 

MICRO INK is not responsible for claims made by its advertisers. Any com- 
plaint should be submitted directly to the advertiser. Please also send writ- 
ten notification to MICRO. 



National Advertising Representatives 



West Coast: 

The R.W. Walker Co., Inc. 

Gordon Carnie 

2716 Ocean Park Boulevard, Suite 1010, 

Santa Monica, California 90405 (213) 450-9001 

serving: Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, 
New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, Alaska, and Hawaii 
(also British Columbia and Alberta, Canada 

Mid- West Territory: 

Thomas Knoor & Associates 
Thomas H. Knoor, Jr. 

333 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 707 
Chicago, Illinois 60601 (312) 726-2633 

serving: Ohio, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 



Middle Atlantic and Southeastern States: 

Dick Busch Inc. 
Richard V. Busch 

6 Douglass Dr., R.D. #4, 

Princeton, NJ 08540 (201) 329-2424 

Dick Busch, Inc. 

Eleanor M. Angone 

74 Brookline, 

E. Atlantic Beach, NY 11561 (516) 432-1955 

serving: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, 
West Virginia, Virginia, D.C., North Carolina, South Carolina, Loui- 
sianna, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida 



128 



MICRO 



No. 59 -April 1983 



^i^taSbttPimcm 



GREAT INNOVATORS 







15th century renaissance man, Leonardo Da Vinci, con- 
tributed an inexhaustible collection of inventions and ideas 
to solve the world's problems. These ideas were centuries 
iahead of their time. The studies on this page, deal with ex-/ 
pperiments in manned flight. - 

Like Leonardo, Vista Computer is answering many of 
today's complex computer storage problems. The Vista 
V1200 is a great solution to Apple II™ storage. Mass storage 

* for your Apple II™ Computer has always been a problem. On 
*:one hand, there were the exotic, expensive hard disks with 

no cost efficient means of backup. On the other hand, the 
-Apple floppy drive lacked the speed and storage demanded 
by today!s professionals. * - ' 

„ Vista's V1200 offers both at an incredibly attractive price. 
; The removable VistaPak cartridges offer 6 Megebytes of 
^removable storage each and can be backed up like a floppy. 

* now hard disk storage and speed can be yours with the added 
capability of interchangeable media/The V1200 eliminates : 



the worries of header! 



I^J^^Hgnirie^pj 



^ s ^.^--^M^0^---'-^^i^^ 

backup with aT mnw.x;|tjpwcaubae of f$efflsgRHf< 

technology-. ^^^S^^i^'W^m 
The VistaPak- ca^dgesfo^f^^lor^tt^'" 
The. rerrioi ' arf^s-tyl^'taJ^^^li 

your valuable dsitaias weRas^J^Reerp -il^ppiraL 
accountfngV.word proe^sirtg|spread sh^t^iMP 
cations. NdT "other storage alwi<;e?offeVs3*ro^eSii 



mvm% 




and capability.. - . > - ftjrf . .7 , s > . ^ J* 

• Microprocessor controlled' driy^f" DMA_ v Cc 
Removable Data Cartridges • Cr*f M?Bib&^Pa' 
ble • Qutekcharge™. DOS.enhartperiy^ii: , -' T '' , - a 

1 VistaPaMSi *"" '* " 



Imi 



m 



.'•Fasc^JL 

MtfdS^ 



BfiSS 



artridge • Vista 120 Daj^^Kprf^Cj 'i"*?* 



Contact Your Locaf ViSta "EjeaJer orCall our Visiajti 




liiA^JLw" I 



ivestern aroup5Whc^3^^"--3i>'V. ^''^JifffrtKeastjSc; 



%WUa It/200 



f^^i- Apple H is a registered, trademark of Apple Computer Co*- 

iagfc¥- ...... . 



(2t3)973 ; 784>4 
South Central - 
'. £21*385; 



«|- 



^ «-■.."■•■ •«jfcV.'- '•"*," ■*"!^5:5'-.,., .. .. s . 



■m 



-»' 



in 
SraS 




Li-i^^iigfetol 



THE LEADING EDGE IN PRINTERS 

ONE GREAT LINE. ONE GREAT WARRANTY 

Finally, there's one full family of printers that covers every business or word processing application — 

all from C. Itoh. a company known for packing more product into less price: and all distributed 

exclusively by Leading Edge, a company known for searching out and providing that very thing. 

Which means that one call to one source can get you any printer, any time you need it. for any purpose. 

All backed by a full years' warranty from Leading Edge. [Try that on any other line of printers,! 



THE PRO'S. 

The Prowriters: business printers— and more. The "more" is a dot-matrix process with more dots. It gives you denser 
corres pondence quality copy (as opposed to business quality copy, which looks like a bad job of spray-painting). 
Prowriter: 120 cps. 80 columns dot matrix compressable to 136, 10" carriage. Parallel or serial interface. 
ProwTiter 2: Same as Prowriter. except 15" carriage allows full 136 columns in normal print mode. 

Parallel or serial interface. 




PRQWRIJBJ2 



3>V^ 



PROWRITER 



THE STAR. 

The Starwriter F-10. In short lor more precisely, in a sleek 6" high, 30-pound unit), it gives you more 
about everything— except bulk and noise— than any other printer in its price range. It's a 40 cps letter-quality 
daisy-wheel with a bunch of built-in functions to simplify and speed up word processing. 
It plugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 




SpaRWRflFJF-TO 



THE MASTER. 

The Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps, the Master does it faster. 



PRINTMASTERF-TO I 



Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Produces, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton. Massachusetts 02021, 
Call: to!l-fm ■ i -SO' 1-343-6833; or in Massachusetts call collect (6171828-8150. Telex 951-624.